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1.  A Surgeon's Perspective of Abdominal Wall Endometriosis at a Caesarean Section Incision: Nine Cases in a Single Institution 
Surgery Research and Practice  2014;2014:765372.
Abdominal wall endometriosis in a Caesarean section scar (AEC) is an infrequent type of extrapelvic endometriosis which rarely transforms into a malignant lesion. A painful mass located in the scar of a Caesarean section is a typical sign of AEC. This condition is diagnosed preoperatively using imaging modalities such as computed tomography and ultrasonography, as well as fine-needle aspiration. Although AEC has typical signs, general surgeons often misdiagnose it due to its rarity. Herein, we report our experience of AEC in a single institution.
doi:10.1155/2014/765372
PMCID: PMC4207379  PMID: 25379559
2.  The prognosis and treatment of primary thyroid cancer occurred in breast cancer patients: comparison with ordinary thyroid cancer 
Purpose
Due to the increased prevalence of thyroid cancer, it has been frequently detected in breast cancer patients recently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of thyroid cancer in breast cancer patients with respect to prognosis and treatment.
Methods
From August 1998 to September 2012, 101 breast cancer patients were diagnosed with thyroid cancer (BT group). One hundred ninety-three female patients with a thyroid malignancy that underwent thyroidectomy in 2008 were recruited as controls (oT group). The clinicopathologic results of these two groups were compared.
Results
Patients were older (51.40 vs. 47.16, P < 0.001), mean tumor size was smaller (0.96 cm vs. 1.43 cm, P < 0.001), and extrathyroidal extension was less common in the BT group. In both groups, papillary thyroid carcinoma was the most common type of thyroid malignancy. T and N classifications of thyroid cancer were less severe in the BT group, but group TNM stages were similar. Endoscopic thyroid surgery was performed in 12.9% of patients in the BT group and in 6.7% of patients in the oT group. Postoperative radioactive iodine ablation was performed less often in the BT group (P < 0.001). Group recurrence rates were not significantly different.
Conclusion
Thyroid cancer in breast cancer patients was diagnosed at earlier status than ordinary thyroid cancer. However, the prognosis of thyroid cancer in breast cancer patients was not superior to that in patients with thyroid cancer alone. Radioactive iodine ablation was performed less often and endoscopic surgery could be performed in breast cancer patients.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.4.169
PMCID: PMC3996722  PMID: 24783175
Breast neoplasms; Prognosis; Second primary neoplasms; Thyroid neoplasms
3.  The pattern and significance of the calcifications of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma presented in preoperative neck ultrasonography 
Purpose
To analyze the incidence and patterns of calcification of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) on neck ultrasonography (NUS) and assess the clinical implications of calcification, especially for neck node metastasis.
Methods
The clinical data of 379 patients with PTMC who underwent thyroidectomy between January and December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. PTMC lesions were classified into four subgroups according to their calcification patterns on preoperative NUS: microcalcification, macrocalcification, rim calcification, and noncalcification. The clinicopathologic characteristics were compared between the patients with and without calcification, and among the four subgroups.
Results
Calcifications were detected on NUS in 203 patients (53.5%) and central neck node metastasis was observed in 119 patients (31.3%). Calcification was associated with larger tumor size (0.68 cm vs. 0.54 cm), higher rate of lymph node metastasis (38.6% vs. 23.2%) and higher lymph node ratio (0.11 vs. 0.06) compared to noncalcification (All P < 0.05). In addition, the extent of calcification correlated with lesion size (0.67 cm vs. 0.69 cm vs. 0.85 cm). Further, the likelihood of lymph node metastasis also correlated with the extent of calcification in the order of non-, micro- and macrocalcification (23.3%, 36.8%, and 44.1%, respectively). The calcification rate was higher in patients with lymph node metastasis than those without it (65.5% vs.47.7%) (All P < 0.05).
Conclusion
PTMC patients positive for calcification on NUS had a higher rate of lymph node metastasis, and a higher lymph node ratio compared to noncalcification patients. Calcification patterns should be assessed carefully in patients with PTMC by preoperative NUS.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.3.115
PMCID: PMC3994623  PMID: 24761419
Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma; Calcification; Ultrasonography
4.  Analysis of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer expected to have curative surgery 
Purpose
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is rare and has a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics of patients diagnosed with ATC expected to undergo curative thyroidectomy, with the goal of finding differences between patients surviving ≥6 months and <6 months.
Methods
From 1981 to 2010, 24 patients underwent thyroidectomy due to ATC. Among those patients, 12 suspected of distant metastasis preoperatively were excluded. The remaining 12 patients were analyzed by retrospective review of electronic medical records.
Results
Median age was 55 years, and the male to female ratio was 1:5. All patients presented with neck mass at initial diagnosis. Five patients lived <6 months and seven patients lived ≥6 months after operation. In patients surviving ≥6 months, all lesions were <5 cm and all patients underwent total thyroidectomy. In patients surviving <6 months, two of the four lesions were >5 cm, and two of the five patients underwent less than total thyroidectomy (P = 0.287 and 0.152, respectively). All patients with lesion size <5 cm underwent total thyroidectomy and showed a shorter median operation time (P = 0.182 and 0.033, respectively).
Conclusion
ATC showed female predominance. Patients initially presented with neck mass, and median age was 55 years. In patients with ATC who are expected to undergo curative thyroidectomy, surgery should actively be considered as primary therapy for patient survival when the size is <5 cm.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.3.123
PMCID: PMC3433547  PMID: 22977757
Anaplastic thyroid cancer; Thyroidectomy
5.  An exclusively dopamine secreting paraganglioma in the retroperitoneum: a first clinical case in Korea 
Exclusively dopamine producing retroperitoneal paragangliomas are extremely rare. We have experienced the first Korean case managed successfully based on the proper evaluation. A 26-year-old female patient came to our attention after the accidental detection of an adrenal mass. She had no symptoms and denied any family history. Laboratory evaluations were normal but serum dopamine (425 ng/L) and 24-hour urine dopamine levels (1,565.3 µg/day) were elevated. She underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy. Histopathological diagnosis was a paraganglioma. After operation, dopamine levels in serum and 24-hour urine dropped to 0.09 ng/L and 388.4 µg/day. Dopamine producing paraganglioma elicit no clinical symptoms. Only the dopamine level is elevated in serum and 24-hour urine samples. Surgical resection without using preoperative alpha blockage is the treatment of choice. The prognosis for patients with this tumor tends to be poor because the diagnosis is usually delayed due to lack of symptoms.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.6.389
PMCID: PMC3373991  PMID: 22708103
Pheochromocytoma; Paraganglioma; Adrenal glands; Dopamine; Adrenergic alpha-antagonists

Results 1-5 (5)