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1.  The Role of Diverting Stoma After an Ultra-low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer 
Annals of Coloproctology  2013;29(2):66-71.
A diverting stoma is known to reduce the consequences of distal anastomotic failure following colorectal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a diverting stoma after an ultra-low anterior resection (uLAR) for rectal cancer.
Between 2000 and 2007, 836 patients who underwent an uLAR were divided into two groups, depending on the fecal diversion: 246 received fecal diversion, and 590 had no diversion. Patient- and disease-related variables were compared between the two groups.
Thirty-two of the 836 patients (3.8%) had immediate anastomosis-related complications and required reoperation. Anastomosis leakage comprised 72% of the complications (23/32). The overall immediate complication rate was significantly lower in patients with a diverting stoma (0.8%, 2/246) compared to those without a diverting stoma (5.1%, 30/590; P = 0.005). The fecal diversion group had lower tumor location, lower anastomosis level, and more preoperative chemo-radiation therapy (P < 0.001). In total, 12% of patients in the diverting stoma group had complications either in making or reversing the stoma (30/246).
The diverting stoma decreased the rate of immediate anastomosis-related complications. However, the rate of complications associated with the diverting stoma was non-negligible, so strict criteria should be applied when deciding whether to use a diverting stoma.
PMCID: PMC3659245  PMID: 23700573
Rectal neoplasms; Ileostomy; Colorectal surgery
2.  Surgical issues in locally advanced rectal cancer treated by preoperative chemoradiotherapy 
The standard treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer is preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision. This approach is supported by randomized trials, but there are still many unanswered questions about the multimodal management of rectal cancer. In surgical terms, these include the optimal time interval between completion of chemoradiotherapy and surgery; adequate distal resection margin and circumferential radial margin; sphincter preservation; laparoscopic surgery; and conservative management, including a 'wait and see' policy and local excision. This review considers these controversial issues in preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
PMCID: PMC3539104  PMID: 23323229
Rectal cancer; Chemoradiotherapy; Surgical procedures
3.  Risk factors for complications after bowel surgery in Korean patients with Crohn's disease 
To assess the incidence and factors predictive of early postoperative complications in Korean patients who undergo surgery for Crohn's disease (CD).
We retrospectively assessed 350 patients (246 males, 104 females; mean age, 30 ± 9 years) who underwent surgery for primary or recurrent CD at Asan Medical Center between January 1991 and May 2010. The incidence and predictive factors of early postoperative complications were analyzed by both univariate and multivariate analyses.
Of the 350 patients, 81 patients (23.1%) developed postoperative complications, the most common being septic complications (54 patients), including 19 cases of wound infection. Thirty patients (8.6%) required re-operations, and only one patient died. Multivariate analysis showed that four factors were independently associated with a high risk of early postoperative complications; preoperative moderate to severe anemia (hematocrit concentration <30%; odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 5.9), hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin level <3.0 g/dL; OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.7), emergency surgery (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.5 to 10.6), and covering stoma (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 5.4). Correction of preoperative moderate to severe anemia and hypoalbuminemia decreased the incidence of postoperative complications. Mean hospital stay was significantly longer in patients with than without postoperative complications (31.3 ± 27.2 days vs. 10.3 ± 3.8 days, P < 0.001).
Preoperative anemia, low albumin level, emergency surgery, and covering stoma significantly increased the risk of early postoperative complications in patients with CD. Correcting preoperatively deficient nutritional factors may reduce postoperative morbidities.
PMCID: PMC3433550  PMID: 22977760
Crohn disease; Surgery; Korea; Risk factors; Postoperative complications
4.  Clinicopathologic Factors Affecting Recurrence after Curative Surgery for Stage I Colorectal Cancer 
The objective of the current study was to identify the clinicopathological risk factors affecting recurrence after a curative resection for stage I colorectal cancer.
We retrospectively studied 434 patients who underwent a curative resection for stage I colorectal cancer between January 1999 and December 2004. Postoperative oral chemotherapy was performed in 189 patients (45.3%). The following prognostic factors were correlated with recurrence: age, gender, preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level, location of tumor, T stage, size of tumor, histologic differentiation, growth pattern, and lymphovascular invasion. The median follow-up duration was 65 months.
The overall recurrence rate was 4.6% (20/434). The median time to recurrence was 33 months. Two-thirds of the recurrence occurred more than two years after surgery. Risk factors associated with recurrence were rectal cancer (P = 0.009), T2 stage (P = 0.010), and infiltrative growth pattern (P = 0.020). A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated that the infiltrative growth pattern was an independent predictor for recurrence. Tumor cell budding was observed in all pathologic reviews with recurrence.
Long-term follow-up is necessary for stage I colorectal patients with high risk factors like rectal cancer, T2 stage, and infiltrative growth pattern.
PMCID: PMC3296942  PMID: 22413082
Colorectal neoplasms; Recurrence; Risk factors
5.  Surgical Outcomes after Total Colectomy with Ileorectal Anastomosis in Patients with Medically Intractable Slow Transit Constipation 
The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of a total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis in patients with slow transit constipation.
A retrospective review of 37 consecutive patients with slow transit constipation who underwent a total colectomy between 1994 and 2008 was undertaken. Preoperative and postoperative Wexner's constipation scores were collected and used to evaluate the outcomes after surgical treatment. Also patients' postoperative satisfaction scores were collected using a 4-point scale.
The 37 patients consisted of 31 women and 6 men, with a median age of 41 years (range, 17 to 71 years). Pre- and post-operative Wexner's scores were collected from 33 patients (89.1%), and the mean preoperative Wexner's score was 19.3 (range, 11 to 24), which decreased to an average post-operative score of 2.3 (range, 0 to 8). Neither intraoperative complications nor postoperative mortalities were noted. Five patients (13.5%) had early postoperative complications, and the most common complication was postoperative ileus (10.8%). Seven patients (18.9%) had late postoperative complications, and postoperative ileus (10.8%) was also the most common. Twenty seven of 33 patients were satisfied with their surgical outcome (81.8%).
A total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis might be an effective surgical procedure with acceptable morbidity to treat medically intractable slow transit constipation.
PMCID: PMC3180598  PMID: 21980588
Colonic inertia; Colectomy; Treatment outcome; Postoperative complication
6.  Histopathological risk factors for lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma of pedunculated or semipedunculated type 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2006;60(8):912-915.
To evaluate the histopathological risk factors for lymph node metastasis in cases of pedunculated or semipedunculated submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma (SICC).
A total of 48 patients with non‐sessile SICC who underwent systematic lymph node dissection were included. Tumour size, histological grade, angiolymphatic invasion, tumour budding, dedifferentiation, objective submucosal invasion depth from the identified muscularis mucosa, relative invasion depth of the submucosal layer, and depth of stalk invasion were investigated histopathologically.
Lymph node metastasis was observed in seven cases (14.6%). Univariate analysis showed angiolymphatic invasion and tumour budding to be significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis showed that tumour budding was the only independent factor associated with lymph node metastasis in cases of non‐sessile SICC.
Results indicate that tumour budding is a useful risk factor for predicting lymph node metastasis in cases of pedunculated or semipedunculated SICC.
PMCID: PMC1994481  PMID: 16997919
colorectal carcinoma; pedunculated; lymph node metastasis; risk factors; tumour budding
7.  Cefotetan versus Conventional Triple Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Elective Colorectal Cancer Surgery 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(3):429-434.
This study examined infectious outcomes in elective colorectal cancer surgery between cefotetan alone or conventional triple antibiotics. From January to December 2007, 461 consecutive primary colorectal cancer patients underwent elective surgery. Group A contained 225 patients who received conventional triple antibiotics (cephalosporin, aminoglycoside and metronidazole) for prophylaxis, and group B contained 236 patients who received cefotetan alone for prophylaxis. Treatment failure was defined as the presence of postoperative infection including surgical-site infection (SSI), anastomotic leakage, and pneumonia or urinary tract infection. The two groups were similar in terms of demographics, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, tumour location, stage, surgical approach (conventional open vs. laparoscopy-assisted), and type of operation. The treatment failure rates were 3.1% in Group A and 3.4% in Group B (absolute difference, -0.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 3.07, P=0.866), with SSI being the most common reason for failure in both groups (2.7% in Group A and 3.0% in Group B [absolute difference, -0.3%; 95% CI, 0.37 to 3.37, P=0.846]). Cefotetan alone is as effective as triple antibiotics for prophylaxis in primary colorectal cancer patients undergoing elective surgery.
PMCID: PMC2826745  PMID: 20191043
Antibiotic Prophylaxis; Colorectal Neoplasms; Surgical Wound Infection; Cefotetan
8.  Single Immunochemical Fecal Occult Blood Test for Detection of Colorectal Neoplasia 
This study was designed to investigate the validity of a single immunochemical fecal occult blood test (FOBT) for detection of colorectal neoplasia.
Materials and Methods
A total of 3,794 average-risk screenees and 304 colorectal cancer patients admitted to the National Cancer Center, Korea, between May 2001 and November 2002, were studied prospectively. All screenees and admitted patients underwent FOBT and total colonoscopic examinations. Stools were self-collected, and examined using an immunochemical fecal occult blood test (OC-hemodia®, Eiken Chemical Co. Tokyo, Japan) and an OC-sensor analyzer® (Eiken Chemical Co. Tokyo, Japan).
Of the 3,794 asymptomatic screenees, the colonoscopy identified colorectal adenomas and cancers in 613 (16.2%) and 12 (0.3%) subjects, respectively. The sensitivities of a single immunochemical FOBT for detecting colorectal cancers and adenomas in screenees were 25.0 and 2.4%, respectively. The false positive rate of FOBT for colorectal cancer in screenees was 1.19%. For the total 316 colorectal cancer cases (including 12 cases from screenees), the FOBT sensitivities according to the T-stage were 38.5, 75.0%, 78.9 and 79.2% for T1, 2, 3 and 4 cancers, respectively. The sensitivities according to the Dukes stages A, B and C were 63.4, 79.3 and 78.6%, respectively.
The sensitivities of a single immunochemical FOBT for detecting colorectal cancers and adenomas in screenees were 25.0 and 2.4%, respectively. The sensitivities of FOBT were about 80% for Dukes B or C colorectal cancers and 63.4% for Dukes A.
PMCID: PMC2785417  PMID: 19956505
Fecal occult blood test; Screening; Colorectal neoplasm; Stage

Results 1-8 (8)