Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-25 (36)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
more »
Document Types
1.  High morbidity in myocardial infarction and heart failure patients after gastric cancer surgery 
AIM: To evaluate to morbidity and mortality differences between 4 underlying heart diseases, myocardial infarction (MI), angina pectoris (Angina), heart failure (HF), and atrial fibrillation (AF), after radical surgery for gastric cancer.
METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 221 patients of a total of 15167 patients who underwent radical gastrectomy and were preoperatively diagnosed with a history of Angina, MI, HF, or AF in 8 hospitals.
RESULTS: We find that the total morbidity rate is significantly higher in the MI group (44%) than the Angina (15.7%), AF (18.8%), and HF (23.1%) groups (P < 0.01). Moreover, we note that the risk for postoperative cardiac problems is higher in patients with a history of HF (23.1%) than patients with a history of Angina (2.2%), AF (4.3%), or MI (6%; P = 0.01). The HF and MI groups each have 1 case of cardiogenic mortality.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that MI patients have a higher risk of morbidity, and HF patients have a higher risk of postoperative cardiac problems than Angina or AF.
PMCID: PMC4458773  PMID: 26074701
Stomach neoplasm; Comorbidity; Morbidity; Heart disease; Heart failure
2.  Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic) Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice 
We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD). The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and interleukins (ILs). Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13) levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.
PMCID: PMC4488017  PMID: 26221169
3.  Outcome of transarterial chemoembolization-based multi-modal treatment in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma 
AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)-based multimodal treatment in patients with large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: A total of 146 consecutive patients were included in the analysis, and their medical records and radiological data were reviewed retrospectively.
RESULTS: In total, 119 patients received TACE-based multi-modal treatments, and the remaining 27 received conservative management. Overall survival (P < 0.001) and objective tumor response (P = 0.003) were significantly better in the treatment group than in the conservative group. After subgroup analysis, survival benefits were observed not only in the multi-modal treatment group compared with the TACE-only group (P = 0.002) but also in the surgical treatment group compared with the loco-regional treatment-only group (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified tumor stage (P < 0.001) and tumor type (P = 0.009) as two independent pre-treatment factors for survival. After adjusting for significant pre-treatment prognostic factors, objective response (P < 0.001), surgical treatment (P = 0.009), and multi-modal treatment (P = 0.002) were identified as independent post-treatment prognostic factors.
CONCLUSION: TACE-based multi-modal treatments were safe and more beneficial than conservative management. Salvage surgery after successful downstaging resulted in long-term survival in patients with large, unresectable HCC.
PMCID: PMC4342916  PMID: 25741147
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Multimodal treatment; Transarterial chemoembolization; Salvage surgery
4.  The Effects of Platycodin D, a Saponin Purified from Platycodi Radix, on Collagen-Induced DBA/1J Mouse Rheumatoid Arthritis 
The object of this study is to observe the effects of platycodin D, a saponin purified from Platycodi Radix, on mice collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). A daily dose of 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg platycodin D was administered orally to male DBA/1J mice for 40 days after initial collagen immunization. To ascertain the effects administering the collagen booster, CIA-related features (including body weight, poly-arthritis, knee and paw thickness, and paw weight increase) was measured from histopathological changes in the spleen, left popliteal lymph node, third digit, and the knee joint regions. CIA-related bone and cartilage damage improved significantly in the platycodin D-administered CIA mice. Additionally, myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the paw were reduced in platycodin D-treated CIA mice compared to CIA control groups. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the platycodin D group. Finally, the production of IL-6 and TNF-α, involved in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis, was suppressed by treatment with platycodin D. Taken together, these results suggest that platycodin D is a promising new effective antirheumatoid arthritis agent, exerting anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and immunomodulatory effects in CIA mice.
PMCID: PMC3913383  PMID: 24511322
5.  Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis 
AIM: To evaluate the prognostic factors and efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis.
METHODS: Fifty hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) were treated using hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) via a subcutaneously implanted port. The epirubicin-cisplatin-5-fluorouracil (ECF) chemotherapeutic regimen consisted of 35 mg/m2 epirubicin on day 1, 60 mg/m2 cisplatin for 2 h on day 2, and 500 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil for 5 h on days 1-3. The treatments were repeated every 3 or 4 wk.
RESULTS: Three (6%) of the 50 patients achieved a complete response (CR), 13 (26%) showed partial responses (PR), and 22 (44%) had stable disease (SD). The median survival and time to progression were 7 and 2 mo, respectively. After 2 cycles of HAIC, CR was achieved in 1 patient (2%), PR in 10 patients (20%) and SD in 26 patients (52%). Significant pre-treatment prognostic factors were a tumor volume of < 400 cm3 (P = 0.01) and normal levels of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist (PIVKA)-II (P = 0.022). After 2 cycles of treatment, disease control (CR + PR + SD) (P = 0.001), PVTT response (P = 0.003) and α-fetoprotein reduction of over 50% (P = 0.02) were independent factors for survival. Objective response (CR + PR), disease control, PVTT response, and combination therapy during the HAIC were also significant prognostic factors. Adverse events were tolerable and successfully managed.
CONCLUSION: HAIC may be an effective treatment modality for advanced HCC with PVTT in patients with tumors < 400 cm3 and good prognostic factors.
PMCID: PMC3732840  PMID: 23922465
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy; Portal vein tumor thrombosis
6.  Acute gastric volvulus treated with laparoscopic reduction and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy 
Acute gastric volvulus requires emergency surgery, and a laparoscopic approach for both acute and chronic gastric volvulus was reported recently to give good results. The case of a 50-year-old patient with acute primary gastric volvulus who was treated by laparoscopic reduction and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is described here. This approach seems to be feasible and safe for not only chronic gastric volvulus, but also acute gastric volvulus.
PMCID: PMC3699688  PMID: 23833761
Stomach volvulus; Intestinal volvulus; Laparoscopy; Endoscopy; Gastrostomy
7.  Current status of the use of antiadhesive agents for gastric cancer surgery: a questionnaire survey in South Korea 
The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of the use of antiadhesive agents (AAdAs) via a questionnaire and to discuss the availability of AAdAs.
The survey was sent to a list of members that was approved by the Korean Gastric Association. The survey included questions on AAdA use by surgeons, the type of AAdAs used, and the reasons for not using AAdAs. Surgeons were also asked to describe complications related to AAdAs, and the reliability of its use.
The response rate was 21%. The rates of frequent use stratified by procedure were 26.9% (14/52) for open gastrectomy, 5.9% (3/51) for laparoscopic gastrectomy, and 31.5% (17/54) for surgery for postoperative bowel obstruction (P < 0.01). After including data from the occasional use group, the corresponding values were 51.9% (27/52), 19.6% (10/51), and 70.4% (38/54), respectively (P < 0.01). Sefrafilm and Guardix were most commonly used for open procedures. Guardix and Interceed were most commonly used for laparoscopic surgery. The primary reasons for nonuse of AAdAs were ineffectiveness and high cost. Ten percent (4/40) of surgeons observed complications associated with AAdAs. A minority (17.3%, 9/52) had positive attitudes toward AAdAs. The majority of respondents expressed neutral (73.1%, 38/52) or negative (9.6%, 5/52) attitudes toward AAdAs.
The low use rates of AAdAs in gastric cancer surgery may be attributable to perceptions that AAdAs are ineffective, unreliable, and costly. We anticipate the emergence of promising antiadhesive strategies that reach far beyond the limitations of current products.
PMCID: PMC3594643  PMID: 23487148
Peritoneal adhesions; Questionnaires; Adhesion barriers; Postoperative complication; Stomach neoplasms
8.  Effectiveness of endoscopic clipping and computed tomography gastroscopy for the preoperative localization of gastric cancer 
Before laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer can be planned, it is very important to know the precise location of the tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate 3 methods of predicting the exact location of the tumor: preoperative gastrofibroscopy (GFS), preoperative computed tomography gastroscopy (CT), and intraoperative gastroscopy-guided laparoscopy (Lap).
In this study, 15 patients were prospectively identified, and endoscopic clips were preoperatively placed on the proximal 1 cm of the tumor, at the angle on the greater curvature and opposite the angle on the greater curvature. The distances between the pylorus and the proximal tumor clip (PT), the angle clip (PA), the greater curvature clip (PG), and the gastroesophageal junction were measured by preoperative GFS, preoperative CT, intraoperative Lap, and visual inspection (Vis).
PT, PA, and PG values measured by preoperative GFS differed significantly from the Vis values (P < 0.01). However, preoperative CT measurements of PT, PA, and PG did not differ from the Vis values (P = 0.78, P = 0.48, and P = 0.53, respectively). Intraoperative Lap and Vis PT values differed by only 1.1 cm on an average (P = 0.10), but PA and PG values varied by 1.9 and 3.4 cm, respectively (P = 0.01 for both).
Endoscopic clipping combined with preoperative CT gastroscopy is more useful than preoperative GFS for preoperatively predicting the location of early gastric cancers and will be helpful for planning laparoscopic gastrectomy.
PMCID: PMC3566473  PMID: 23396626
Stomach neoplasms; Laparoscopy; Gastrectomy; X-ray computed tomography; Gastroscopy
9.  Analysis of Risk Factors for Postoperative Morbidity in Perforated Peptic Ulcer 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2012;12(1):26-35.
Emergency operations for perforated peptic ulcer are associated with a high incidence of postoperative complications. While several studies have investigated the impact of perioperative risk factors and underlying diseases on the postoperative morbidity after abdominal surgery, only a few have analyzed their role in perforated peptic ulcer disease. The purpose of this study was to determine any possible associations between postoperative morbidity and comorbid disease or perioperative risk factors in perforated peptic ulcer.
Materials and Methods
In total, 142 consecutive patients, who underwent surgery for perforated peptic ulcer, at a single institution, between January 2005 and October 2010 were included in this study. The clinical data concerning the patient characteristics, operative methods, and complications were collected retrospectively.
The postoperative morbidity rate associated with perforated peptic ulcer operations was 36.6% (52/142). Univariate analysis revealed that a long operating time, the open surgical method, age (≥60), sex (female), high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score and presence of preoperative shock were significant perioperative risk factors for postoperative morbidity. Significant comorbid risk factors included hypertension, diabetes mellitus and pulmonary disease. Multivariate analysis revealed a long operating time, the open surgical method, high ASA score and the presence of preoperative shock were all independent risk factors for the postoperative morbidity in perforated peptic ulcer.
A high ASA score, preoperative shock, open surgery and long operating time of more than 150 minutes are high risk factors for morbidity. However, there is no association between postoperative morbidity and comorbid disease in patients with a perforated peptic ulcer.
PMCID: PMC3319796  PMID: 22500261
Peptic ulcer; Peptic ulcer perforation; Septic shock; Health status index
10.  Diagnosis of a Trocar Site Mass as Omental Herniation after Laparoscopic Gastrectomy 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2012;12(1):46-48.
A trocar site hernia is a rare complication. We report a patient who had an abdominal wall mass at a previous trocar site after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. It was diagnosed as omental herniation and fat necrosis. We conclude that patients with trocar site masses exhibiting fat density on a computed tomography scan could be followed up without surgery, and that fascial defects located at 10-mm or larger trocar sites should be closed whenever possible to prevent hernia formation.
PMCID: PMC3319800  PMID: 22500264
Omentum; Hernia; Trocar; Gastric neoplasms; Laparoscopy
11.  Synchronous Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach Treated by a Combination of Laparoscopy-assisted Distal Gastrectomy and Wedge Resection 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2011;11(1):55-58.
The simultaneous occurrence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and a gastric adenocarcinoma is uncommon, and has rarely been reported in the literature. The present report describes the case of a 74-year-old male patient who initially presented with an adenocarcinoma that had invaded the antral mucosa. Computed tomography then revealed the presence of a suspected GIST, in the form of a 2×2 cm mass at the hilum of the spleen. In view of the advanced age of the patient, a surgical approach that would minimize risk and maximize quality of life was preferred. The patient therefore underwent simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for the adenocarcinoma and wedge resection for the GIST. This approach was only chosen after confirming that it would be possible to preserve three or more of the short gastric arteries that supply the area below the wedge resection site. This may be considered a feasible approach to the management of the simultaneous occurrence of a mid-to-low gastric body adenocarcinoma and a high gastric body GIST.
PMCID: PMC3204477  PMID: 22076202
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; Stomach neoplasms; Laparoscopy
12.  A case of gallbladder cancer combined with ectopic individual opening of pancreatic and bile ducts to the duodenal bulb 
Ectopic opening of the pancreatic and bile ducts (EOPBD) into the duodenal bulb is an extremely rare congenital anomaly with unknown clinical implications. We presented a case of gallbladder cancer with EOPBD into the duodenal bulb. A 57-year-old male was referred to our hospital with intermittent right upper abdominal pain. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed individual EOPBD into the duodenal bulb with no papillary structure, and a focal nodular lesion in the gallbladder. A follow-up abdominal computed tomography scan 9 months later revealed a slight increase in the size of the fundal nodule, which was suspected as gallbladder cancer. An intraoperative frozen biopsy identified the nodular lesion as adenocarcinoma involving the cystic duct, and the patient underwent radical cholecystectomy including bile duct resection with hepaticojejunostomy. EOPBD is an extremely rare condition that can be associated with gallbladder malignancy as well as benign disease. Clinicians should follow up carefully and consider surgical treatment for suspected malignant lesions.
PMCID: PMC4568595  PMID: 26379734
Ectopic opening; Gallbladder cancer; Pancreatic duct; Bile duct
13.  Single Oral Dose Toxicity Test of Blue Honeysuckle Concentrate in Mice 
Toxicological Research  2015;31(1):61-68.
The objective of this study was to obtain single oral dose toxicity information for concentrated and lyophilized powder of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L., Caprifoliaceae; BHcL) in female and male ICR mice to aid in the process of developing natural origin medicinal ingredients or foods following proximate analysis and phytochemical profile measurement. The proximate analysis revealed that BHcL had an energy value of 3.80 kcal/g and contained 0.93 g/g of carbohydrate, 0.41 g/g of sugar, 0.02 g/g of protein, and 0.20 mg/g of sodium. BHcL did not contain lipids, including saturated lipids, trans fats, or cholesterols. Further, BHcL contained 4.54% of betaine, 210.63 mg/g of total phenols, 159.30 mg/g of total flavonoids, and 133.57 mg/g of total anthocyanins. Following administration of a single oral BHcL treatment, there were no treatment-related mortalities, changes in body weight (bw) or organ weight, clinical signs, necropsy or histopathological findings up to 2,000 mg/kg bw, the limited dosage for rodents of both sexes. We concluded that BHcL is a practically non-toxic material in toxicity potency.
PMCID: PMC4395656  PMID: 25874034
Single oral dose toxicity; Mouse; Blue honeysuckle; Proximate analysis; Phytochemical analysis
14.  Dried Pomegranate Potentiates Anti-Osteoporotic and Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Clover Dry Extracts in Ovariectomized Rats 
Nutrients  2015;7(4):2622-2647.
Red clover (RC) shows potential activity against menopausal symptoms and pomegranates have antioxidative and beneficial effects on postmenopausal symptoms; thus, we investigated whether the anti-climacteric activity of RC could be enhanced by the addition of dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) extracts in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Regarding the anti-osteoporotic effects, bone mineral density increased significantly in OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of an RC:PCP 2:1 mixture, respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Additionally, femoral, tibia, and L4 bone resorption was decreased in OVX induced control rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (60 and 120 mg/kg), respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Regarding anti-obesity effects, the OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture showed a decrease in total fat pad thickness, the mean diameters of adipocytes and the body weights gain compared with OVX induced control rats. The estradiol and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased in OVX induced rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (120 mg/kg) compared with OVX induced control rats, also, the uterine atrophy was significantly inhibited in 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture treatment compared with OVX control rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that PCP enhanced the anti-climacteric effects of RC in OVX rats. The RC:PCP 2:1 mixture used in this study may be a promising new potent and protective agent for relieving climacteric symptoms.
PMCID: PMC4425164  PMID: 25912038
red clover extracts; dried pomegranate concentrate powder; 2:1 mixture; anti-climacteric effects; ovariectomy; rats
15.  Impact of tumor size on subclinical central lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma depends on age 
The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the associations between clinicopathologic factors of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), especially tumor size, and subclinical central lymph node metastasis (LNM) are dependent on patient age.
The medical records of 428 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for PTC measuring ≤1 cm were reviewed. All patients were clinically lymph node negative and underwent thyroidectomy with unilateral or bilateral central lymph node dissection. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify clinicopathologic factors associated with central LNM.
Central LNM was identified in 96 of 428 (22.4%) patients. Mean tumor size was significantly greater in patients with than without central LNM (0.74 ± 0.22 cm vs. 0.64 ± 0.23 cm, P = 0.001). Tumor size > 0.5 cm was significantly predictive of central LNM. Subgroup analysis according to age groups showed that tumor size was an independent predictor of subclinical central LNM only in patients aged ≥45 years.
Factors predictive of central LNM in patients with PTMC differed by age. PTMC size was an independent predictor of subclinical central LNM only in patients aged ≥45 years.
PMCID: PMC4404273  PMID: 25886181
Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma; Lymph node metastasis; Age; Size
16.  In Vivo and In Vitro Antitumor Effects of Platycodin D, a Saponin Purified from Platycodi Radix on the H520 Lung Cancer Cell 
Platycodin D is a major pharmacological constituent of Platycodi radix and has showed various pharmacological activities through oxidative stress defense mechanisms. Here, possible antitumor, anticachexia, and immunomodulatory activities of platycodin D were observed on the H520 tumor cell-bearing athymic nude mice after confirming the in vitro cytotoxicity. Platycodin D was orally administered at dose levels of 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg, once a day for 35 days from 15 days after implantation. The results were compared with gemcitabine 160 mg/kg intraperitoneally treated mice (7-day intervals). Platycodin D showed favorable cytotoxic effects on the H520 cells, and also dose-dependently decreased the tumor volumes and weights with increases of apoptotic cells (caspase-3 and PARP immunopositive cells), iNOS and TNF-α immunoreactivities, decreases of COX-2 immunoreactivities in tumor masses. Platycodin D also showed dose-dependent immunostimulatory and anticachexia effects. Gemcitabine showed favorable cytotoxity against H520 tumor cell and related in vivo antitumor effects but aggravated the cancer related cachexia and immunosuppress in H520 tumor cell-bearing athymic nude mice. Taken together, it is considered that oral treatment of platycodin D has potent antitumor activities on H520 cells through direct cytotoxic effects, increases of apoptosis in tumor cells, and immunostimulatory effects and can be control cancer related cachexia.
PMCID: PMC4247928  PMID: 25477992
17.  Fermentation with Aquilariae Lignum Enhances the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea in Type II Diabetic db/db Mouse 
Nutrients  2014;6(9):3536-3571.
The major components of tea may be significantly influenced according to the type of fermentation, and consequently the effects of different teas will differ. We examined whether green tea fermented with Aquilariae Lignum (fGT) shows a stronger anti-diabetic effect than unfermented green tea (GT) on mice with type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the anti-obesity effect of fGT, we assessed body weight, fecal excretion, serum leptin levels, exocrine pancreatic zymogen granule contents, and periovarian fat weight and adiponectin contents. Blood glucose levels, pancreatic weight, and numbers of pancreatic islet insulin- and glucagon-producing cells were determined to evaluate anti-hypoglycemic effects, while total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low- and high-density lipoprotein levels were determined to evaluate anti-hyperlipidemic effects. The antioxidant effect of fGT was detected by measuring malondialdehyde and glutathione contents and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. fGT showed anti-obesity, anti-hypoglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemia, and antioxidant effects. Additionally, fGT exerted stronger anti-diabetic effects compared with GT. Collectively, these results suggested that fGT fermented with the appropriate amounts of Aquilariae Lignum (49:1) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Thus, fGT is a promising and potent new therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC4179175  PMID: 25207824
BKS.Cg-+Leprdb/+Leprdb/OlaHsd (db/db) mice; obese; diabetes; fermented green tea with Aquilariae Lignum; synergistic
18.  Intra- and interobserver reliability of gray scale/dynamic range evaluation of ultrasonography using a standardized phantom 
Ultrasonography  2014;33(2):91-97.
To evaluate intra- and interobserver reliability of the gray scale/dynamic range of the phantom image evaluation of ultrasonography using a standardized phantom, and to assess the effect of interactive education on the reliability.
Three radiologists (a resident, and two board-certified radiologists with 2 and 7 years of experience in evaluating ultrasound phantom images) performed the gray scale/dynamic range test for an ultrasound machine using a standardized phantom. They scored the number of visible cylindrical structures of varying degrees of brightness and made a ‘pass or fail’ decision. First, they scored 49 phantom images twice from a 2010 survey with limited knowledge of phantom images. After this, the radiologists underwent two hours of interactive education for the phantom images and scored another 91 phantom images from a 2011 survey twice. Intra- and interobserver reliability before and after the interactive education session were analyzed using K analyses.
Before education, the K-value for intraobserver reliability for the radiologist with 7 years of experience, 2 years of experience, and the resident was 0.386, 0.469, and 0.465, respectively. After education, the K-values were improved (0.823, 0.611, and 0.711, respectively). For interobserver reliability, the K-value was also better after the education for the 3 participants (0.067, 0.002, and 0.547 before education; 0.635, 0.667, and 0.616 after education, respectively).
The intra- and interobserver reliability of the gray scale/dynamic range was fair to substantial. Interactive education can improve reliability. For more reliable results, double- checking of phantom images by multiple reviewers is recommended.
PMCID: PMC4058983  PMID: 24936501
Ultrasonography; Imaging phantoms; Health care quality assurance; Reproducibility of results
19.  Protective effects of calcium gluconate on osteoarthritis induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy in Sprague–Dawley rats 
This study aimed to determine whether calcium gluconate exerts protective effects on osteoarthritis (OA) induced by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection and partial medial meniscectomy.
Calcium gluconate was administered by mouth daily for 84 days to male ACL transected and partial medial meniscectomized Sprague–Dawley rats 1 week after operation.
Eighty-four days of treatment with 50 mg/kg calcium gluconate led to a lower degree of articular stiffness and cartilage damage compared to the OA control, possibly through inhibition of overexpressed cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and related chondrocyte apoptosis. Similar favorable effects on stiffness and cartilage were detected in calcium gluconate-administered rats. Additionally, calcium gluconate increased 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake based on observation of BrdU-immunoreactive cells on both the femur and tibia articular surface cartilages 84 days after intra-joint treatment with calcium gluconate.
Taken together, our results demonstrate that calcium gluconate has a protective effect against OA through inhibition of COX-2 and related chondrocyte apoptosis.
PMCID: PMC3973837  PMID: 24602500
Calcium gluconate; Osteoarthritis; COX-2; Apoptosis
20.  Laparoscopy Assisted versus Open Distal Gastrectomy with D2 Lymph Node Dissection for Advanced Gastric Cancer: Design and Rationale of a Phase II Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial (COACT 1001) 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2013;13(3):164-171.
Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer has gained acceptance and popularity worldwide. However, laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer is still controversial. Therefore, we propose this prospective randomized controlled multi-center trial in order to evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopy assisted D2-gastrectomy for advanced stage gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods
Patients undergoing distal gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer staged cT2/3/4 cN0/1/2/3a cM0 by endoscopy and computed tomography are eligible for enrollment after giving their informed consent. Patients will be randomized either to laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy or open distal gastrectomy. Sample size calculation revealed that 102 patients are to be included per treatment arm. The primary endpoint is the non-compliance rate of D2 dissection; relevant secondary endpoints are three-year disease free survival, surgical and postoperative complications, hospital stay and unanimity rate of D2 dissection evaluated by reviewing the intraoperative video documentation.
Oncologic safety is the major concern regarding laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer. Therefore, the non-compliance rate of clearing the N2 area was chosen as the most important parameter for the technical feasibility of the laparoscopic procedure. Furthermore, surgical quality will be carefully reviewed, that is, three independent experts will review the video records and score with a check list. For a long-term result, disease free survival is considered a secondary endpoint for this trial. This study will offer promising evidence of the feasibility and safety of Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer.Trial Registration: NCT01088204 (international), NCCCTS-09-448 (Korea).
PMCID: PMC3804675  PMID: 24156036
Gastrectomy; Stomach neoplasms; Lymph node excision
21.  Effects of Calcium Gluconate, a Water Soluble Calcium Salt on the Collagen-Induced DBA/1J Mice Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Biomolecules & Therapeutics  2013;21(4):290-298.
This study examined the effects of calcium (Ca) gluconate on collagen-induced DBA mouse rheumatoid arthritis (CIA). A single daily dose of 200, 100 or 50 mg/kg Ca gluconate was administered orally to male DBA/1J mice for 40 days after initial collagen immunization. To ascertain the effects administering the collagen booster, CIA-related features (including body weight, poly-arthritis, knee and paw thickness, and paw weight increase) were measured from histopathological changes in the spleen, left popliteal lymph node, third digit and the knee joint regions. CIA-related bone and cartilage damage improved significantly in the Ca gluconate- administered CIA mice. Additionally, myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the paw were reduced in Ca gluconate-treated CIA mice compared to CIA control groups. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, decreased in a dosedependent manner in the Ca gluconate group. Finally, the production of IL-6 and TNF-α, involved in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis, were suppressed by treatment with Ca gluconate. Taken together, these results suggest that Ca gluconate is a promising candidate anti-rheumatoid arthritis agent, exerting anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory effects in CIA mice.
PMCID: PMC3819902  PMID: 24244814
Calcium gluconate; Rheumatoid arthritis; Anti-inflammation; Anti-oxidation; Immunomodulation
22.  Prognostic value of CAPZA1 overexpression in gastric cancer 
International Journal of Oncology  2013;42(5):1569-1577.
F-actin capping protein α1 subunit (CAPZA1) was previously identified in a proteomic analysis of human gastric cancer clinical specimens and selected for further study. The association between CAPZA1 overexpression, detected by immunohistochemistry, and clinicopathological features including survival were evaluated. In vitro gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches were utilized to assess the function of CPAZA1 in malignancy. Univariate analysis revealed that poorly differentiated disease, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, advanced T stage, positive lymph nodes, high TNM stage, D2 lymph node dissection, adjuvant chemotherapy and CAPZA1 underexpression were significantly associated with cancer-related death (p<0.05); however, only high TNM stage remained significantly associated by multivariate analysis (p<0.01). CAPZA1 overexpression was associated with well differentiated histology, smaller tumor size, lower T stage, absence of lymph node metastasis, lower TNM stage, lower recurrence rate and longer survival time, compared to CAPZA1 underexpression. In vitro, forced expression of CAPZA1 caused a significant decrease in gastric cancer cell migration and invasion, whereas CAPZA1 depletion had the opposite effect. The present study suggests that CAPZA1 could be a marker of good prognosis in gastric cancer and shows that CAPZA1 is associated with decreased cancer cell migration and invasion.
PMCID: PMC3661194  PMID: 23545944
stomach neoplasm; CAPZA1; F-actin capping protein; immunohistochemistry; biomarker
23.  Totally Laparoscopic Distal Gastrectomy after Learning Curve Completion: Comparison with Laparoscopy-Assisted Distal Gastrectomy 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2013;13(1):26-33.
The aims are to: (i) display the multidimensional learning curve of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, and (ii) verify the feasibility of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy after learning curve completion by comparing it with laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy.
Materials and Methods
From January 2005 to June 2012, 247 patients who underwent laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (n=136) and totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (n=111) for early gastric cancer were enrolled. Their clinicopathological characteristics and early surgical outcomes were analyzed. Analysis of the totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy learning curve was conducted using the moving average method and the cumulative sum method on 180 patients who underwent totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy.
Our study indicated that experience with 40 and 20 totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy cases, is required in order to achieve optimum proficiency by two surgeons. There were no remarkable differences in the clinicopathological characteristics between laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy and totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy groups. The two groups were comparable in terms of open conversion, combined resection, morbidities, reoperation rate, hospital stay and time to first flatus (P>0.05). However, totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy had a significantly shorter mean operation time than laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (P<0.01). We also found that intra-abdominal abscess and overall complication rates were significantly higher before the learning curve than after the learning curve (P<0.05).
Experience with 20~40 cases of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy is required to complete the learning curve. The use of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy after learning curve completion is a feasible and timesaving method compared to laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy.
PMCID: PMC3627803  PMID: 23610716
Laparoscopy; Stomach neoplasms; Anastomosis; Learning curve; Morbidity
24.  Laparoscopic left hemihepatectomy for left intrahepatic duct stones 
The feasibility of laparoscopic left hemihepatectomy for the management of intrahepatic duct (IHD) stones was evaluated.
The clinical data of 26 consecutive patients who underwent total laparoscopic left hemihepatectomy for IHD stones at Gyeongsang National University Hospital between January 2009 and June 2011 were reviewed retrospectively.
The mean operation time was 312.1 ± 63.4 minutes and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 11.8 ± 5.0 days. There were 2 cases of postoperative bile leakage and 3 cases of intra-abdominal fluid collection, which were successfully managed conservatively. Remnant stones were detected in 2 patients. The initial success rate of stone clearance was 92.3% (24 of 26). The remnant stones were located in the common bile duct in both cases and were removed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic sphincterotomy. Therefore, the final success rate of stone clearance was 100% (26 of 26). During a mean follow-up of 22 months (range, 7 to 36 months), there was no patient with recurrent stone.
Laparoscopic surgery could be an effective treatment modality for the management of IHD stones in select patients.
PMCID: PMC3433551  PMID: 22977761
Laparoscopy; Hepatectomy
25.  Clinical features and prognostic factors in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma depends on age 
Clinical outcomes of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) vary. In general, age at diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor in conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma. However, it is unclear in patients of PTMC. The purpose of this study was to identify clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors of PTMC according to patients' age.
Five hundred twenty-seven patients who received thyroid surgery and diagnosed as having PTC between January 2001 and December 2009 were included. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.
We divided the patients into two groups; group I who were younger than 45 years, and group II who were 45 years old or older. The mean tumor size and incidences of neck lymph nodes involvement of group I was larger than group II. In group II, however, there were more patients who had multiple cancer foci and were body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. The overall incidence of recurrent disease was 3.2%. The incidence of recurrence was higher in group II (2.0% vs. 4.0%), without a statistical difference. In multivariate analysis, the significant risk factors of recurrence were male gender and multifocality in group I, and lymph node metastasis and multifocality in group II. In particular, the male gender and multifocality showed the highest odds ratio (OR) on each group (OR, 4.721 and 6.177).
The patients with PTMCs had different clinical features and prognostic factors according to age. Hence, clinicians should consider a different strategy for therapy and plan for follow-up according to age.
PMCID: PMC3341476  PMID: 22563534
Papillary thyroid cancer; Microcarcinoma; Prognosis; Age

Results 1-25 (36)