Efferent loop syndrome is a very rare postgastrectomy syndrome that can occur following Billroth-II or Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The most common loop syndrome after gastric surgery is afferent loop syndrome; however, efferent loop syndrome has been reported in rare cases. Here, we report a case of efferent loop obstruction that occurred after postoperative adhesiolysis of a small-bowel obstruction. The patient had undergone a partial gastrectomy with Billroth II anastomosis and gastric ulcer perforation 30 years prior. The efferent loop obstruction was successfully resolved by the insertion of a double pigtail stent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature describing the treatment of efferent loop obstruction.
Efferent loop syndrome; Double pigtail stent; Postgastrectomy syndrome
The Carney triad (CT) describes the coexistence of multiple neoplasms including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), extra-adrenal paraganglioma and pulmonary chondroma. At least two neoplastic tumors are required for diagnosis. In most cases, however, CT is incomplete. We report a case of an incomplete CT in a 34-year-old woman with a multifocal GIST and non-functional paraganglioma of the liver. Preoperative evaluation with a gastrofiberscope and abdominal computed tomography revealed multiple gastric tumors resembling GISTs and a single liver lesion which was assumed to have metastasized from the gastric tumors. The patient underwent total gastrectomy and partial hepatectomy. Histologic findings confirmed multiple gastric GISTs and paraganglioma of the liver. We report a case of a patient with incomplete expression of CT.
Carney triad; Gastrointestinal stromal tumor; Paraganglioma
Carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant, biphasic tumor comprised of carcinoma and sarcoma components. In the gastrointestinal tract, carcinosarcoma is most frequently seen in the esophagus and rarely in the stomach. We report a 51-year-old female patient with 2-month-history of epigastric pain and dyspepsia. Endoscopic finding revealed a huge ulcerative lesion that infiltrated from the antrum to the mid-body. An endoscopically taken biopsy revealed poorly differentiated malignant round cell neoplasm. After the palliative subtotal gastrectomy, immunohistochemical studies showed two positive reactions for the epithelial marker and mesenchymal marker. Based on the above findings, the patient was diagnosed with gastric carcinosarcoma. The immunohistochemical analysis is a critical method in making an accurate diagnosis of carcinosarcoma.
Carcinosarcoma; Stomach; Immunohistochemistry
Recently, an increase in well-differentiated rectal neuroendocrine tumors (WRNETs) has been noted. We aimed to evaluate transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for the treatment of WRNETs.
Between December 1995 and August 2009, 109 patients with WRNETs underwent TEM. TEM was performed for patients with tumors sizes of up to 20 mm and without a lymphadenopathy. These patients had been referred from other clinics after having been diagnosed with WRNETs by using a colonoscopic biopsy; they had undergone a failed endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and exhibited an involved resection margin and remaining tumor after ESD or EMR, regardless of the distance from the anal verge. This study included 38 patients that had more than three years of follow-up.
The mean age of the patients was 51.3 ± 11.9 years, the mean tumor size was 8.0 ± 3.9 mm, and no morbidity occurred. Thirty-five patients were asymptomatic. TEM was performed after a colonoscopic resection in 13 cases because of a positive resection margin, a residual tumor or a non-lifting lesion. Complete resections were performed in 37 patients; one patient with a positive margin was considered surgically complete. In one patient, liver metastasis and a recurrent mesorectal node occurred after five and 10 years, respectively.
TEM might provide an accessible and effective treatment either as an initial or as an adjunct after a colonoscopic resection for a WRNET.
Well-differentiated rectal neuroendocrine tumors; Transanal endoscopic microsurgery; Colonoscopic resection; Treatment
AIM: To evaluate the clinical parameters and identify a better method of predicting pathological complete response (pCR).
METHODS: We enrolled 249 patients from a database of 544 consecutive rectal cancer patients who underwent surgical resection after preoperative chemoradiation therapy (PCRT). A retrospective review of morphological characteristics was then performed to collect data regarding rectal examination findings. A scoring model to predict pCR was then created. To validate the ability of the scoring model to predict complete regression.
RESULTS: Seventy patients (12.9%) achieved a pCR. A multivariate analysis found that pre-CRT movability (P = 0.024), post-CRT size (P = 0.018), post-CRT morphology (P = 0.023), and gross change (P = 0.009) were independent predictors of pCR. The accuracy of the scoring model was 76.8% for predicting pCR with the threshold set at 4.5. In the validation set, the accuracy was 86.7%.
CONCLUSION: Gross changes and morphological findings are important predictors of pathological response. Accordingly, PCRT response is best predicted by a combination of clinical, laboratory and metabolic information.
Rectal cancer; Preoperative chemoradiotherapy; Downstaging; Tumor regression; Validation
The aim of this study was to assess the role of pre-operative chest computed tomography (CT) compared with abdominopelvic CT (AP-CT) and chest radiography (CXR) for detecting pulmonary metastasis in patients with primary colorectal cancer (CRC).
We retrospectively analyzed the data of 619 patients with primary CRC who simultaneously received a preoperative chest CT (chest CT group), AP-CT with hilar extension, and CXR (CXR group).
In the chest CT group, there were 297 (48.0%) normal, 198 (32%) benign, 96 (15.5%) indeterminate, 26 (4.2%) metastasis, and two lung cancers. Eighteen patients (2.9%) in the CXR group who had no pulmonary metastasis were diagnosed with pulmonary metastasis on a chest CT. The sensitivity and accuracy were 83.9% and 99.0% in the chest CT group, respectively, and 29.0% and 91.5% in the CXR group, respectively (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0003).
Chest CT appears to improve the accuracy of pre-operative staging in patients with CRC and is useful for the early detection of pulmonary metastasis as a baseline study for abnormal lung nodules.
Colorectal neoplasm; Metastases; Computed tomography; Chest X-ray
We undertook this study to analyze clinical features and surgical outcome of en bloc resections of the right side colon cancer directly invading duodenum and/or pancreatic head.
Materials and Methods
The records of all patients who underwent en bloc resection of duodenum and/or pancreas for right colon cancers were analyzed retrospectively. From September 1994 to September 2006, 1,016 patients underwent curative right hemicolectomy. Nine patients (0.9%) had en bloc resection of a right side colon cancer with duodenum or pancreatic head invasion.
The median operative time was 320 minutes (range, 200-420) and the median blood loss was 700 mL (range, 100-2,000). The mean size of tumor was 6.6 cm (range, 3.2-10.7). The mean preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was 10.6 ng/mL (range, 0.2-50.8). There was no 30 day perioperative mortality. The median disease-free survival was 23.5 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2-41.8] and the median overall survival was 28.1 months (95% CI 9.7-46.5).
In patients with locally advanced right side colon cancer that directly invades the duodenum or pancreas can be safely resected with curative potential with minimum morbidity and mortality. Long term disease free survival can occur in a significant number of patients undergoing curative en bloc resection in this particular subset of patients.
Colonic neoplasms; duodenectomy; pancreaticoduodenectomy; survival
Reduction of nasal bone fracture can be performed under general or local anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare general anesthesia (GA) and monitored anesthetic care (MAC) with dexmedetomidine based on intraoperative vital signs, comfort of patients, surgeons and nurses and the adverse effects after closed reduction of nasal bone fractures.
Sixty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II were divided into a GA group (n = 30) or MAC group (n = 30). Standard monitorings were applied. In the GA group, general anesthesia was carried out with propofol-sevoflurane-N2O. In the MAC group, dexmedetomidine and local anesthetics were administered for sedation and analgesia. Intraoperative vital signs, postoperative pain scores by visual analog scale and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were compared between the groups.
Intraoperatively, systolic blood pressures were significantly higher, and heart rates were lower in the MAC group compared to the GA group. There were no differences between the groups in the patient, nurse and surgeon's satisfaction, postoperative pain scores and incidence of PONV.
MAC with dexmedetomidine resulted in comparable satisfaction in the patients, nurses and surgeons compared to general anesthesia. The incidence of postoperative adverse effects and severity of postoperative pain were also similar between the two groups. Therefore, both anesthetic techniques can be used during the reduction of nasal bone fractures based on a patient%s preference and medical condition.
Dexmedetomidine; General anesthesia; Nasal bone fracture
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the liver is a very rare lesion that has radiologic similarity with malignant liver tumor. Differential diagnosis of IMT from a malignant lesion of the liver is very important because surgical resection is not mandatory for IMT. Lipiodol computed tomography is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Herein, we describe a case of IMT that had dense lipiodol uptake in the tumor and mimicked HCC. To our knowledge, previously, only one case of IMT with dense lipiodol retention has been reported.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor; Lipiodol CT; Liver
Early diagnostic work-up in patients with clinical symptoms of colorectal cancer (CRC) is important to achieve good treatment results. In this study, we investigated clinical symptoms when a diagnosis of CRC was made in patients who had a surgical resection, especially focusing on the relevance of constipation to CRC.
The clinical symptoms of 17,415 CRC patients who had curative surgery from January 2010 to December 2012 were collected from 24 training hospitals of surgery.
The number of symptomatic patients before the diagnosis of CRC was 11,085 (63.7%). Hematochezia or melena, abdominal pain, anemia, and constipation were more often found in female than male patients while bowel habit change was more common in male patients. Considering age, bowel habit change and hematochezia or melena were more common in patients younger than 60. Anemia and constipation, however, were more common in patients older than 60. According to the group classification based on age, patients older than 60 had experienced more constipation (P = 0.049). Moreover, patients with constipation tended to have a more advanced disease status (P < 0.001).
In patients who had surgery due to CRC, bleeding, abdominal pain, bowel habit change and constipation were the most frequent symptoms before diagnosis. Although whether or not constipation is a cause of CRC is unclear, it is one of the important clinical symptoms that presents in patients with CRC, and patients with a symptom of constipation tend to present with a more advanced CRC stage.
Colorectal neoplasms; Clinical manifestations; Constipation
Chronic inflammation induces cancer and cancer induces local tissue damage with systemic inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential relationship between the severity of inflammation and prognosis in cancer patients.
Materials and Methods
This study enrolled 220 patients from January 2002 to December 2006 who underwent gastric surgery. We evaluated the relationship between preoperative inflammatory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) and other clinicopathological factors. Survival outcomes were compared according to the extent of inflammation.
Significant elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate was related with old age, increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, decreased hemoglobin, increased carcinoembryonic antigen, increased tumor size and advanced TNM stage. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly correlated with old age, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and advanced TNM stage. In the univariate analysis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio had significantly poorer survival than those without elevation (all P<0.05). However, the multivariate analysis failed to prove erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as independent prognostic factors.
The elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were correlated with poor prognosis in the univariate analysis and there was a strong correlation between inflammatory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) and tumor progression. Thus, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are considered useful as follow-up factors.
Inflammation; Blood sedimentation; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; Stomach neoplasms
Adjuvant chemotherapy is currently recommended for Stage IIIA colon cancers. This study aimed to elucidate the oncologic outcomes of Stage IIIA colon cancer according to the chemotherapeutic regimen based on a retrospective review.
From 1995 to 2008, Stage IIIA colon cancer patients were identified from a prospectively maintained database at a single institution. Exclusion criteria were as follows: rectal cancer, another malignancy other than colon cancer, no adjuvant chemotherapy and unknown chemotherapeutic regimen. One hundred thirty-one patients were enrolled in the study, and the clinicopathologic and the oncologic characteristics were analyzed. The number of males was 72, and the number of females was 59; the mean age was 59.5 years (range, 25 to 76 years), and the median follow-up period was 33 months (range, 2 to 127 months).
Of the 131 patients, fluorouracil/leucovorin (FL)/capecitabine chemotherapy was performed in 109 patients, and FOLFOX chemotherapy was performed in 22 patients. When the patients who received FL/capecitabine chemotherapy and the patients who received FOLFOX chemotherapy were compared, there was no significant difference in the clinicopathologic factors between the two groups. The 5-year overall survival and the 5-year disease-free survival were 97.2% and 94.5% in the FL/capecitabine patient group and 95.5% and 90.9% in the FOLFOX patient group, respectively, and no statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups.
Stage IIIA colon cancer showed good oncologic outcomes, and the chemotherapeutic regimen did not seem to affect the oncologic outcome.
Stage IIIA; Colon neoplasm; Chemotherapeutic agent; Prognosis
We evaluated the risk factors for late complications and functional outcome after total proctocolectomy (TPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC).
Pre- and postoperative clinical status and follow-up data were obtained for 55 patients who underwent TPC with IPAA between 1999 and 2010. The median follow-up duration was 4.17 years. Late complications were defined as those that appeared at least one month after surgery. For a functional assessment, telephone interviews were conducted using the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Twenty-eight patients completed the interview.
Late complications were found in 20 cases (36.3%), comprising pouchitis (n = 8), bowel obstruction (n = 5), ileitis (n = 3), pouch associated fistula (n = 2), and intra-abdominal infection (n = 2). The preoperative serum albumin level for patients with late complications was lower than for patients without (2.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.9 ± 0.7, P = 0.04). Functional outcomes were not significantly associated with clinical characteristics, follow-up duration, operation indication, or late complications.
This study demonstrated that a low preoperative albumin level could be a risk factor for late complications of TPC with IPAA. Preoperative nutritional support, especially albumin, could reduce late complications. Functional outcomes are not related to late complications.
Ulcerative colitis; Proctocolectomy; Complications
Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignancy in Korea. In contrast, pericolic or mesenteric lymphoma is relatively rare. We experienced an extremely rare case of synchronous primary colon cancer in the ascending colon with T-cell lymphoma in the pericolic lymph node. A 79-year-old woman presented with complaints of epigastric and right lower abdominal pain combined with anorexia and nausea. Colonoscopic evaluation and biopsy were performed, and the diagnosis was cecal adenocarcinoma. She underwent right hemicolectomy with lymph node dissection. The pathology report revealed adenocarcinoma in cecum with metastasis to 1 regional lymph node out of 37 lymph nodes. In addition, there was malignant angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma in 1 pericolic lymph node. There was no evidence of lymphoma in ileum, cecum and ascending colon, so the possibility of early phase of lymphoma was suggested.
T-cell lymphoma; Colon cancer; Multiple primary
In this retrospective study, we measured the frequency of unexpected antibodies in the blood. Specific considerations for preoperative preparations were kept in mind for the patients undergoing surgery positive for these antibodies.
After reviewing the results of antibody screening tests lasted for 2 years, the frequency of unexpected antibodies was determined. Surgical patients who were positive for unexpected antibodies were selected and divided into two groups based on their potential need for an intra-operative transfusion (groups with high versus low possibility of transfusion). Blood for the high possibility group was prepared before surgery. For the low possibility group for which preoperative blood preparation was not performed, cases of this group were reviewed whether a blood preparation was delayed or not in case of transfusion.
Among a total 22,463 cases, 340 (1.52%) had positive results for antibody screening tests. Among the 243 patients who were positive for unexpected antibodies, Lewis, Rh, Xga, and mixed antibodies were found in 85, 25, five, and eight cases, respectively. Out of 243 patients, 117 patients, specificities of the unexpected antibodies were not determined and 125 (51.4%) had a history of pregnancy and delivery, and 49 (20.2%) had a history of transfusion. In the low probability group, transfusions were administered for nine patients; transfusion was delayed for two patients due to difficulties with obtaining matched blood.
Patients with unexpected blood antibodies may be at increased risk for delayed transfusion. For rapid transfusion, it might be helpful to keep a record about blood antibodies and introduce a notification system such as medical alert cards. Preoperative blood preparation is needed for timely intraoperative transfusion.
Antibodies; Blood transfusion; Complications
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are rare group of tumors with a wide spectrum of clinical behavior. However, there are no known clinically relevant biomarkers to predict metastasis.
To investigate differential gene expression signatures of metastatic vs non-metastatic NETs, we studied cell cycle regulatory genes in 19 metastatic and 22 non-metastatic colorectal NETs by PCR arrays. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR were performed to verify the results and another set of 38 GEP-NETs were further studied for validation.
We first delineated six candidate genes for metastasis including ATM, CCND2, RBL2, CDKN3, CCNB1, and GTSE1. ATM was negatively correlated with metastatic NETs (p<0.001) with more than 2-fold change compared to non-metastatic NETs. Overexpression of ATM protein by IHC was strongly correlated with high ATM mRNA levels and low Ki-67 labeling index. Patients with ATM-negativity by IHC showed significantly decreased overall survival than patients with ATM-positivity (median OS, metastatic vs non-metastatic NETs; 2.7 years vs not reached; p = 0.003) and 85.7% of metastatic NETs were ATM-negative. In another validation set of GEP-NETs, decreased mRNA of ATM gene was associated with metastasis and remained significant (p = 0.023).
ATM down-regulation was strongly associated with metastatic NETs when compared with non-metastatic NETs and ATM may be a potential predictive marker for metastasis as well as a novel target in metastatic GEP-NETs.
Tubular colonic duplication presenting in adults is rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 29-year-old lady presenting with a long history of chronic constipation, abdominal mass and repeated episodes of abdominal pain. The abdominal-pelvic computed tomography scan showed segmental bowel wall thickening thought to be small bowel, and dilatation with stasis of intraluminal content. The provisional diagnosis was small bowel duplication. She was scheduled for single port laparoscopic resection. However, a T-shaped tubular colonic duplication at sigmoid colon was found intraoperatively. Resection of the large T-shaped tubular colonic duplication containing multiple impacted large fecaloma and primary anastomosis was performed. There was no perioperative complication. We report, herein, the case of a T-shaped tubular colonic duplication at sigmoid colon in an adult who was successfully treated through mini-laparotomy assisted by single port laparoscopic surgery.
Colonic duplication; Congenital abnormalities; Adult; Laparoscopy
To evaluate the usefulness of separate vertical wirings for extra-articular fracture of distal pole of patella.
Materials and Methods
We have analyzed the clinical results of 18 cases that underwent separate vertical wirings for extra-articular fracture of distal pole of the patella from March 2005 to March 2010, by using the range of motion and Bostman score. Occurrence of complication was also evaluated. Additionally, by taking simple radiographs, the correlation between the postoperative degree of anterior transposition of bone fragment and the time of bone fusion, preoperative length of bone fragment, and occurrence of comminuted fracture were investigated.
It took an average of 13.8 weeks for radiological bone union after separate vertical wiring fixation. Flexion contracture was an average of 0.8 degrees and further flexion was an average of 127.6°, and Bostman score was an average of 27.5 points (excellent in 12 cases, and good in 6 cases). On the first postoperative year, average flexion contracture was 0.6 degrees and further flexion was an average of 136.3°, which exhibited increased joint motion and recovery to normal range of motion, and Bostman score was an average of 28.7 points (excellent in 16 cases, and good in 2 cases). There was no statistically significant difference between the preoperative bone fragment length and presence of comminution, and degree of anterior transposition of bone fragment after fracture union on simple radiograph (p=0.175, p=0.146).
We were able to obtain satisfactory clinical results, while preserving the bone fragment by separate vertical wiring fixation for extra-articular fracture of distal pole of patella. Moreover, the method is easy to perform, which is also considered as a useful surgical method for extra-articular fracture of distal pole of patella.
Patella; Extra-articular fracture of the distal pole; Separate vertical wirings
Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are almost always benign lesions. However, there are some case reports of malignant serous neoplasms of the pancreas. It is very difficult to distinguish malignant and benign tumors. Indeed, only clinicopathologic findings of locoregional invasion and metastasis represent a malignancy. We report a serous cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas that was initially considered to be colon cancer. Post-operatively, the tumor was confirmed to be a malignant serous cystic tumor of the pancreas. One year later, the patient remains disease-free.
Pancreas; Cystadenocarcinoma; Colon; Spleen
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-7 have been implicated in tumor growth and metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the expressions of MMP-2 and -7 in colorectal cancer and to evaluate their values as prognostic markers.
Immunohistochemical staining for MMP-2 and -7 was done in 144 resected colorectal cancer specimens. Clinicopathological data and survival results were compared with regard to the expression results.
The expression rates of MMP-2 in tumor cells in the tumor center and the tumor border were 16.7% and 38.9%, respectively. That of MMP-2 in stromal cells was 27.8%. MMP-7 immunoreactivities of tumor cells in the tumor center and the tumor border were 6.9% and 23.6%. The expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-7 were correlated. MMP-2 expression in stromal cells was more increased in the distal part of the colorectum: 8.8% in right colon cancer, 29.5% in left colon cancer and 36.4% in rectal cancer. MMP-2 expression of tumor cells in the tumor border was correlated with T-stage. MMP-7 expression of tumor cells in the tumor border was increased in case of infiltrative cancer compared with fungating tumor. The expression patterns of MMP-2 and -7 were not correlated with other clinicopathological factors, including tumor markers, node metastasis, distant metastasis, lymphatic invasion, tumor differentiation, and recurrence. No significant associations between the overall and disease-free survival rates and the MMP-2 and -7 expression patterns were noted.
The high expression rates of MMP-2 and -7 in tumor borders suggest that MMP-2 and -7 have some role in tumor invasion, but in this study, MMP-2 and -7 did not appear to be significant predictors of prognosis in colorectal cancer.
Matrix metalloproteinases; Colorectal neoplasms; Prognosis; Immunohistochemistry
α-Lipoic acid (1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid; lipoic acid) is an endogenous compound used to treat pain disorders in humans, but its mechanisms of analgesic action are not well understood. Here we show that lipoic acid selectively inhibited native CaV3.2 T-type calcium currents (T-currents) and diminished T-channel-dependent cellular excitability in acutely isolated rat sensory neurons. Lipoic acid locally injected into peripheral receptive fields of pain-sensing sensory neurons (nociceptors) in vivo decreased sensitivity to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli in wild-type but not CaV3.2 knockout mice. Ensuing molecular studies demonstrated that lipoic acid inhibited recombinant CaV3.2 channels heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells by oxidating specific thiol residues on the cytoplasmic face of the channel. This study provides the first mechanistic demonstration of a nociceptive ion channel modulation that may contribute to the documented analgesic properties of lipoic acid in vivo.
calcium (Ca2+); diabetes; low-threshold calcium channel; oxidation; neuropathic pain; nociception
An anorectal melanoma (AM) is a very rare tumor. However, sufficient data supporting effective surgical options for the disease do not exist. This retrospective review aimed to analyze treatment outcomes for an AM.
From June 1999 to December 2008, we retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected consecutive series of 19 patients who had undergone a surgical resection for an AM at a single institute. Surgical method and clinicopathological factors were analyzed.
The median age was 61.4 years (range, 46 to79 years). Main symptoms were an anal mass, hematochezia, perianal pain, tenesmus, fecal incontinence, and bowel habit change. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 7.8 months (range, 1 to 36 months). S-100 and HMB-45 were positive in all patients, even in non-melanin pigmentation. There were 12 abdominoperineal resections (APRs) and 7 wide local excisions (WEs). The APR showed longer overall survival when compared with the WE (64.1 months vs. 10.9 months, P < 0.001). No patients who underwent a WE survived more than 13 months.
A high index of suspicion is necessary to establish the diagnosis for an AM in patients with anal symptoms, and S-100 and HMB-45 can be useful markers for an AM. Even with the small number of cases and the short follow-up, our data suggest that an APR for an AM may provide longer survival than a WE.
Anorectal melanoma; Wide excision; Abdominoperineal resection; Immunohistochemical markers
Earlier, we showed that streptozocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes in rats leads to the development of painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN) manifested as thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia accompanied by significant enhancement of T-type calcium currents (T-currents) and cellular excitability in medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Here, we studied the in-vivo and in-vitro effects of gene-silencing therapy specific for the Cav3.2 isoform of T-channels, on thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity, and T-current expression in small and medium-size DRG neurons of STZ-treated rats. We found that silencing of the T-channel Cav3.2 isoform using antisense oligonucleotides, had a profound and selective anti-hyperalgesic effect in diabetic rats and is accompanied by significant down-regulation of T-currents in DRG neurons. Anti-hyperalgesic effects of CaV3.2 antisense oligonucleotides in diabetic rats were similar in models of rapid and slow onset of hyperglycemia following intravenous and intraperitoneal injections of STZ, respectively. Furthermore, treatments of diabetic rats with daily insulin injections reversed T-current alterations in DRG neurons in parallel with reversal of thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in-vivo. This confirms that CaV3.2 T-channels, important signal amplifiers in peripheral sensory neurons, may contribute to the cellular hyperexcitability that ultimately leads to the development of painful PDN.
Oral capecitabine has been used as adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer patients since the 1990s. Patient-initiated cessation or reduced use of capecitabine occurs widely for various reasons, yet the consequences of these actions are unclear. The present study sought to clarify treatment outcomes in such patients.
The study included 173 patients who had been diagnosed with stage II or III colon cancer according to the pathologic report after radical surgery at Samsung Medical Center from May 2005 to June 2007 and who had received capecitabine as adjuvant therapy. The patients were divided into groups according to whether the dose was reduced (I, dose maintenance; II, dose reduction) or stopped (A, cycle completion; B, cycle cessation). Recurrence and disease-free survival rates between the two groups each were analyzed.
Of the 173 patients, 128 (74.6%) experienced complications, most frequently hand-foot syndrome (n = 114). Reduction (n = 35) or cessation (n = 18) of medication was most commonly due to complications. Concerning reduced dosage, both groups displayed no statistically significant differences in recurrence rate and 3-year disease-free survival rate. Concerning discontinued medication use, the cycle completion group showed an improved recurrence rate (P = 0.048) and 3-year disease-free survival rate (P = 0.028).
The results demonstrate that maintaining compliance with capecitabine as an adjuvant treatment for colon cancer to preventing complications positively affects patient prognosis.
Colon cancer; Capecitabine; Dose; Cycle; Disease-free survival
Physicians and oncology nurses must continue to update their knowledge on treatment and treatment-related side effects, while searching for effective methods to prevent or manage side effects. The objective of our study was to describe the incidence and response to treatment of the hand-foot syndrome (HFS) and the compliance with treatment of patients with stage IIB, IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC colon cancer that were treated with capecitabine alone as adjuvant therapy.
Materials and Methods
Between September 2005 and September 2006, 84 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.
The treatment compliance rate was 90.5% (76 out of the 84 patients). The HFS developed in 65 patients (77.4%). Thirty-three patients (50.7%) had grade 1 HFS, 22 patients (33.8%) had grade 2 HFS and 10 patients (15.5%) had grade 3 HFS, as their most severe episode. For Grade 1 patients, the dose was maintained, and skin barrier cream and moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO) were applied. For Grade 2 patients, either the dose was maintained or 25% of the dose was reduced; MEBO and supportive care were provided. For Grade 3 patients, one cycle of chemotherapy was interrupted followed by dose adjustment; MEBO and supportive care were provided.
HFS is manageable if both patients and oncology care teams are educated about HFS associated with capecitabine. The HFS is treated by patient education, preventive management, ointment application, conservative management, dose reduction, and interruption of chemotherapy administration.
Colon neoplasm; capecitabine; compliance; side effects; hand erythema; foot erythema