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1.  Rapidly aggravated skeletal muscle metastases from an intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma 
We present a rare case of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) with multiple skeletal muscle metastases. The patient was a 55-year-old Asian woman presenting with abdominal pain; abdominal and pelvic computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed an unresectable ICC with hepatic metastasis and metastastatic lymphadenopathy in the porto-caval area. After 3 mo of treatment with palliative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar spine detected right psoas muscle and paraspinous muscle metastases. We performed an ultrasound-guided percutaneous fine-needle biopsy that confirmed a similar pattern of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient treated with palliative chemotherapy and achieved 10 mo of survival. Here we report the first case quickly spread to multiple sites of muscle even though the three-month treatment, compare to the other cases reported muscle metastases at diagnosis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i6.1989
PMCID: PMC4323479
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; Skeletal muscle metastasis; Adenocarcinoma
2.  Retreatment with peginterferon and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C 
The development of boceprevir and telaprevir was a major step forward in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. In addition, the treatment of these infections has been recently revolutionized by the approval of sofosbuvir and simeprevir. However, there are several challenges associated with the application of novel drugs, such as new and more frequent adverse events, new drug interactions, and excessively high treatment costs. An additional concern is viral resistance. These considerations highlight the fact that direct-acting antiviral agents are not a panacea and may not be the best option for all patients who are in need of therapy. This retrospective study revealed that the sustained virologic response was not significantly reduced following peginterferon and ribavirin retreatment compared with the new therapy. We suggest that patients who experience relapse shortly after completing treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin have a reasonable chance of achieving a sustained virologic response when retreated with these drugs alone.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i6.1994
PMCID: PMC4323480
Chronic hepatitis C; Direct-acting antiviral agents; Peginterferon; Ribavirin; Retreatment
3.  Simultaneous intrahepatic and subgaleal hemorrhage in antiphospholipid syndrome following anticoagulation therapy 
Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant. Interindividual differences in drug response, a narrow therapeutic range and the risk of bleeding render warfarin difficult to use clinically. An 18-year-old woman with antiphospholipid syndrome received long-term warfarin therapy for a recurrent deep vein thrombosis. Six years later, she developed right flank pain. We diagnosed intrahepatic and subgaleal hemorrhages secondary to anticoagulation therapy. After stopping oral anticoagulation, a follow-up computed tomography showed improvement in the hemorrhage. After restarting warfarin because of a recurrent thrombosis, the intrahepatic hemorrhage recurred. We decided to start clopidogrel and hydroxychloroquine instead of warfarin. The patient has not developed further recurrent thrombotic or bleeding episodes. Intrahepatic hemorrhage is a very rare complication of warfarin, and our patient experienced intrahepatic and subgaleal hemorrhage although she did not have any risk factors for bleeding or instability of the international normalized ratio control.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i38.6494
PMCID: PMC3798414  PMID: 24151371
Warfarin; Liver; Subgaleal; Hemorrhage; Antiphospholipid syndrome
4.  Gastric ischemia after epinephrine injection in a patient with liver cirrhosis 
Endoscopic epinephrine injection is relatively easy, quick and inexpensive. Furthermore, it has a low rate of complications, and it is widely used for the management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. There have been several case reports of gastric ischemia after endoscopic injection therapy. Inadvertent intra-arterial injection may result in either spasm or thrombosis, leading to subsequent tissue ischemia or necrosis, although the stomach has a rich vascular supply and the vascular reserve of the intramural anastomosis. In addition to endoscopic injection therapy, smoking, hypertension and atherosclerosis are risk factors of gastric ischemia. We report a case of gastric ischemia after submucosal epinephrine injection in a 51-year-old woman with hypertension and liver cirrhosis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i3.411
PMCID: PMC3554828  PMID: 23372366
Hematemesis; Epinephrine; Gastric ischemia; Liver cirrhosis; Hypertension
5.  Efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma 
AIM: To investigate the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) using floxuridine (FUDR) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) confined to the liver.
METHODS: Thirty-four patients who had advanced HCC with unresectability or unsuccessful previous therapy in the absence of extrahepatic metastasis were treated with intra-arterial FUDR chemotherapy at our hospital between March 2005 and May 2008. Among the 34 patients, 9 patients were classified as Child class C, and 18 patients had portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). One course of chemotherapy consisted of continuous infusion of FUDR (0.3 mg/kg during day 1-14) and dexamethasone (10 mg on day 1, 4, 7 and 11), and this treatment was repeated every 28 d.
RESULTS: Two patients (5.9%) displayed a complete response, and 12 patients (35.3%) had a partial response. The tumor control rate was 61.8%. The median overall survival times were 15.3 mo, 12.4 mo and 4.3 mo for the patients who were classified as Child class A, Child class B and Child class C, respectively (P = 0.0392). The progression-free survival was 12.9 mo, 7.7 mo and 2.6 mo for the patients who were classified as Child class A, Child class B and Child class C, respectively (P = 0.0443). The cumulative survival differed significantly according to the Child-Pugh classification and the presence of PVTT. In addition to hepatic reserve capacity and PVTT, the extent of HCC was an independent factor in determining a poor prognosis. The most common adverse reactions to HAIC were mucositis, diarrhea and peptic ulcer disease, but most of these complications were improved by medical treatment and/or a delay of HAIC.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that intra-arterial FUDR chemotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for advanced HCC that is recalcitrant to other therapeutic modalities, even in patients with advanced cirrhosis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i26.3426
PMCID: PMC3396196  PMID: 22807613
Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy; Floxuridine; Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma; Child-Pugh classification; Portal vein tumor thrombus
6.  Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for hepatocellular carcinoma-associated radiofrequency ablation 
AIM: To evaluate the potential usefulness of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) images for evaluation of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC)-associated radiofrequency ablation.
METHODS: From January 2010 to June 2010, a total of 38 patients with HCC including recurred HCCs after RFA underwent ARFI elastography. The brightness of tumor was checked and the shear wave velocity was measured for the quantification of stiffness. According to the brightness, the tumors were classified as brighter, same color and darker compared with adjacent parenchyma. Using the same methods, 8 patients with recurred HCCs after RFA state were evaluated about the brightness compared with adjacent RFA ablation area.
RESULTS: In the 38 patients with HCCs, 20 (52.6%) were brighter than surrounding cirrhotic parenchyma. Another 13 (34.2%) were darker. The others (5 cases, 13.2%) were seen as the same color as the adjacent liver parenchyma. Post-RFA lesions were darker than previous tumor and surrounding parenchyma in all 38 cases. However, recurred HCCs were brighter than the treated site in all 8 cases.
CONCLUSION: Using ARFI technique is helpful for differential diagnosis in order to detect recurred HCCs more easily in patients with confusing status.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i14.1874
PMCID: PMC3080723  PMID: 21528062
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Elastography; Radiofrequency ablation
7.  Delayed Viral Clearance of Chronic Hepatitis C in Patients after Treatment Failure 
Gut and Liver  2011;5(1):110-114.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection usually progresses to chronic hepatitis, with rare cases of spontaneous viral eradication. We present herein four cases involving patients that were initially declared to have failed to respond to treatments, based on the presence of HCV RNA that was still detectable after completion of the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C with genotype 2. However, the HCV RNA became undetectable, with a delayed response, after discontinuation of therapy. Two of the four patients were diagnosed as treatment failures after extended treatment, and the other two received no further treatment after the standard treatment. All four patients maintained a sustained virological response during the periodic follow-up after delayed viral clearance.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2011.5.1.110
PMCID: PMC3065086  PMID: 21461084
Delayed viral clearance; Chronic hepatitis C; Sustained virological response
8.  Splenic infarction associated with sorafenib use in a hepatocellular carcinoma patient 
Sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to improve survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As the clinical use of sorafenib increases, many adverse effects have been reported, such as hand-foot skin reaction, diarrhea, anorexia, asthenia, alopecia, weight loss, hypertension and arterial thromboembolism. However, there are no prior reports of splenic infarction as an adverse effect of sorafenib. Here, a case of splenic infarction in a patient with HCC who was treated with sorafenib is reported. The patient had no other predisposing factors to explain the splenic infarction except for the administration of sorafenib. The splenic infarction improved after sorafenib was discontinued; however, the HCC progressed.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i2.267
PMCID: PMC3020384  PMID: 21246003
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Sorafenib; Tyrosine kinase inhibitor; Adverse effects; Splenic infarction
9.  A case of focal nodular hyperplasia with growth progression during pregnancy 
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology  2014;20(4):392-397.
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign solid tumor of the liver and is usually found in young females. In FNH, spontaneous bleeding or rupture rarely occurs and malignant transformation is unlikely. The etiology of FNH is unclear, but because of female predominance and young age at onset, it seems that female hormone has an important role for the development of FNH. Although the development and the complications of hepatocellular adenomas have been related to the use of oral contraceptives and pregnancy, the influence of oral contraceptives and pregnancy on the growth and complications of FNH is controversial. Most FNH are stable in size and rarely complicated during pregnancy. We describe here a case of FNH with growth progression during pregnancy in a 27-year-old female. Her course of pregnancy and delivery was uneventful. Two months after delivery, the size of FNH was decreased.
doi:10.3350/cmh.2014.20.4.392
PMCID: PMC4278071  PMID: 25548746
Focal nodular hyperplasia; Pregnancy; Hepatic adenoma
10.  Management of giant hepatic cysts in the laparoscopic era 
Purpose
We sought to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts and surgical success, focusing on cyst recurrence.
Methods
From February 2004 to August 2011, 37 consecutive patients with symptomatic hepatic cysts were evaluated and treated at Dong-A University Hospital. Indications were simple cysts (n = 20), multiple cysts (n = 6), polycystic disease (n = 2), and cystadenoma (n = 9).
Results
The median patient age was 64 years, with a mean lesion diameter of 11.4 cm. The coincidence between preoperative imaging and final pathologic diagnosis was 54% and half (n = 19) of the cysts were located in segments VII and VIII. Twenty-two patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification I and II, and nine had ASA classification III. Surgical treatment of hepatic cysts were open liver resection (n = 3), laparoscopic deroofing (n = 24), laparoscopic cyst excision (n = 4), laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (n = 2), hand assisted laparoscopic procedure (n = 2), and single port laparoscopic deroofing (n = 2). The mean fellow-up was 21 months, and six patients (16%) experienced radiographic-apparent recurrence. Reoperation due to recurrence was performed in two patients. Among the factors predicting recurrence, multivariate analysis revealed that interventional radiological procedures and pathologic diagnosis were statistically significant.
Conclusion
Laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts is a simple and effective method to relieve symptoms with minimal surgical trauma. Moreover, the recurrence is dependent on the type of pathology involved, and the sclerotherapy undertaken.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.116
PMCID: PMC3764362  PMID: 24020020
Liver; Hepatic cyst; Laparoscopy
11.  A Case of Hepatic Angiomyolipoma Which Was Misdiagnosed as Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Hepatitis B Carrier 
Case Reports in Hepatology  2012;2012:606108.
We report a rare case of resected hepatic AML, which was misdiagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma in a chronic hepatitis B carrier. A 45-year-old woman who was a carrier of hepatitis B virus infection presented with a hepatic tumor. Her serum alpha-fetoprotein level was normal. Ultrasonography revealed a round and well-circumscribed echogenic hepatic tumor measuring 2.5 cm in the segment VI. On contrast-enhanced computed tomography, a hypervascular tumor was observed in the arterial phase and washing-out of the contrast medium in the portal phase and delayed phase. On MR T1-weighted in-phase images, the mass showed low signal intensity, and on out-of-phase images, the mass showed signal drop and dark signal intensity. On MR T2-weighted images, the mass showed high signal intensity. The mass demonstrated high signal intensity on arterial phase after contrast injection, suggestive of hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient underwent hepatic wedge resection and histopathological diagnosis was a hepatic angiomyolipoma.
doi:10.1155/2012/606108
PMCID: PMC4208446  PMID: 25374707
12.  Prognostic factors for gallbladder cancer in the laparoscopy era 
Purpose
Hepatobiliary surgery has changed dramatically in recent decades with the advent of laparoscopic techniques. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare survival rates according to stages, adjusting for important prognostic factors.
Methods
A retrospective study of a 17-year period from January 1994 to April 2011 was carried out. The cases studied were divided into two time period cohorts, those treated in the first 9-years (n = 109) and those treated in the last 7-years (n = 109).
Results
An operation with curative intent was performed on 218 patients. The 5-year survival rates according to the depth of invasion were 86% (T1), 56% (T2), 45% (T3), and 5% (T4). The number of cases of incidental gallbladder cancer found during 3,919 laparoscopic cholecystectomies was 96 (2.4%). Incidental gallbladder cancer revealed a better survival rate (P = 0.003). Iatrogenic bile spillage was found in 20 perforations of the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomies, 16 preoperative percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainages and 16 percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainages; only percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage patients showed a significantly lower survival rate than patients without iatrogenic bile spillage (P < 0.034). Chemoradiation appeared to improve overall survival (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis also revealed that time period, type of surgery, surgical margin, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node involvement, and chemoradiation therapy had significant effects.
Conclusion
This study found that the prognosis of gallbladder cancer is still determined by the stage at presentation due to the aggressive biology of this tumor. Early diagnosis, radical resection and appropriate adjuvant therapy can increase overall survival.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.4.227
PMCID: PMC3467389  PMID: 23091795
Gallbladder cancer; Laparoscopy; Prognosis
13.  Four Unrecorded Wood Decay Fungi from Seoul in Korea 
Mycobiology  2012;40(3):195-201.
During the investigation of Korean indigenous fungi from Seoul, three genera-Fuscoporia, Porostereum, and Trametopsis, and four species-Fuscoporia senex, Phlebia acerina, Porostereum spadiceum, and Trametopsis cervina were found. Their morphological characteristics were examined and their identification was confirmed by molecular analysis based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA region sequences. These fungi are new to Korea and registered here with descriptions.
doi:10.5941/MYCO.2012.40.3.195
PMCID: PMC3483397  PMID: 23115513
Basidiomycete; Seoul; Taxonomy; Wood decay fungi
14.  Lessons learned from 100 initial cases of laparoscopic liver surgery 
Purpose
Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is now widely accepted and is being increasingly performed. The present study describes our experience with LLR at a single center over an eight-year period.
Methods
This retrospective study enrolled 100 patients between October 2002 and February 2010. Forty-six benign lesions and 54 malignant lesions were included. The LLR performed included 58 pure laparoscopy procedures, 18 hand-assisted laparoscopy procedures and 24 hybrid technique procedures.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 57 years; among these patients, 31 were over 65 years of age. The mean operation time was 220 minutes. The overall morbidity was 11% and the mortality was zero. Among the 20 patients with simple hepatic cysts, 50% unexpectedly recurred. Among the 41 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 21 patients (51%) underwent preoperative radiofrequency ablation therapy or transarterial chemoembolization. During parenchymal-transection, 11 received blood transfusion. The width of the resection margins was under 0.5 cm in 11 cases (27%); 0.5 to 1 cm in 22 cases (54%) and over 1 cm in eight cases (12%). There was no port site seeding, but argon beam coagulation-induced tumor dissemination was observed in two cases. The overall two-year survival rate was 75%.
Conclusion
This study suggests that the applications for LLR can be gradually expanded when assuring that the safety and curability of LLR are equivalent to that of open liver resection.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.5.334
PMCID: PMC3204701  PMID: 22066057
Laparoscopic liver resection; Hepatic cyst; Hapatocellular carcinoma; Resection margin
15.  Discrete Hypoechoic Ring in Hepatic Cavernous Hemangioma Resembling a Malignant Tumor: Correlation with Histologic Features 
Gut and Liver  2009;3(3):226-230.
Differential diagnoses of hepatic nodules include hepatocellular carcinoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatic adenoma, regenerative nodule, focal fatty changes, and hemangioma. However, differentiation of these nodules can often be difficult. Hemangiomas are frequently encountered during ultrasonogram incidentally and can be diagnosed easily because they have an almost distinctive sonographic appearance: a homogeneous hyperechogenicity and discrete posterior acoustic enhancement. They also sometimes have atypical findings, for example an internal echogenicity including hypoechogenicity, heterogeneous echogenicity, hyperechoic rim, central hypoechogenicity due to various changes (e.g., internal hemorrhage, necrosis, thrombosis, myxomatous change, and fibrosis), and (rarely) calcification. We report herein the case of an atypical hemangioma presenting with a hypoechoic peripheral ring, mimicking a hepatic malignancy. To our knowledge, there have been no other reports demonstrating a cavernous hemangioma with a discrete hypoechoic ring and without a pseudocapsule.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2009.3.3.226
PMCID: PMC2852708  PMID: 20431752
Hemangioma; Hypoechoic ring; Hepatic malignancy; Ultrasonography
16.  Gene transfer using liposome-complexed adenovirus seems to overcome limitations due to coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor-deficiency of cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2008;40(4):427-434.
Use of adenoviruses as vehicle for gene therapy requires that target cells express appropriate receptors such as coxsakievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). We show here that CAR-deficiency in cancer cells, that limits adenoviral gene delivery, can be overcome by using adenovirus complexed with the liposome, Ad-PEGPE [1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(poly-ethylene glycol)-2000]. We first confirmed that CT-26 mouse colon cancer cells are deficient in CAR by RT-PCR, and then showed that CT-26 cells infected with Ad-GFP/PEGPE exhibited highly enhanced expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP), compared with those infected with Ad-GFP. GFP expression depends on the dose of liposome and adenovirus. Luciferase expression in livers treated with Ad-luc/PEGPE was about 1,000-fold less than those infected with Ad-luc. In a liver metastasis mouse tumor model developed by intrasplenic injection of CT-26 cells, luciferase expression following i.v. injection of Ad-luc/PEGPE was significantly higher in tumors than in adjacent non-neoplastic liver. Following systemic administration of Ad-GFP/PEGPE, GFP expression increased in tumors more than in adjacent liver while the reverse was true following administration of Ad-GFP. In the latter case, GFP expression was higher in liver than in tumors. This study demonstrates that systemic delivery of PEGPE-adenovirus complex is an effective tool of adenoviral delivery as it overcomes limitation due to CAR deficiency of target cells while reducing hepatic uptake and enhancing adenoviral gene expression in tumors.
doi:10.3858/emm.2008.40.4.427
PMCID: PMC2679272  PMID: 18779655
adenovirus; CXADR protein, human; gene therapy; gene transfer techniques; liposomes; models, animal
17.  Thymosin Alpha-1 in Combination with Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Who have Failed to Prior Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Treatment 
Gut and Liver  2007;1(1):87-89.
Combination therapy with inteferon-alpha and ribavirin is an approved therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, even with the use of pegylated interferon, response rates are still poor in many difficult-to-treat groups, especially with genotype 1 and high viral loads. Retreatment of these patients remains challenging. Newer combinations are being investigated to optimize chances of attaining a sustained response in these groups. Thymosin alpha 1 is a polypeptide with immunomodulatory properties that has been suggested to increase response rates in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Herein, we describe two cases of retreatment patients with chronic hepatitis C who have failed prior pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy. They received triple combination therapies of thymosin alpha 1, pegylated interferon and ribavirin and achieved sustained virological responses. These cases support that thymosin-alpha 1 may increase the efficacy of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in the treatment of non-responders to previous combination therapy.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2007.1.1.87
PMCID: PMC2871658  PMID: 20485665
Chronic hepatitis C; Nonrespondents; Peginterferon alpha-2a; Ribavirin; Thymosin alpha 1 Introduction

Results 1-17 (17)