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1.  YouTube as a source of patient information on gallstone disease 
AIM: To investigate the quality of YouTube videos on gallstone disease and to assess viewer response according to quality.
METHODS: A YouTube search was performed on September 18, 2013, using the keywords ‘‘gallbladder disease’’, ‘‘gallstone disease’’, and ‘‘gallstone treatment’’. Three researchers assessed the source, length, number of views, number of likes, and days since upload. The upload source was categorised as physician or hospital (PH), medical website or TV channel, commercial website (CW), or civilian. A usefulness score was devised to assess video quality and to categorise the videos into ‘‘very useful’’, ‘‘useful’’, ‘‘slightly useful’’, or ‘‘not useful’’. Videos with misleading content were categorised as ‘‘misleading’’.
RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-one videos were analysed. Seventy-four videos (56.5%) were misleading, 36 (27.5%) were slightly useful, 15 (11.5%) were useful, three (2.3%) were very useful, and three (2.3%) were not useful. The number of mean likes (1.3 ± 1.5 vs 17.2 ± 38.0, P = 0.007) and number of views (756.3 ± 701.0 vs 8910.7 ± 17094.7, P = 0.001) were both significantly lower in the very useful group compared with the misleading group. All three very useful videos were PH videos. Among the 74 misleading videos, 64 (86.5%) were uploaded by a CW. There was no correlation between usefulness and the number of views, the number of likes, or the length. The “gallstone flush” was the method advocated most frequently by misleading videos (25.7%).
CONCLUSION: More than half of the YouTube videos on gallstone disease are misleading. Credible videos uploaded by medical professionals and filtering by the staff of YouTube appear to be necessary.
PMCID: PMC3983464  PMID: 24744597
YouTube; Gallstone disease; Gallstone; Gallbladder; Cholecystitis
2.  Clinical significance of single-port laparoscopic splenectomy: comparison of single-port and multiport laparoscopic procedure 
Single-port laparoscopic splenectomy has been performed sporadically. The aim of this study is to assess our experience with single-port laparoscopic splenectomy compared to conventional multiport laparoscopic surgery for the usual treatment modality for various kinds of splenic disease.
Between October 2008 to February 2014, 29 patients underwent single-port laparoscopic splenectomy and 32 patients received multiport laparoscopic splenectomy. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes of single-port group and multiport group.
The body mass index and disease profiles of the both groups were similar. The operative times of single-port and multiport group were 113.6 ± 39.9 and 95.9 ± 38.9 minutes, respectively (P = 0.946). The operative blood loss of the two groups were 295.8 ± 301.3 and 322.5 ± 254.5 mL (P = 0.582). Postoperative retrieved splenic weight of the single-port and multiport groups were 283.9 ± 300.7 and 362.3 ± 471.8 g, respectively (P = 0.261). One single-port partial splenectomy and 6 multiport partial splenectomies were performed in this study. There was one intraoperative gastric wall injury. It occurred in single-port group, which was successfully managed during the operation. Each case was converted to laparotomy in both groups due to bleeding. There was one mortality case in the multiport laparoscopic splenectomy group, which was not related to the splenectomy. Mean hospital stay of the single-port and multiport group was 5.8 ± 2.5 and 7.3 ± 5.2 days respectively (P = 0.140).
Single-port laparoscopic splenectomy seems to be a feasible approach for various kinds of splenic disease compared to multiport laparoscopic surgery.
PMCID: PMC4518030
Splenectomy; Laparoscopy
3.  YouTube as a potential training method for laparoscopic cholecystectomy 
The purpose of this study was to analyze the educational quality of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) videos accessible on YouTube, one of the most important sources of internet-based medical information.
The keyword 'laparoscopic cholecystectomy' was used to search on YouTube and the first 100 videos were analyzed. Among them, 27 videos were excluded and 73 videos were included in the study. An arbitrary score system for video quality, devised from existing LC guidelines, were used to evaluate the quality of the videos. Video demographics were analyzed by the quality and source of the video. Correlation analysis was performed.
When analyzed by video quality, 11 (15.1%) were evaluated as 'good', 40 (54.8%) were 'moderate', and 22 (30.1%) were 'poor', and there were no differences in length, views per day, or number of likes, dislikes, and comments. When analyzed by source, 27 (37.0%) were uploaded by primary centers, 20 (27.4%) by secondary centers, 15 (20.5%) by tertiary centers, 5 (6.8%) by academic institutions, and 6 (8.2%) by commercial institutions. The mean score of the tertiary center group (6.0 ± 2.0) was significantly higher than the secondary center group (3.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.001). The video score had no correlation with views per day or number of likes.
Many LC videos are accessible on YouTube with varying quality. Videos uploaded by tertiary centers showed the highest educational value. This discrepancy in video quality was not recognized by viewers. More videos with higher quality need to be uploaded, and an active filtering process is necessary.
PMCID: PMC4518036
YouTube; Gallbladder; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
4.  A novel pancreaticogastrostomy method using only two transpancreatic sutures: early postoperative surgical results compared with conventional pancreaticojejunostomy 
To evaluate the surgical outcomes of pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) using two transpancreatic sutures with a buttress method through an anterior gastrostomy (PGt), and compare these results with our previous experience with pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) including the dunking and duct to mucosa methods after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).
In this study, 171 patients who had undergone PD between January 2005 and April 2013 were classified into three groups according to the method of the pancreaticoenteric anastomosis: dunking PJ (PJu group; n = 67, 39.1%), duct to mucosa PJ (PJm group; n = 41, 23.9%), and PGt (PGt group; n = 63, 36.8%). We retrospectively analyzed patient characteristics, perioperative outcomes, and surgical results.
Both groups had comparable demographics and pathology, and there were no significant differences in operative time, estimated blood loss, or postoperative hospital stay. Within the two groups, morbidities occurred in 49 cases (10.7%), and were not significantly different between the two groups, excepting postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). The PGt group had a lower rate of POPF (18/63, 28.6%) than the PJu and PJm groups (21/67, 31.3% and 19/41, 46.3%; P = 0.048), especially in terms of grades B and C POPF (4/63 [6.3%] in the PGt group vs. 7/67 [10.4%] in the PJu group and 9/41 [22.0%] in the PJm group, P = 0.049).
The PGt method showed feasible outcomes for POPF and had advantages over dunking PJ and duct to mucosa PJ with respect to immediate postoperative results. PGt may be a promising technique for pancreaticoenteric anastomosis after PD.
PMCID: PMC4443260  PMID: 26029674
Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Pancreaticogastrostomy; Pancreaticojejunostomy
5.  In vivo porcine training model for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy 
The purpose of this study was to develop a porcine training model for laparoscopic choledochojejunostomy (CJ) that can act as a bridge between simulation models and actual surgery for novice surgeons. The feasibility of this model was evaluated.
Laparoscopic CJ using intracorporeal sutures was performed on ten animals by a surgical fellow with no experience in human laparoscopic CJ. A single layer of running sutures was placed in the posterior and anterior layers. Jejunojejunostomy was performed using a linear stapler, and the jejunal opening was closed using absorbable unidirectional sutures (V-Loc 180).
The average operation time was 131.3 ± 36.4 minutes, and the CJ time was 57.5 ± 18.4 minutes. Both the operation time and CJ time showed a steady decrease with an increasing number of cases. The average diameter of the CBD was 6.4 ± 0.8 mm. Of a total of ten animals, eight were sacrificed after the procedure. In two animals, a survival model was evaluated. Both pigs recovered completely and survived for two weeks, after which both animals were sacrificed. None of the animals exhibited any signs of bile leakage or anastomosis site stricture.
The porcine training model introduced in this paper is an adequate model for practicing laparoscopic CJ. Human tissue simulation is excellent.
PMCID: PMC4443261  PMID: 26029675
Training model; Choledochojejunostomy; Laparoscopy
6.  Laparoscopic CBD exploration using a V-shaped choledochotomy 
BMC Surgery  2015;15:62.
Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) is a treatment modality for choledocholithiasis. The advantages of this technique are that it is less invasive than conventional open surgery and it permits single-stage management; however, other technical difficulties limit its use. The aim of this article is to introduce our novel technique for LCBDE, which may overcome some of the limitations of conventional LCBDE.
Since December 2013, ten patients have undergone LCBDE using a V-shaped choledochotomy (V-CBD). After the confluence of the cystic duct and the CBD were exposed, a V-shaped incision was made along the medial wall of the cystic duct and the lateral wall of the common hepatic duct, which comprise two sides of Calot’s triangle. The choledochoscope was inserted into the lumen of the CBD through a V-shaped incision, and all CBD stones were retrieved using a basket or a Fogarty balloon catheter or were irrigated with saline. After CBD clearance was confirmed using the choledochoscope, the choledochotomy was closed with the bard absorbable suture material known as V-loc.
The diameter of the CBD ranged from 8 to 30 mm, and the mean size of the stones was 11.6 ± 8.4 mm. The mean operative time was 97.8 ± 30.3 min, and the mean length of the postoperative hospital stay was 6.0 ± 4.6 days. All patients recovered without any postoperative complications, except for one patient who developed postoperative pancreatitis. No conversions to laparotomy were observed, and there were no recurrent stones and no need of T-tube insertion.
This report suggests that our novel technique, known as V-CBD, may represent a feasible and straightforward procedure for treating choledocholithiasis, especially when the CBD is not dilated.
PMCID: PMC4432815  PMID: 25964116
Choledocholithiasis; Cholelithiasis; Laparoscopy
7.  Korean translation of the CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomized trials 
Epidemiology and Health  2014;36:e2014029.
The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 Statement, updated in March 2010, includes a 25-item checklist and flow diagram. Adherence to this statement is a minimum requirement for the complete, clear, and transparent reporting of randomized trials. We translated the CONSORT 2010 Statement into Korean to promote the widespread adherence to CONSORT in South Korea and to facilitate the adoption of complete, clear, and transparent reporting. The Korean version of the CONSORT is available at
PMCID: PMC4371386  PMID: 25381998
Randomized controlled trials; Research design; Guideline
8.  At Which Stage of Gastric Cancer Progression Do Levels of Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Increase? Application in Advanced Gastric Cancer Treatment 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2014;14(2):123-128.
Since there are no proven tumor markers that reflect the course of gastric cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) are commonly used alternatives. However, the degree of progression that corresponds to an increase in these markers, and the values of these markers at different cancer stages, remains unclear.
Materials and Methods
This study enrolled 1,733 gastric cancer patients who underwent surgery and whose pre-operative CEA and CA19-9 levels were known. Survival curves and mean values of the two markers were compared according to the degree of cancer progression: serosa-unexposed (SU), serosa-exposed (SE), direct invasion (DI), localized seeding (P1), and extensive seeding (P2).
The 5-year overall survival rates at each stage differed significantly, except between DI and P1 patients (17.1% vs. 10.5%, P=0.344). The mean CEA values in SU, SE, DI, P1, and P2 patients were 5.80, 5.48, 13.36, 8.06, and 22.82, respectively. The CA19-9 values for these patients were 49.40, 38.97, 101.67, 73.77, and 98.57, respectively. The increase in CEA in P2 patients was statistically significant (P=0.002), and the increases in CA19-9 in DI and P2 patients were significant (P=0.025, 0.007, respectively). There was a fair correlation between the two markers in P2 patients (r=0.494, P<0.001).
CA19-9 can be used to assess DI of gastric cancer into adjacent organs. Both markers are useful for predicting the presence of extensive peritoneal seeding.
PMCID: PMC4105377  PMID: 25061540
Carcinomatosis; Disease progression; Neoplasm invasiveness; Stomach neoplasms; Tumor markers, biological
9.  A comparison of the periumbilical incision and the intraumbilical incision in laparoscopic appendectomy 
The intraumbilical incision is being used more frequently, with increasing cases of single incision laparoscopic surgery. Since the umbilicus is deeper than the surrounding wall, it has abundant bacteria. No study has compared the adverse outcomes of periumbilical and intraumbilical incisions. We analyzed the wound complication rates of perforated appendicitis patients according to the types of umbilical incision.
A retrospective review was done of 280 patients with perforated appendicitis. One hundred fifty nine patients were treated with the intraumbilical incision, and 121 patients were treated with the periumbilical incision. We compared the perioperative outcomes according to each laparoscopic incision.
There was no difference in operation time, postoperative hospital stay and analgesic requirement between the two groups. One case in the intraumbilical group (0.6%) and three cases in the periumbilical group (2.5%) developed wound infections. The umbilical complication rate showed no difference.
The wound complication rate of intraumbilical and periumbilical incisions are not different. Although this retrospective study has inherent limitations, the intraumbilical incision seems to be a safe and feasible alternative for the periumbilical incision that can be easier to perform, with better cosmetic results.
PMCID: PMC3514478  PMID: 23230554
Intraumbilical; Laparoscopic technique; Appendectomy
10.  Transumbilical single port laparoscopic appendectomy using basic equipment: a comparison with the three ports method 
Single port laparoscopic surgery is a rapidly evolving laparoscopic surgical approach. We report a comparison of transumbilical single port laparoscopic appendectomy (TUSPLA) and conventional laparoscopic appendectomy (CLA) in a Korean military hospital.
This single-center retrospective study of 63 patients who received laparoscopic appendectomy was conducted between May 2011 and October 2011. Nineteen patients received TUSPLA and 44 patients received CLA. Clinical outcomes such as operation time, hospital stay, postoperative pain, diet, and postoperative complication were reviewed.
There were no statistically significant differences between TUSPLA and CLA patients, respectively, in operation time (58.9 minutes vs. 52.3 minutes, P = 0.262), duration of hospitalization (10.2 days vs. 10.6 days, P = 0.782), mean visual analogue scale score (2.6 vs. 2.5, P = 0.894), and return to diet (1.6 days vs. 1.7 days, P = 0.776). There were two cases (10.5%) of short-term complications in the TUSPLA group and four cases (9.1%) of short-term complications in the CLA group. All patients were fully recovered at discharge.
TUSPLA is a feasible alternative for CLA. When a glove port is used, no special instruments are needed. Thus, it can be performed in a hospital equipped with basic laparoscopic surgical instruments.
PMCID: PMC3467387  PMID: 23091793
Laparoscopy; Appendectomy; Single-port; Transumbilical; Scarless
11.  The Feasibility of Short Term Prophylactic Antibiotics in Gastric Cancer Surgery 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2010;10(4):206-211.
Most surgeons administer prophylactic antibiotics for 3 to 5 days postoperatively. However, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) guideline recommends antibiotic therapy for 24 hours or less in clean/uncontaminated surgery. Thus, we prospectively studied the use of short term prophylactic antibiotic therapy after gastric cancer surgery.
Materials and Methods
A total of 103 patients who underwent gastric cancer surgery between October 2007 and June 2008 were prospectively enrolled in a short term prophylactic antibiotics program. One gram of cefoxitin was administered 30 minutes before the incision, and one additional gram was administered intraoperatively for cases with an operation time over 3 hours. Postoperatively, one gram was administered 3 times, every 8 hours. Patients were checked routinely for fever. All cases received open surgery, and the surgical wounds were dressed and checked for Surgical Site Infection (SSI) daily.
Of the 103 patients, 15 were dropped based on exclusion criteria (severe organ dysfunction, combined resection of the colon, etc). The remaining 88 patients were included in the short-term program of prophylactic antibiotic use. Of these patients, SSIs were detected in 8 (9.1%) and fever after 2 postoperative days was detected in 11 (12.5%). The incidence of SSIs increased with patient age, and postoperative fever correlated with operation time.
Short term prophylactic antibiotic usage is feasible in patients who undergo gastric cancer surgery, and where there are no grave comorbidities or combined resection.
PMCID: PMC3204497  PMID: 22076187
Stomach neoplasm; Antibiotic prophylaxis; Anti-bacterial agents

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