Median arcuate ligament syndrome is a rare cause of abdominal pain which results from compression of the celiac artery (CA) or rarely, the superior mesenteric artery by a ligament formed by the right and left crura of the diaphragm. We report a case of open surgical decompression of the CA by division of the median arcuate ligament for a 37-year-old female patient who had suffered from chronic postprandial epigastric pain and severe weight loss. We described clinical features, characteristic angiographic findings and details of the surgical procedure for the patient with this rare vascular problem.
Median arcuate ligament; Celiac artery stenosis
We attempted to determine risk factors for the development of failing vein graft and optimal treatment in patients with infrainguinal vein grafts.
We retrospectively reviewed a database of patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass using autogenous vein grafts due to chronic atherosclerotic arterial occlusive disease of lower extremity (LE) at a single institute between September 2003 and December 2011. After reviewing demographic, clinical, and angiographic features of the patients with failing grafts, we analyzed those variables to determine risk factors for the development of failing grafts. To determine an optimal treatment for the failing vein grafts, we compared results of open surgical repair (OSR), endovascular treatment (EVT) and conservative treatment.
Two hundred and fifty-eight LE arterial bypasses using autogenous vein grafts in 242 patients were included in this study. During the follow-up period of 39 ± 25 months (range, 1 to 89 months), we found 166 (64%) patent grafts with no restenosis, 41 (15.9%) failing grafts, 39 (15.1%) graft occlusions, and 12 (4.7%) grafts lost in follow-up. In risk factor analysis for the development of a failing graft, no independent risk factors were identified. After 50 treatments of the 41 failing grafts (24 OSR, 18 EVT, 8 conservative management), graft occlusion was significantly more common in conservative treatment group and severe (>75%) restenosis was significantly more common following EVT than OSR (P = 0.001). Reintervention-free graft patency was also superior in the OSR group to that of the EVT group (87% vs. 42%, P = 0.015).
OSR of failing grafts has better outcomes than EVT or conservative management in treating failing grafts.
Lower extremity; Bypass; Failing graft; Stenosis; Graft occlusion
The aim of this study was to assess renal or abdominal visceral complications after open aortic surgery (OAS) requiring supra-renal aortic cross clamping (SRACC).
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 66 patients who underwent SRACC. Among them, 17 followed supra-celiac aortic cross clamping (SCACC) procedure, 42 supra-renal, and 7 inter-renal aorta. Postoperative renal, hepatic or pancreatic complications were investigated by reviewing levels of serum creatinine and hepatic and pancreatic enzymes. Preoperative clinical and operative variables were analyzed to determine risk factors for postoperative renal insufficiency (PORI).
Indications for SRACC were 25 juxta-renal aortic occlusion and 41 aortic aneurysms (24 juxta-renal, 12 supra-renal and 5 type IV thoraco-abdominal). The mean duration of renal ischemic time (RIT) was 30.1 ± 22.2 minutes (range, 3 to 120 minutes). PORI developed in 21% of patients, including four patients requiring hemodialysis (HD). However, chronic HD was required for only one patient (1.5%) who had preoperative renal insufficiency. RIT ≥ 25 minutes and SCACC were significant risk factors for PORI development by univariate analysis, but not by multivariate analysis. Serum pancreatic and hepatic enzyme was elevated in 41% and 53% of the 17 patients who underwent SCACC, respectively.
Though postoperative renal or abdominal visceral complications developed often after SRACC, we found that most of those complications resolved spontaneously unless there was preexisting renal disease or the aortic clamping time was exceptionally long.
Renal insufficiency; Visceral ischemia; Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Aortic occlusive disease; Suprarenal aortic cross clamping
Neurofibromatosis type I (NF-1) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder occurring in 1 in 3,000 individuals. Vasculopathy is a rarely reported finding in patients with NF-1. Here, we report a case of recurrent aortic pseudoaneurysm after endovascular aneurysm repair in a 49-year-old male patient with NF-1. On the sixth postoperative day following a successful open surgical repair of an aortic pseudoaneurysm, he developed hemoperitoneum due to a delayed rupture of the mesenteric artery branch. This was treated with endovascular coil embolization. We report the clinical features and histologic findings of this rare vascular disorder with a review of the relevant literature.
Aortic aneurysm; Aortic rupture; Neurofibromatosis 1
To evaluate the efficacy of B-mode ultrasonography (US) in measurement of carotid stenosis% (CS%).
One hundred and thirth-three carotid arteries in 96 patients who underwent both carotid US and carotid arteriography (CA) were included in this retrospective study. To measure CS% on US, a cross sectional view of the most stenotic segment of the internal carotid artery was captured and residual diameter and original diameter of that segment were measured with electronic caliper on the same plane and in the same direction. To measure CS% on an angiogram, we used European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) and the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) methods. Pearson's correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were used to determine the correlation between CS% on an US and angiogram.
Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) between CS% measured in US and CA were 0.853 (ECST method, P < 0.001) and 0.828 (NASCET method, P < 0.001). Accuracies of B-mode US were 93.2%, 88.0%, and 81.2% for estimating CS% by ECST method and 86.5%, 82.7%, and 82% for estimating CS% by NASCET method.
CS% measured in B-mode US was simpler and showed a strong positive correlation with that measured on an arteriogram either ECST or NASCET method.
Carotid stenosis; Ultrasonography; Accuracy; Arteriography
This study aimed to investigate prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS) in Korean patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and identify predictive factors of ACAS in patients with PAD. Between 1994 and 2008, 546 patients who underwent bypass surgery due to PAD were identified in a single tertiary teaching hospital. Of those, 409 patients underwent preoperative screening carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDUS). Patients who had an episode of cerebrovascular event or previous carotid artery intervention were excluded and then a retrospective analysis was made of 340 patients. The degree of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis was determined by the criteria of Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference. To determine the risk factors of ACAS, demographic, coexisting medical condition and lesion characteristics were tested with binary logistic regression model. The prevalence of ≥70% ICA stenosis was 14%. ICA occlusion was detected in 7.1%. Multivariate analysis revealed age >65 yr (OR: 2.610, 95% CI: 1.197-5.691) and coronary artery disease (CAD, OR: 2.333, 95% CI: 1.169-4.657) are predictive factors of ≥70% stenosis. A PAD patient who needs revascularization, particularly, >65 yr or has a concomitant CAD, can be a good candidate of screening CDUS.
Duplex ultrasonography; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Carotid Stenosis
In order to establish optimal management for aortoenteric fistula (AEF) the records of five patients treated for AEF (four aortoduodenal and one aortogastric fistula) were retrospectively reviewed. The arterial reconstruction procedures were selected according to the surgical findings, underlying cause, and patient status. In situ aortic reconstructions with prosthetic grafts were performed on three patients who had no gross findings of periaortic infection, whereas axillo-bifemoral bypass was carried out in the other two patients with periaortic purulence. In all patients, after retroperitoneal irrigation a pedicled omentum was used to cover the aortic graft or aortic stump. In the preoperative abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan there was a periaortic air shadow in four out of five patients. There was no surgical mortality or graft infection observed during a mean follow-up period of 40 months (range, 24-68 months). Therefore, the treatment results of an AEF can be improved using intravenous contrast-enhanced abdominal CT for rapid diagnosis and selection of an appropriate surgical procedure based on the surgical findings and underlying cause.
Aorta; Intestinal Fistula; Aortic Aneurysm
The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical utility of automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) for detecting and diagnosing the breast lesions.
From December 2010 to January 2012, bilateral whole breast examinations were performed with ABVS for 139 women. Based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories, the breast lesions were evaluated on coronal multiplanar reconstruction images using the ABVS workstation. Then, the imaging results were compared with those on conventional handheld ultrasound (HHUS) images. Histological diagnoses were performed on BI-RADS category 4 and 5 lesions.
A total of 453 lesions were detected by ABVS. On the HHUS, 33 new lesions were detected but 69 lesions were not detected. BI-RADS category 2 and 3 matched to those on ABVS at 73.5% (61/83) and 85.4% (276/323). In 47 lesions of BI-RADS category 4 or 5, there was an exact match to those on ABVS. In addition, 47 lesions were classified as BI-RADS category 4 and 5, for which an ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy was performed. The malignant lesions of BI-RADS category 4 and 5 showed the following: 2/27 (7.4%) in 4A, 4/5 (80%) in 4B, 2/2 (100%) in 4C, and 13/13 (100%) in 5. The ABVS showed 21 true positives and a positive predictive value of 44.7% (21/47).
There was considerable agreement in the assessment of the breast lesions by ABVS and HHUS. The ABVS had advantages of high diagnostic accuracy, examiner-independence, multislice visualization of the whole breast and less time-consuming. Our results indicate that ABVS might be a useful modality in diagnosing breast lesions.
Three dimentional; Breast neoplasms; Carcinoma; Ultrasonography
Recently, workers' mental health has become important focus in the field of occupational health management. Depression is a psychiatric illness with a high prevalence. The association between job stress and depressive symptoms has been demonstrated in many studies. Recently, studies about the association between sleep quality and depressive symptoms have been reported, but there has been no large-scaled study in Korean female workers. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between job stress and sleep quality, and depressive symptoms in female workers.
From Mar 2011 to Aug 2011, 4,833 female workers in the manufacturing, finance, and service fields at 16 workplaces in Yeungnam province participated in this study, conducted in combination with a worksite-based health checkup initiated by the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form(KOSS-SF), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale(CES-D). The collected data was entered in the system and analyzed using the PASW (version 18.0) program. A correlation analysis, cross analysis, multivariate logistic regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis were conducted.
Among the 4,883 subjects, 978 subjects (20.0%) were in the depression group. Job stress(OR=3.58, 95% CI=3.06-4.21) and sleep quality(OR=3.81, 95% CI=3.18-4.56) were strongly associated with depressive symptoms. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that job stress displayed explanatory powers of 15.6% on depression while sleep quality displayed explanatory powers of 16.2%, showing that job stress and sleep quality had a closer relationship with depressive symptoms, compared to the other factors. The multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded odds ratios between the 7 subscales of job stress and depressive symptoms in the range of 1.30-2.72 and the odds ratio for the lack of reward was the highest(OR=2.72, 95% CI=2.32-3.19). In the partial correlation analysis between each of the 7 subscales of sleep quality (PSQI) and depressive symptoms, the correlation coefficient of subjective sleep quality and daytime dysfunction were 0.352 and 0.362, respectively.
This study showed that the depressive symptoms of female workers are closely related to their job stress and sleep quality. In particular, the lack of reward and subjective sleep factors are the greatest contributors to depression. In the future, a large-scale study should be performed to augment the current study and to reflect all age groups in a balanced manner. The findings on job stress, sleep, and depression can be utilized as source data to establish standards for mental health management of the ever increasing numbers of female members of the workplace.
We report a case of a chronic hemodialysis patient who developed hypermagnesemia due to an overdose of magnesium-containing laxative and paralytic ileus resulting in colonic perforation. Despite intravenous calcium infusion and daily hemodialysis, the patient developed ischemic colitis and intestinal perforation. Colonic perforation accompanied with hypermagnesemia in hemodialysis patients has rarely been reported. This case suggests that hypermagnesemia should be considered in renal failure patients as this can result in life-threatening events despite prompt treatment.
Hypermagnesemia; paralytic ileus; colonic perforation; hemodialysis
Background. In gastric carcinogenesis, changes of DNA methylation appear to be an early molecular event, and the genome-wide methylation state is closely correlated with the level of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) methylation. In this study, we measured LINE-1 methylation level according to genetic instability and evaluated the effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on genetic instability in gastric epithelial dysplasia. Methods. Total 100 tissue samples of gastric epithelial dysplasia were analyzed. Seven loci that linked to tumor suppressor genes were used to identify significant structural chromosomal aberrations. Microsatellite status was investigated for two different microsatellite marker loci (BAT25 and BAT26). Also, we measured LINE-1 methylation level by combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA-LINE-1) method. Results. There were no significant differences of LINE-1 methylation level according to chromosomal/microsatellite instability and H. pylori state. In the dysplastic lesions with H. pylori infection, LINE-1 methylation level of MSI lesion was significantly lower than that of microsatellite stable (MSS) lesion (40.23 ± 4.47 versus 43.90 ± 4.81%, P < 0.01). Conclusions. In gastric epithelial dysplasia with H. pylori infection, MSI is correlated with reduced LINE-1 methylation level. Coexistence of H. pylori infection and MSI might be a driving force of gastric carcinogenesis.
Cutaneous malignant melanoma of the breast can be divided into two categories: primary and metastatic lesions. Cutaneous malignant melanoma of the breast is a rare tumor, accounting for less than 5% of all malignant melanomas. Clinical features and diagnostic methods of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma of the breast are similar to those arising from other cutaneous areas. Treatment of choice is wide local excision with adequate resection margin according to tumor thickness. Sentinel lymph node biopsy should be performed because the presence of lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor. There have been only limited reports involving primary cutaneous malignant melanoma of the breast. Thus, we report a case of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma in a 59-year-old woman with a review of the recent literature.
Breast neoplasms; Melanoma; Sentinel lymph node biopsy
Pulmonary tumor embolism can be a cause of respiratory failure in patients with cancer even though it occurs rarely. We describe a 56-year-old man who underwent a pulmonary tumor embolectomy using cardiopulmonary bypass on beating heart combined with inferior vena cava embolectomy and right radical nephrectomy. Aggressive surgical treatment in this severe case is necessary not only to reduce the fatal outcome of pulmonary embolism in the short run, but also to improve the oncological prognosis in the long term.
Pulmonary embolism; Cancer; Great vessels; Embolectomy
Most outcome studies of bypass surgery are limited to five years of follow-up. However, as human life expectancy has increased, analyses of more long-term outcomes are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate 10-year outcomes of anatomical bypasses in aortoiliac occlusive disease.
From 1996 to 2009, 92 patients (82 males and 10 females) underwent aortic anatomical bypasses to treat aortoiliac occlusive disease at Samsung Medical Center. The patients were reviewed retrospectively. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed using PASW ver. 18.0 (IBM Co).
A total of 72 patients (78.3%) underwent aorto-femoral bypasses (uni- or bi-femoral), 15 patients (16.3%) underwent aorto-iliac bypasses (uni- or bi-iliac), and 5 patients (5.4%) underwent aorto-iliac and aorto-femoral bypasses. The overall primary patency rates of the 92 patients were 86.2% over 5 years and 77.6% over 10 years. The 10-year limb salvage rate and overall survival rate were 97.7% and 91.7%, respectively.
The overall patency rates of bypass graft and limb salvage rates decreased as time passed. The analysis of results after bypass surgery to treat arterial occlusive disease will be needed to extend for 10 years of follow-up.
Aortoiliac occlusive disease; Leriche syndrome; Bypass
To determine the risk factors of delayed recanalization of isolated calf vein thrombosis (CVT).
One hundred fifty limbs of 110 patients with CVT between September 2007 and April 2010 were enrolled. We used ultrasonography for the diagnosis and follow-up examinations of CVT. We calculated recanalization rates at 1 and 3 months after initial diagnosis and analyzed the risk factors associated with delayed recanalization of CVT.
CVTs were located in the muscular calf vein in 110 (73.3%), in the deep calf vein in 18 (12%), and in both in 22 cases (14.7%). Among all CVTs, 94 limbs (63%) were symptomatic. Major risk factors for CVT were orthopedic surgery (87.3%), malignancy (21.3%), and immobilization (15.3%). Sixty-seven patients (60.9%) were treated with oral anticoagulation therapy, while 43 patients by low molecular weight heparin (n = 19) or by conservative methods including elastic compression stockings and ambulation (n = 21). The cumulative recanalization rate at 1 and 3 months was 23% and 82% and it was significantly higher in patients who underwent oral anticoagulation therapy compared with patients without oral anticoagulation therapy (84% vs. 65%, P = 0.008 by log-rank test). Malignancy (odds ratio [OR], 2.789; P = 0.043) and immobilization (OR, 4.191; P = 0.029) were independent risk factors for delayed recanalization of CVT and oral anticoagulation (OR, 0.300; P = 0.020) was an independent factor in promoting recanalization in multivariate analysis.
For patients with isolated CVT, no oral anticoagulation resulted in higher rates of delayed recanalization compared to oral anticoagulation treatment. Immobilization and having malignancy were independent risk factors for delayed recanalization.
Thrombosis; Venous thrombosis; Deep vein thrombosis
We report a hybrid surgery including endovascular aneurysm repair and debranching procedures to treat a patient with a complex right subclavian artery aneurysm. The patient was a 70-year-old woman who presented with dry cough and hoarseness. The aneurysm was characterized by the absence of a proximal neck, and involvement of the origin of the right vertebral artery. She underwent carotid-vertebral artery bypass, stent graft from the innomiate artery to the common carotid artery and carotid-axillary artery bypass. Great saphenous vein was used for the carotid-vertebral artery bypass and 7 mm reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene graft was used for the carotid-axillary artery bypass. The postoperative course was uneventful.
Subclavian artery; Aneurysm; Hybrid operation
We attempted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of carotid artery stenosis in Korea. Twenty thousand seven hundred twelve individuals who underwent carotid artery ultrasonography for health screening between March 2005 and March 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. The population was divided into four groups, according to the degree of stenosis, as Group A, below 29%; Group B, 30% to 49%; Group C, 50% to 74%; Group D, above 75%. The medical records of the individuals were investigated, and Fisher's exact test, chi-square tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests and a binary logistic regression model were used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of carotid stenosis was Group B, 5.5%; Group C, 0.9%; Group D, 0.1%. Old age, male gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease were significantly higher in Groups C and D (P = 0.001, 0.001, 0.001, 0.048, and 0.001, respectively). Among the males aged over 65 yr, the prevalence of carotid stenosis ≥ 50% and ≥ 30% were 4.0% and 18.2%, respectively. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is not uncommon in Korea. Carotid ultrasonography is necessary for people with above-listed risk factors.
Carotid arteries; Stenosis; Prevalence
External banding valvuloplasty (EBV) of the great saphenous vein (GSV) in patients with varicose veins is still controversial. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of EBV in selected patients with an insufficiency of the GSV after a mean follow-up of 92.6 months.
A total of 101 limbs underwent EBV for the treatment of a GSV insufficiency. Thirty-one limbs from 27 patients (three men, 24 women; mean age 44.2 years; range 19 to 58 years) were re-examined and followed for a mean of 92.6 months. The venous volume, venous filling index, ejection fraction and residual venous fraction were analyzed preoperatively and at the follow-up using air plethysmography. The diameter and reflux of the GSV were evaluated using duplex ultrasound.
Overall, the mean (± SD) follow-up time was 92.6±22.3 months (range 46 to 138 months). At the follow-up, the preoperative venous hemodynamic states had improved significantly, to the following values: venous volume 96.0±32.3 mL to 83.4±32.6 mL; venous filling index 3.6±2.9 mL/min to 2.4±2.2 mL/min; and residual venous fraction 39.7%±18.6% to 26.1%±16.8% (P<0.05). The diameter of the GSV was 6.4±1.4 mm preoperatively and 4.8±1.7 mm postoperatively (P<0.01). Reflux in the proximal GSV was demonstrated preoperatively in 19 (61.3%) of 31 limbs. During the follow-up period, four limbs (12.9%) had high ligation and stripping of the GSV performed due to the recurrence of varicosity.
EBV of the GSV provides good results in terms of the venous hemodynamics and decreasing the diameter of the GSV. EBV may be an alternative procedure to stripping or endovenous ablation therapy in selected patients.
Hemodynamics; Valvuloplasty; Varicose vein
We wanted to evaluate the safety and feasibility of ethanol sclerotherapy for treating craniofacial venous malformations (CVMs).
Materials and Methods
From May 1998 to April 2007, 87 patients (40 men and 47 women; age range, 2-68 years) with CVMs underwent staged ethanol sclerotherapy (range, 1-21 sessions; median number of sessions, 2) by the direct puncture technique. Clinical follow up (range, 0-120 months; mean follow up, 35 months; median follow up, 28 months) was performed for all the patients. Therapeutic outcomes were established by evaluating the clinical outcome of the signs and symptoms in all patients, as well as the degree of devascularization, which was determined on the follow-up imaging, in 71 patients.
A total of 305 procedures with the use of ethanol were performed in 87 patients. Follow-up imaging studies were performed for 71 of 87 patients. Twenty-three (32%) of the 71 patients showed excellent outcomes, 37 patients (52%) showed good outcomes and 11 patients (16%) showed poor outcomes. Ethanol sclerotherapy was considered effective for 60 patients. All the minor complications such as bulla (n = 5) healed with only wound dressing and observation. Any major complication such as skin necrosis did not develop.
Percutaneous ethanol sclerotherapy is an effective, safe treatment for CVMs.
Ethanol; Head and Neck; Sclerotherapy; Venous malformations
To investigate potential health risks associated with exposure to metals from an abandoned metal mine, the authors studied people living near an abandoned mine (n=102) and control groups (n=149). Levels of cadmium, copper, arsenic, lead, and zinc were measured in the air, soil, drinking water, and agricultural products. To assess individual exposure, biomarkers of each metal in blood and urine were measured. β2-microglobulin, α1-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and bone mineral density were measured. Surface soil in the study area showed 2-10 times higher levels of metals compared to that of the control area. Metal concentrations in the groundwater and air did not show any notable differences between groups. Mean concentrations of cadmium and copper in rice and barley from the study area were significantly higher than those of the control area (p<0.05). Geometric means of blood and urine cadmium in the study area were 2.9 µg/L and 1.5 µg/g Cr, respectively, significantly higher than those in the control area (p<0.05). There were no differences in the levels of urinary markers of early kidney dysfunction and bone mineral density. The authors conclude that the residents near the abandoned mine were exposed to higher levels of metals through various routes.
Abandoned Metal Mine; Health Risk; Biological Markers; Kidney Dysfunction
To assess retrospectively the treatment results of ethanol embolization of peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with a dominant outflow vein (DOV).
Materials and Methods
Nineteen patients who had peripheral AVMs with a DOV were enrolled in this study (mean age, 29.7 years; range, 15-42 years). Fifty-one ethanol embolizations (mean, 2.7; range, 1-8) were performed by direct puncture (n = 29), the transarterial approach (n = 13), the transvenous approach (n = 5), or a combination of methods (n = 4) under general anesthesia. Coil and/or core-removed guide wire embolization of the DOV or another flow occlusion technique (i.e., use of an external pneumatic pressure cuff) to achieve vascular stasis were required in all patients during ethanol embolization. Clinical follow-up (mean, 22.2 months; range, 1-53 months) was performed for all patients, and imaging follow-up (mean, 22.1 months; range, 2-53 months) from the last treatment session was performed for 14 patients. The therapeutic outcome (cure, improvement, no change, or aggravation) was assessed according to the clinical response and the degree of devascularization at angiography.
Ethanol embolization was considered as an effective procedure in all patients. Thirteen (68%) of 19 patients were cured and six displayed improvement. Three of six patients with improvement needed further treatment sessions for residual AVMs. Four patients (21%) experienced a total of eight complications. Five complications (three events of a distal embolism and one event each of a urinary bladder necrosis and a brain infarct related to the accidental cannulation of the common carotid artery during insertion of the Swan-Ganz catheter) were major and three complications (skin necrosis) were minor.
Peripheral AVMs with a DOV can be effectively treated with a high cure rate by the use of ethanol embolization alone or in conjunction with the use of coil and/or core-removed guide wire embolization.
Arteriovenous malformations, extremities; Arteriovenous malformations, pelvic; Arteriovenous malformations, therapeutic embolization
We retrospectively assessed the results of performing ethanol embolization for pelvis arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).
Materials and Methods
During the past 10 years, eight patients (8 females, age range: 27-52 years) with AVMs in the pelvic wall (n = 3) and uterus (n = 5) underwent staged ethanol embolizations (range: 1-5, mean: 2.5) under general anesthesia. Ethanol embolization was performed by the use of the transcatheter and/or direct puncture techniques. Clinical follow-up was performed for all of the patients, and imaging follow-up was available for seven patients. The therapeutic outcomes were established by evaluating the clinical outcome of the signs and symptoms, as well as the degree of devascularization observed on post-procedural angiography.
During the 20 sessions of ethanol embolization, the solitary transarterial approach was used 14 times, the transvenous approach was used three times and direct puncture was used once. For two patients, the transarterial and transvenous or direct puncture approaches were used together in one session. For four patients, ethanol and coils were used as embolic agents, and n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and ethanol were used in one patient. Seven (88%) of eight patients were cured of their AVMs and one patient (12%) displayed improvement. Major complications were seen in two patients (25%).
Ethanol embolization is effective for the treatment of pelvic arteriovenous malformations, though there is a chance of a major complication.
Arteriovenous malformation; Embolism, therpeutic; Interventional procedures
The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of ischemia during protected carotid artery stenting (CAS) as well as to compare the protective efficacy of the balloon and filter devices on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI).
Materials and Methods
Seventy-one consecutive protected CAS procedures in 70 patients with a severe (> 70%) or symptomatic moderate (> 50%) carotid artery stenosis were examined. A balloon device (PercuSurge GuardWire) and a filter device (FilterWire EX/EZ, Emboshield) was used in 33 cases (CAS-B group) and 38 cases (CAS-F group) to prevent distal embolization, respectively. All the patients underwent DWI within seven days before and after the procedures. The number of new cerebral ischemic lesions on the post-procedural DWI were counted and divided into ipsilateral and contralateral lesions according to the relationship with the stenting side.
New cerebral ischemic lesions were detected in 13 (39.4%) out of the 33 CAS-Bs and in 15 (39.5%) out of the 38 CAS-Fs. The mean number of total, ipsilateral and contralateral new cerebral ischemic lesion was 2.39, 1.67 and 0.73 in the CAS-B group and 2.11, 1.32 and 0.79 in the CAS-F group, respectively. No statistical differences were found between the two groups (p = 0.96, 0.74 and 0.65, respectively). The embolic complications encountered included two retinal infarctions and one hemiparesis in the CAS-B group (9.09%), and one retinal infarction, one hemiparesis and one ataxia in the CAS-F group (7.89%). There was a similar incidence of embolic complications in the two groups (p = 1.00).
The type of distal protection device used such as a balloon and filter does not affect the incidence of cerebral embolization after protected CAS.
Carotid artery stenting; Cerebral ischemia; Diffusion-weighted MR imaging; Protection device
To present our experience with subintimal angioplasty (SA) for treatment of chronic lower limb ischemia (CLLI) and to assess its effectiveness and durability.
Materials and Methods
From April 2003 through June 2005, we treated 40 limbs in 36 patients with CLLI by SA. Balloons with or without secondary stent placement appropriate in size to the occluded arteries were used for SA of all lesions, except for iliac lesions where primary stent placement was done. The patients were followed for 1-23 months by clinical examination and color Doppler ultrasound and/or CT angiography. Technical results and outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. The presence of a steep learning curve for performance of SA was also evaluated. Primary and secondary patencies were determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Technical success was achieved in 32 (80%) of 40 limbs. There was no statistical difference between technical success rates of 75% (18/24) during the first year and 88% (14/16) thereafter. There were four complications (10%) in 40 procedures; two arterial perforations, one pseudoaneurysm at the puncture site, and one delayed hematoma at the SA site. Excluding initial technical failures, the primary patency rates at six and 12 months were 68% and 55%, respectively. Secondary patency rates at six and 12 months were 73% and 59%, respectively.
Subintimal angioplasty can be accomplished with a high technical success rate. It should be attempted in patients with CLLI as an alternative to more extended surgery, or when surgical treatment is not recommended due to comorbidity or an unfavorable disease pattern.
Arteries, extremities; Arteries, stenosis or obstruction; Arteries, subintimal angioplasty