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1.  Endovascular Stent Graft for Treatment of Complicated Spontaneous Dissection of Celiac Artery: Report of Two Cases 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2013;14(3):460-464.
We report 2 cases of complicated spontaneous dissection of the celiac artery, which were successfully treated by a stent graft. The first patient was a 47-year-old man who presented with acute abdominal pain. CT scan showed ruptured saccular aneurysm with surrounding retroperitoneal hematoma. The second patient was a 57-year-old man with progressive dissecting aneurysm. Endovascular stent graft was placed in the celiac trunk to control bleeding, and to prevent rupture in each patient. Follow-up CT scans showed complete obliteration of a dissecting aneurysm.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2013.14.3.460
PMCID: PMC3655301  PMID: 23690714
Celiac trunk; Dissection; Aneurysm; Stent graft
2.  Low C24-OH and C22-OH sulfatides in human renal cell carcinoma 
Journal of Mass Spectrometry  2014;49(5):409-416.
Histopathologic diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) may sometimes be difficult with small biopsy samples. We applied histology-directed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to RCC samples to evaluate whether and how lipid profiles are different between RCC and normal tissue. We evaluated 59 RCC samples and 24 adjacent normal tissue samples collected from patients who underwent surgery. Five peaks were significantly differently expressed (p < 10−7) between RCCs and adjacent normal tissue samples. C24-OH sulfatide (ST-OH {18:1/24:0}[M-H]−; m/z 906.7 in the negative ion mode) and C22-OH sulfatide (ST-OH {18:1/22:0}[M-H]−; m/z 878.6 in the negative ion mode) were most significantly underexpressed in RCC samples, compared with adjacent normal tissue samples. With 100 random training-to-test partitions within these samples, the median prediction accuracy (RCC vs. normal) ranged from 96.3% to 100% at p cutoff values for feature selection ranging from 0.001 to 10−7. Two oncocytoma samples were predicted as normal tissue by five lipids that were differentially expressed between RCC and normal tissue at p < 10−7. Clear-cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCCs were different in lipid profiles. Permutation p- values for 0.632+ bootstrap cross-validated misclassification rates were less than 0.05 for all the classifiers. Thus, lipid profiles differentiate RCC from normal tissue and may possibly classify the histology of RCC. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
doi:10.1002/jms.3358
PMCID: PMC4274961  PMID: 24809902
renal cell carcinoma; lipid; MALDI; mass spectrometry; sulfatide
3.  Hemangiopericytoma in the Nasolabial Fold 
Archives of Plastic Surgery  2013;40(2):162-164.
doi:10.5999/aps.2013.40.2.162
PMCID: PMC3605564  PMID: 23529268
4.  Duodenal variceal bleeding after balloon-occluded retrograde transverse obliteration: Treatment with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt 
We report a case of duodenal varix bleeding as a long term complication of balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO), which was successfully treated with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). A 57-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room suffering from melena. He had undergone BRTO to treat gastric varix bleeding 5 mo before admission. Endoscopy and a computed tomography (CT) scan showed complete obliteration of the gastric varix, but the nodular varices in the second portion of the duodenum expanded after BRTO, and spurting blood was seen. TIPS was performed for treatment of duodenal variceal bleeding, because attempts at endoscopic varix ligation were unsuccessful. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged without complications. A follow up CT scan obtained 21 mo after TIPS revealed a patent TIPS tract and complete obliteration of duodenal varices, but multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma had developed. He died of hepatic failure 28 mo after TIPS.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i22.2877
PMCID: PMC3374995  PMID: 22719200
Duodenal variceal bleeding; Balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration; Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
5.  Effect of the Starting Point of Half-Pin Insertion on the Insertional Torque of the Pin at the Tibia 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;56(1):154-159.
Purpose
The authors have observed a failure to achieve secure fixation in elderly patients when inserting a half-pin at the anteromedial surface of the tibia. The purpose of this study was to compare two methods for inserting a half-pin at tibia diaphysis in elderly patients.
Materials and Methods
Twenty cadaveric tibias were divided into Group C or V. A half-pin was inserted into the tibias of Group C via the conventional method, from the anteromedial surface to the interosseous border of the tibia diaphysis, and into the tibias of Group V via the vertical method, from the anterior border to the posterior surface at the same level. The maximum insertion torque was measured during the bicortical insertion with a torque driver. The thickness of the cortex was measured by micro-computed tomography. The relationship between the thickness of the cortex engaged and the insertion torque was investigated.
Results
The maximum insertion torque and the thickness of the cortex were significantly higher in Group V than Group C. Both groups exhibited a statistically significant linear correlation between torque and thickness by Spearman's rank correlation analysis.
Conclusion
Half-pins inserted by the vertical method achieved purchase of more cortex than those inserted by the conventional method. Considering that cortical thickness and insertion torque in Group V were significantly greater than those in Group C, we suggest that the vertical method of half-pin insertion may be an alternative to the conventional method in elderly patients.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2015.56.1.154
PMCID: PMC4276749  PMID: 25510759
Fracture; tibia; diaphysis; external fixation
6.  Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Gallstone Removal Using a 12-Fr Sheath in High-Risk Surgical Patients with Acute Cholecystitis 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2011;12(2):210-215.
Objective
To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic cholecystolithotomy under fluoroscopic guidance in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis.
Materials and Methods
Sixty-three consecutive patients of high surgical risk with acute calculous cholecystitis underwent percutaneous transhepatic gallstone removal under conscious sedation. The stones were extracted through the 12-Fr sheath using a Wittich nitinol stone basket under fluoroscopic guidance on three days after performing a percutaneous cholecystostomy. Large or hard stones were fragmented using either the snare guide wire technique or the metallic cannula technique.
Results
Gallstones were successfully removed from 59 of the 63 patients (94%). Reasons for stone removal failure included the inability to grasp a large stone in two patients, and the loss of tract during the procedure in two patients with a contracted gallbladder. The mean hospitalization duration was 7.3 days for acute cholecystitis patients and 9.4 days for gallbladder empyema patients. Bile peritonitis requiring percutaneous drainage developed in two patients. No symptomatic recurrence occurred during follow-up (mean, 608.3 days).
Conclusion
Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous gallstone removal using a 12-Fr sheath is technically feasible and clinically effective in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2011.12.2.210
PMCID: PMC3052612  PMID: 21430938
Gallbladder stone; Acute cholecystitis; Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy
7.  Comparative N-Linked Glycan Analysis of Wild-Type and α1,3-Galactosyltransferase Gene Knock-Out Pig Fibroblasts Using Mass Spectrometry Approaches 
Molecules and Cells  2014;38(1):65-74.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed on pig cells are considered to be major barriers in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Even after α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knock-out (GalT-KO) pigs are generated, potential non-Gal antigens are still existed. However, to the best of our knowledge there is no extensive study analyzing N-glycans expressed on the GalT-KO pig tissues or cells. Here, we identified and quantified totally 47 N-glycans from wild-type (WT) and GalT-KO pig fibroblasts using mass spectrometry. First, our results confirmed the absence of galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) residue in the GalT-KO pig cells. Interestingly, we showed that the level of overall fucosylated N-glycans from GalT-KO pig fibroblasts is much higher than from WT pig fibroblasts. Moreover, the relative quantity of the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) antigen is slightly higher in the GalT-KO pigs. Thus, this study will contribute to a better understanding of cellular glycan alterations on GalT-KO pigs for successful xenotransplantation.
doi:10.14348/molcells.2015.2240
PMCID: PMC4314127  PMID: 25518929
GalT-KO pig fibroblast; mass spectrometry (MS); N-glycan; N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc)
8.  Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Activation Inhibits N-Type Ca2+ Currents in Rat Peripheral Sympathetic Neurons 
Molecules and Cells  2014;37(11):804-811.
The protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is highly expressed in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure via the modulation of peripheral vascular tone. Although several mechanisms have been suggested to explain PAR-2-induced hypotension, the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated. To investigate this possibility, we investigated the effects of PAR-2 activation on N-type Ca2+ currents (ICa-N) in isolated neurons of the celiac ganglion (CG), which is involved in the sympathetic regulation of mesenteric artery vascular tone. PAR-2 agonists irreversibly diminished voltage-gated Ca2+ currents (ICa), measured using the patch-clamp method, in rat CG neurons, whereas thrombin had little effect on ICa. This PAR-2-induced inhibition was almost completely prevented by ω-CgTx, a potent N-type Ca2+ channel blocker, suggesting the involvement of N-type Ca2+ channels in PAR-2-induced inhibition. In addition, PAR-2 agonists inhibited ICa–N in a voltage-independent manner in rat CG neurons. Moreover, PAR-2 agonists reduced action potential (AP) firing frequency as measured using the current-clamp method in rat CG neurons. This inhibition of AP firing induced by PAR-2 agonists was almost completely prevented by ω-CgTx, indicating that PAR-2 activation may regulate the membrane excitability of peripheral sympathetic neurons through modulation of N-type Ca2+ channels. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that the activation of PAR-2 suppresses peripheral sympathetic outflow by modulating N-type Ca2+ channel activity, which appears to be involved in PAR-2-induced hypotension, in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals.
doi:10.14348/molcells.2014.0167
PMCID: PMC4255100  PMID: 25410909
celiac ganglion; hypotension; N-type Ca2+ channel; peripheral sympathetic output; protease-activated receptor 2
9.  Rapid Isolation of Antibody from a Synthetic Human Antibody Library by Repeated Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e108225.
Antibodies and their derivatives are the most important agents in therapeutics and diagnostics. Even after the significant progress in the technology for antibody screening from huge libraries, it takes a long time to isolate an antibody, which prevents a prompt action against the spread of a disease. Here, we report a new strategy for isolating desired antibodies from a combinatorial library in one day by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). First, we constructed a library of synthetic human antibody in which single-chain variable fragment (scFv) was expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. After labeling the cells with fluorescent antigen probes, the highly fluorescent cells were sorted by using a high-speed cell sorter, and these cells were reused without regeneration in the next round of sorting. After repeating this sorting, the positive clones were completely enriched in several hours. Thus, we screened the library against three viral antigens, including the H1N1 influenza virus, Hepatitis B virus, and Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Finally, the potential antibody candidates, which show KD values between 10 and 100 nM against the target antigens, could be successfully isolated even though the library was relatively small (∼106). These results show that repeated FACS screening without regeneration of the sorted cells can be a powerful method when a rapid response to a spreading disease is required.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108225
PMCID: PMC4193741  PMID: 25303314
10.  Fish Bone as a Nidus for Stone Formation in the Common Bile Duct: Report of Two Cases 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2004;5(3):210-213.
We report two cases of common bile duct stone formed around a fish bone which migrated from the intestinal tract, along with their characteristic imaging findings. Two patients who had no history of previous operation were admitted because of cholangitis. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was performed and the cholangiogram showed filling defects with an unusually elongated shape in the common bile duct. After improvement of the cholangitic symptoms, the stones were removed through the PTBD tract under fluoroscopic guidance. A nidus consisting of a 1.5 cm sized fish bone was found in each stone removed.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2004.5.3.210
PMCID: PMC2698163  PMID: 15467418
Biliary duct stones; Foreign bodies; Fish bone
11.  An inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma for repair of a short sciatic nerve defect in rats 
Neural Regeneration Research  2014;9(14):1351-1357.
Platelet-rich plasma containing various growth factors can promote nerve regeneration. An inside-out vein graft can substitute nerve autograft to repair short nerve defects. It is hypothesized that an inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma shows better effects in the repair of short sciatic nerve defects. In this study, an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was used to bridge a 10 mm-long sciatic nerve defect in rats. The sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was better improved than that of rats with a simple inside-out vein autograft. At 6 and 8 weeks, the sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was better than that of rats undergoing nerve autografting. Compared with the sciatic nerve repaired with a simple inside-out vein autograft, the number of myelinated axons was higher, axon diameter and myelin sheath were greater in the sciatic nerve repaired with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma and they were similar to those in the sciatic nerve repaired with nerve autograft. These findings suggest that an inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma can substitute nerve autograft to repair short sciatic nerve defects.
doi:10.4103/1673-5374.137587
PMCID: PMC4160865  PMID: 25221591
nerve regeneration; peripheral nerve injury; sciatic nerve; platelet-rich plasma; inside-out vein autograft; myelinated axons; axon diameter; myelin sheath thickness; histology; sciatic nerve index; neural regeneration
12.  Identification and biosynthesis of acylphloroglucinols in Hypericum gentianoides 
Physiologia plantarum  2013;148(3):354-370.
Species of the genus Hypericum contain a rich array of unusual polyketides, however, only a small proportion of the over 450 Hypericum species, other than the popular medicinal supplement St. John’s Wort (H. perforatum), have even been chemically characterized. H. gentianoides, a small annual used medicinally by Cherokee Americans, contains bioactive acylphloroglucinols. Here, we identify acylphloroglucinol constituents of H. gentianoides and determine a potential pathway to their synthesis. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) and HPLC-UV indicate that the level of accumulation and profile of acylphloroglucinols in H. gentianoides vary little seasonally when grown in a greenhouse, but do vary with development and are highly dependent on the accession, highlighting the importance of the selection of plant material for study. We identify the chemical structures of the nine prevalent polyketides, based on LC/ESI-MS and hybrid quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight mass (Q-TOF) spectrometry; these metabolites include one monomeric phlorisobutyrophenone (PIB) derivative and eight dimeric acylphloroglucinols. Q-TOF spectrometry was used to identify eight additional PIB derivatives that were not detected by LC/ESI-MS. These data lead us to propose that diacylphloroglucinols are synthesized via modification of PIB to yield diverse phloroglucinol and filicinic acids moieties, followed by dimerization of a phloroglucinol and a filicinic acid monomer to yield the observed complement of diacylphloroglucinols. The metabolomics data from H. gentianoides are accessible in PMR (http://www.metnetdb.org/pmr), a public metabolomics database with analysis software for plants and microbial organisms.
doi:10.1111/ppl.12063
PMCID: PMC3687794  PMID: 23600727
13.  Atypical Femoral Fracture Combined with Osteonecrosis of Jaw During Osteoporosis Treatment with Bisphosphonate 
Journal of Bone Metabolism  2014;21(2):155-159.
Bisphosphonate, a potent anti-resorptive agent, is generally accepted as a safe, effective, well tolerated treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Atypical femoral fracture (AFF) and bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of jaw (BRONJ) are the increasing morbidities in patients treated with long term bisphosphonate. Pathogenic mechanisms of AFF and BRONJ are not fully identified and not identical. We report a case of BRONJ followed by AFF and its nonunion in a 67-year-old woman patient receiving an oral bisphosphonate during 7 years for the treatment of osteoporosis.
doi:10.11005/jbm.2014.21.2.155
PMCID: PMC4075270  PMID: 25025002
Atypical femoral fracture; Bisphosphonate
14.  A Multistep Screening Method to Identify Genes Using Evolutionary Transcriptome of Plants 
We introduced a multistep screening method to identify the genes in plants using microarrays and ribonucleic acid (RNA)-seq transcriptome data. Our method describes the process for identifying genes using the salt-tolerance response pathways of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) plant. Gene expression was analyzed using microarrays and RNA-seq experiments that examined three potato lines (high, intermediate, and low salt tolerance) under conditions of salt stress. We screened the orthologous genes and pathway genes involved in salinity-related biosynthetic pathways, and identified nine potato genes that were candidates for salinity-tolerance pathways. The nine genes were selected to characterize their phylogenetic reconstruction with homologous genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, and a Circos diagram was generated to understand the relationships among the selected genes. The involvement of the selected genes in salt-tolerance pathways was verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. One candidate potato gene was selected for physiological validation by generating dehydration-responsive element-binding 1 (DREB1)-overexpressing transgenic potato plants. The DREB1 overexpression lines exhibited increased salt tolerance and plant growth when compared to that of the control. Although the nine genes identified by our multistep screening method require further characterization and validation, this study demonstrates the power of our screening strategy after the initial identification of genes using microarrays and RNA-seq experiments.
doi:10.4137/EBO.S14823
PMCID: PMC3999899  PMID: 24812480
microarray; multistep method; RNA-seq; salt tolerance
15.  Monosegmental Hepatobiliary Fibropolycystic Disease Mimicking a Mass: Report of Three Cases 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(1):54-60.
Hepatobiliary fibropolycystic diseases are a unique group of entities involving the liver and biliary tract, which are caused by abnormal embryologic development of the ductal plates at various stages. We experienced strange hepatobiliary fibropolycystic diseases with a complex mass composed of malformed ducts and biliary cysts, which did not belong to, and were different from, previously known malformations. They were unique in imaging and histologic features. We herein report three cases of monosegmental hepatobiliary fibropolycystic disease mimicking a mass.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2014.15.1.54
PMCID: PMC3909862  PMID: 24497792
Ductal plate malformations; Fibropolycystic disease; Monosegmental disease; Caroli disease
16.  Two-Stage Endovascular Repair for Concurrent Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcers of the Thoracic and Abdominal Aorta 
We report a case of concurrent saccular aneurysms caused by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the thoracic and abdominal aorta that were successfully treated by staged endovascular repair. Even though surgical open repair or endovascular repair is the treatment option, use of endovascular repair is now accepted as an alternative treatment to surgery in selected patients. To prevent contrast medium-induced nephropathy and spinal cord ischemia caused by a simultaneous endovascular procedure, a saccular aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta was excluded by stent graft, followed by the placement of a bifurcated stent graft in the infrarenal abdominal aorta one month later.
doi:10.5090/kjtcs.2013.46.5.365
PMCID: PMC3810560  PMID: 24175273
Aortic aneurysm; Endovascular procedures; Contrast media; Spinal cord ischemia
17.  Survey of Attitudes on Professionalism in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 
Archives of Plastic Surgery  2013;40(2):134-140.
Background
The purpose of this study is to analyze the current attitudes toward professionalism, the core values, and the type of professionalism among plastic surgeons in Korea to establish a code of ethics regarding the role of professionalism for plastic and reconstructive surgeons.
Methods
From March 9, to July 1, 2012, face-to-face and mail surveys were conducted targeting the 325 participants (256 specialists and 69 residents) who are registered members of the Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. The proportion of each response given to an item was obtained through statistical processing through frequency analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the differences in the responses between the resident group and the specialist group.
Results
The survey results on the perception of professionalism in plastic surgery showed that a high proportion (90.5%) of the respondents viewed the future of plastic surgeons as bright. Through evaluation of the importance of the value items,"professional dominance" (4.58 pts), "autonomy" (4.45 pts), "lifestyle" (4.34 pts), and "commercialism" (4.31 pts) were assessed as critical values. "Altruism" (3.84 pts), "interpersonal competence" (3.79 pts), and "social justice" (3.61 pts) were viewed as lesser values. This difference showed the characteristics of an entrepreneurial outlook.
Conclusions
Plastic surgeons should pursue excellence, humanism, accountability, and altruism in order to overcome the crisis of professionalism in plastic surgery. In order to develop the necessary competencies of professionals, vocational education should be arranged by the Korean Society of Plastic Surgeons, and an appropriate code of ethics should be established.
doi:10.5999/aps.2013.40.2.134
PMCID: PMC3605558  PMID: 23533062
Code of ethics; Plastic surgery; Professional role
18.  Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap 
Archives of Plastic Surgery  2013;40(1):28-35.
Background
If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such as peritonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient's hospital stay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason, a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominis muscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect.
Methods
From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture, cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week after operation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds did not resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation wound and dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa's fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath and muscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially so that the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction.
Results
Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation, no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in terms of function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery.
Conclusions
Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic and functional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, it enabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.
doi:10.5999/aps.2013.40.1.28
PMCID: PMC3556530  PMID: 23362477
Abdominal wound closure techniques; Wound infection; Rectus abdominis
19.  Measuring User Similarity Using Electric Circuit Analysis: Application to Collaborative Filtering 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e49126.
We propose a new technique of measuring user similarity in collaborative filtering using electric circuit analysis. Electric circuit analysis is used to measure the potential differences between nodes on an electric circuit. In this paper, by applying this method to transaction networks comprising users and items, i.e., user–item matrix, and by using the full information about the relationship structure of users in the perspective of item adoption, we overcome the limitations of one-to-one similarity calculation approach, such as the Pearson correlation, Tanimoto coefficient, and Hamming distance, in collaborative filtering. We found that electric circuit analysis can be successfully incorporated into recommender systems and has the potential to significantly enhance predictability, especially when combined with user-based collaborative filtering. We also propose four types of hybrid algorithms that combine the Pearson correlation method and electric circuit analysis. One of the algorithms exceeds the performance of the traditional collaborative filtering by 37.5% at most. This work opens new opportunities for interdisciplinary research between physics and computer science and the development of new recommendation systems
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049126
PMCID: PMC3492312  PMID: 23145095
20.  The Role, Interaction and Regulation of the Velvet Regulator VelB in Aspergillus nidulans 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e45935.
The multifunctional regulator VelB physically interacts with other velvet regulators and the resulting complexes govern development and secondary metabolism in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Here, we further characterize VelB’s role in governing asexual development and conidiogenesis in A. nidulans. In asexual spore formation, velB deletion strains show reduced number of conidia, and decreased and delayed mRNA accumulation of the key asexual regulatory genes brlA, abaA, and vosA. Overexpression of velB induces a two-fold increase of asexual spore production compared to wild type. Furthermore, the velB deletion mutant exhibits increased conidial germination rates in the presence of glucose, and rapid germination of conidia in the absence of external carbon sources. In vivo immuno-pull-down analyses reveal that VelB primarily interacts with VosA in both asexual and sexual spores, and VelB and VosA play an inter-dependent role in spore viability, focal trehalose biogenesis and control of conidial germination. Genetic and in vitro studies reveal that AbaA positively regulates velB and vosA mRNA expression during sporogenesis, and directly binds to the promoters of velB and vosA. In summary, VelB acts as a positive regulator of asexual development and regulates spore maturation, focal trehalose biogenesis and germination by interacting with VosA in A. nidulans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045935
PMCID: PMC3457981  PMID: 23049895
21.  Enteral nutrition associated non-occlusive bowel ischemia 
We describe two patients, with no previous history of vascular problems but poor lung function, who experienced septic shock due to bowel ischemia. Both were fed an enteral formula rich in fiber using a feeding tube and experienced septic shock with regular enteral feeding. Surgical finding showed hemorrhagic ischemia in the bowel. The pathologic finding suggests these changes may have been due to inspissations of bowel contents, which may put direct pressure on the mucosa of the bowel wall, leading to local impairment of mucosal and submucosal blood flow with subsequent bowel necrosis. Bowel ischemia may have been precipitated by an increased mesenteric blood flow requirement in combination with a metabolically stressed bowel. Patients in the intensive care unit fed a fiber-rich enteral formula may have inspissated bowel contents, leading to bowel ischemia, suggesting that the use of fiber-rich formula should be limited in patients at high-risk of bowel ischemia.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.3.171
PMCID: PMC3433554  PMID: 22977764
Enteral nutrition; Acute mesenteric ischemia; Intensive care units; Sepsis
22.  Clinical Characteristics of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: the National Survey in Korea from 2003 to 2007 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(7):756-760.
Evidence suggests that diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). According to the new IPF guidelines, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is an essential means of diagnosing IPF. We investigated the relationship between IPF and DM in patients treated between 2003 and 2007. Newly diagnosed IPF patients in large university teaching hospitals in Korea were enrolled from January 2003 to December 2007. We retrospectively analyzed 1,685 patients using the interstitial lung disease (ILD) registry. In total, 299 IPF patients (17.8%) also had DM. The mean age of our subjects was 68.0 ± 9.4 yr. HRCT showed significantly more reticular and honeycomb patterns in IPF patients with DM than in IPF patients without DM (P = 0.014, P = 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, significantly higher incidences of hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and other malignancies (except lung cancer) were found in IPF patients with DM than in IPF patients without DM. In conclusion, IPF patients with DM are more likely to have the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern, including reticular and honeycomb patterns, on HRCT than are those without DM.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.7.756
PMCID: PMC3390723  PMID: 22787370
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis; Diabetes Mellitus; High Resolution Computed Tomography
23.  Osteoplastic Reconstruction of Post-enucleatic Microorbitalism 
Archives of Plastic Surgery  2012;39(4):333-337.
Background
Patients who have undergone enucleation during infancy due to retinoblastoma can develop microorbitalism due to the decreased growth stimulation from the eyeball and the surrounding soft tissues. Anatomically, the orbit consist of parts of the frontal bone superiorly, the maxilla inferiorly, the ethmoid bone medially, and the zygoma laterally. Considering the possibility of surgically expanding the orbit using tripod osteotomy, in this study we conducted tripod osteotomy on adult patients with microorbitalism of retinoblastoma.
Methods
Tripod osteotomy was conducted to expand the orbital volume in adult patients with microorbitalism due to enucleation in infancy for retinoblastoma. The orbital volume was measured using the Aquarius Workstation ver. 4.3.6 and the orbit width was measured with preoperative and postoperative 3-dimensional facial bone computed tomography (CT) imaging. Preoperative and postoperative photographs were used to visualize the difference produced by the surgery.
Results
The orbital volume of the affected side was 10.3 cm3 before and 12.5 cm3 after the surgery, showing an average increase in volume of 2.2 cm3 (21.4%). The increase in the obital width was confirmed by the preoperative and postoperative 3-dimensional facial CT images and aesthetic improvement was observed by the preoperative and postoperative photographs.
Conclusions
Tripod osteotomy, which realigns the orbital bone, zygoma, and maxilla, is used to correct posttraumatic malunion as well as non-traumatic congenital abnormalities such as that seen in facial cleft. We applied this procedure in microorbitalism secondary to enucleation for retinoblastoma to allow orbital expansion and correct asymmetry.
doi:10.5999/aps.2012.39.4.333
PMCID: PMC3408278  PMID: 22872836
Orbit; Osteotomy; Retinoblastoma
24.  Protein and lipid MALDI profiles classify breast cancers according to the intrinsic subtype 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:465.
Background
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for molecular profiling of common solid tumors. Using recently developed MALDI matrices for lipid profiling, we evaluated whether direct tissue MALDI MS analysis on proteins and lipids may classify human breast cancer samples according to the intrinsic subtype.
Methods
Thirty-four pairs of frozen, resected breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue samples were analyzed using histology-directed, MALDI MS analysis. Sinapinic acid and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid were manually deposited on areas of each tissue section enriched in epithelial cells to identify lipid profiles, and mass spectra were acquired using a MALDI-time of flight instrument.
Results
Protein and lipid profiles distinguish cancer from adjacent normal tissue samples with the median prediction accuracy of 94.1%. Luminal, HER2+, and triple-negative tumors demonstrated different protein and lipid profiles, as evidenced by permutation P values less than 0.01 for 0.632+ bootstrap cross-validated misclassification rates with all classifiers tested. Discriminatory proteins and lipids were useful for classifying tumors according to the intrinsic subtype with median prediction accuracies of 80.0-81.3% in random test sets.
Conclusions
Protein and lipid profiles accurately distinguish tumor from adjacent normal tissue and classify breast cancers according to the intrinsic subtype.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-465
PMCID: PMC3218066  PMID: 22029885
protein; lipid; breast cancer; MALDI
25.  Discovery of the serum biomarker proteins in severe preeclampsia by proteomic analysis 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2011;43(7):427-435.
Preeclapsia (PE) is a severe disorder that occurs during pregnancy, leading to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. PE affects about 3-8% of all pregnancies. In this study, we conducted liquid chromatographymass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze serum samples depleted of the six most abundant proteins from normal and PE-affected pregnancies to profile serum proteins. A total of 237 proteins were confidently identified with < 1% false discovery rate from the two groups of duplicate analysis. The expression levels of those identified proteins were compared semiquantitatively by spectral counting. To further validate the candidate proteins with a quantitative mass spectrometric method, selective reaction monitoring (SRM) and enzyme linked immune assay (ELISA) of serum samples collected from pregnant women with severe PE (n = 8) or normal pregnant women (n = 5) was conducted. α2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and α-1-microglobulin/bikunin (AMBP) and Insulin like growth factor binding protein, acid labile subunit (IGFBP-ALS) were confirmed to be differentially expressed in PE using SRM (P < 0.05). Among these proteins, AHSG was verified by ELISA and showed a statistically significant increase in PE samples when compared to controls.
doi:10.3858/emm.2011.43.7.047
PMCID: PMC3158502  PMID: 21646846
α2HS-glycoprotein; biomarkers; pre-eclampsia; spectrometry, mass, electrospray ionization; proteomics; serum

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