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1.  Effect of Transurethral Resection With Hydrodistention for the Treatment of Ulcerative Interstitial Cystitis 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(10):682-688.
Purpose
Many treatment options to help relieve the symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) are available, but none are effective. Because no reports of transurethral ulcer resection with hydrodistention are available, we assessed the effects of such combined surgery for ulcerative IC.
Materials and Methods
Between June 2006 and June 2011, 87 female patients with IC who underwent transurethral resection with hydrodistention and were followed up for at least 12 months were included. Improvements in patients' voiding symptoms and pain were analyzed retrospectively by using a 3-day micturition chart and a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the operation. The global response assessment (GRA) was used to assess treatment satisfaction.
Results
The mean age of the 87 female patients was 59.1±10.1 years, and the mean follow-up period was 26.7±14.4 months. Mean maximum functional bladder capacity increased from 168.4±92.4 mL to 276.3±105.4 mL (1 month) and to 227.3±91.7 mL (12 months). The mean frequency of voiding decreased from 17.2±8.5 before to 10.6±5.3 after (1 month) surgery; however, it increased again to 13.3±4.8 at 12 months. The 10-point VAS score decreased from 9.1±0.8 to 1.2±0.3 (1 month); however, it increased again to 2.5±0.4 (3 months), 3.2±0.4 (6 months), and 5.3±0.5 (12 months) (p<0.001). Symptom improvement based on the GRA was observed in 83 of the 87 patients (95.4%) at 1 month and in 55 of 87 patients (63.2%) at 12 months.
Conclusions
Transurethral resection with hydrodistention is an effective treatment option for ulcerative IC because it provides improvements in voiding symptoms and pain.
doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.10.682
PMCID: PMC3806992  PMID: 24175042
Interstitial cystitis; Treatment outcome
2.  Investigation of Hypodontia as Clinically Related Dental Anomaly: Prevalence and Characteristics 
ISRN Dentistry  2010;2011:246135.
Objective. Patients with hypodontia are relatively common in clinical dentistry. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of hypodontia of permanent teeth in Korean orthodontic patients and whether such prevalence is associated with the type of dental clinic, patient gender, or the type of malocclusion. Materials and Methods. Over a five-year period, we evaluated 3,055 patients (mean age, 15.1 years; range 9~30) from two geographically separated orthodontic clinics: 1,479 from University Hospital and 1,576 from a private clinic. Hypodontia was diagnosed using panoramic radiographs, clinical examination, and dental casts. Results. The overall prevalence of hypodontia, excluding the third molars, was 11.3%, and there was no statistically significant association with the type of dental clinic, gender, or malocclusion patterns. The most commonly missing teeth were the mandibular second premolars (44.2%), followed by the mandibular lateral incisors (36.6%), and the maxillary second premolars (34.0%). In both sexes, 86.0% of patients with hypodontia were missing one or two teeth. Conclusion. The relatively high prevalence of hypodontia emphasizes the importance of dental examination in early childhood with radiographic screening for hypodontia as standard public oral health policy and warrants further investigation of the orthodontic treatment strategies to prevent resultant oral health impairments of hypodontia.
doi:10.5402/2011/246135
PMCID: PMC3170076  PMID: 21991459
3.  Sterols isolated from seeds of Panax ginseng and their antiinflammatory activities 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2013;9(34):182-185.
Background:
Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, a perennial herb from the Araliaceae family, is a commonly used medicinal plant. Many studies have been conducted on the biologically active constituents of whole parts of P. ginseng (i.e., roots, leaves, flower buds, and fruits). However, the seeds of P. ginseng have not been intensively investigated. A new sterol glucoside,3-O-b-d-glucopyranosyl-5,22,24-stigmastatrienol (1), and a known sterol, 5,22-stigmastadienol (2), were isolated from seeds of P. ginseng and were evaluated for their inhibitory activities on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) transcription in transfected HepG2 cells. The present work deals with the isolation, identification, and antiinflammatory activities of the two compounds.
Materials and Methods:
The compounds were isolated by a combination of silica gel and YMC R-18 column chromatography, and their structures were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D-NMR, and MS). The antiinflammatory activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by luciferase reporter gene assays.
Results:
Two sterols have been isolated from the seeds of P. ginseng. Compound 1 is a previously unreported glucosidyl sterol. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited NFκB-luciferase activity, with IC50 values of 8.1 and 4.8΅M, respectively. They also inhibited iNOS-luciferase activity in TNFα-induced HepG2 cells, with IC50 values of 2.2 and 2.9΅M, respectively.
Conclusion:
The two isolatedsterols have inhibitory effects on inflammation-related factors in HepG2 cells, as determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Thus, seeds of P. ginseng are worthy of consideration for the development and research of antiinflammatory agents.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.111288
PMCID: PMC3680860  PMID: 23772116
Antiinflammtiory activity; Panax ginseng; seeds; 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-5; 22; 24-stigmastatrienol
4.  Bladder Failure? 
doi:10.5213/inj.2012.16.4.209
PMCID: PMC3547185  PMID: 23346490
5.  Effect of composite yogurt enriched with acacia fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis 
AIM: To investigate whether composite yogurt with acacia dietary fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) has additive effects in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
METHODS: A total of 130 patients were randomly allocated to consume, twice daily for 8 wk, either the composite yogurt or the control product. The composite yogurt contained acacia dietary fiber and high-dose B. lactis together with two classic yogurt starter cultures. Patients were evaluated using the visual analog scale via a structured questionnaire administered at baseline and after treatment.
RESULTS: Improvements in bowel habit satisfaction and overall IBS symptoms from baseline were significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (27.16 vs 15.51, P = 0.010, 64.2 ± 17.0 vs 50.4 ± 20.5, P < 0.001; respectively). In constipation-predominant IBS, improvement in overall IBS symptoms was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (72.4 ± 18.4 vs 50.0 ± 21.8, P < 0.001). In patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS, improvement in bowel habit satisfaction from baseline was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (32.90 vs 7.81, P = 0.006).
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that composite yogurt enriched with acacia fiber and B. lactis has greater therapeutic effects in patients with IBS than standard yogurt.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i33.4563
PMCID: PMC3435782  PMID: 22969230
Acacia dietary fiber; Bifidobacterium lactis; Irritable bowel syndrome; Probiotics; Yogurt
6.  A Case of Giant Osteoma Developed from the Mastoid Cortical Bone 
Korean Journal of Audiology  2012;16(2):95-98.
An osteoma of the temporal bone is a rare benign tumor. External auditory canal is the most common site of osteomas arising from temporal bone, and mastoid osteoma is very rare. A case of a 42-year-old female with a huge osteoma which developed from mastoid cortical bone is presented and the review of the temporal bone osteomas is discussed. The patient showed a huge and hard mass in the right mastoid area growing over a 20-year period. A temporal bone computed tomography scan demonstrated 2.3×2.3×4.3 cm sized bony tumor on surface of the right mastoid and squama. The resection of whole bony tumor with mastoid cortical bone was performed using retroauricular approach. Pathologic evaluation revealed the osteoma. The huge osteoma in the mastoid area may induce a cosmetic deformity. Early diagnosis and surgical removal of the osteoma may ensure an easy and complete treatment. The total resection of bony tumor including mastoid cortical bone is recommended to avoid recurrence.
doi:10.7874/kja.2012.16.2.95
PMCID: PMC3936565  PMID: 24653880
Osteoma; Temporal bone; Mastoid
7.  A Case of Ramsay Hunt Syndrome with Cranial Polyneuropathy 
Korean Journal of Audiology  2012;16(2):80-82.
Ramsay Hunt syndrome is an infectious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus. It is characterized by the symptoms of facial paralysis, otalgia, and erythematous vesicular rash on the auricle and/or oral cavity. We present a case of a patient with clinical evidence of Ramsay Hunt syndrome involving the cranial nerves VI, VII, and VIII. The patient, a 66-year-old woman, showed left facial palsy associated with vesicular eruptions on her left auricle, impaired gaze to left side, and left hearing loss. Four months after the treatment with systemic steroid and antiviral agents, her all symptoms and signs including facial paralysis and diplopia disappeared.
doi:10.7874/kja.2012.16.2.80
PMCID: PMC3936570  PMID: 24653876
Ramsay Hunt syndrome; Cranial polyneuropathy; Steroid
8.  Inhibition of TNF-α-Mediated NF-κB Transcriptional Activity by Dammarane-Type Ginsenosides from Steamed Flower Buds of Panax ginseng in HepG2 and SK-Hep1 Cells 
Biomolecules & Therapeutics  2014;22(1):55-61.
Panax ginseng is a medicinal herb that is used worldwide. Its medicinal effects are primarily attributable to ginsenosides located in the root, leaf, seed, and flower. The flower buds of Panax ginseng (FBPG) are rich in various bioactive ginsenosides, which exert immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of 18 ginsenosides isolated from steamed FBPG on the transcriptional activity of NF-κB and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated target genes in liver-derived cell lines. Noticeably, the ginsenosides Rk3 and Rs4 exerted the strongest activity, inhibiting NF-κB in a dose-dependent manner. SF and Rg6 also showed moderately inhibitory effects. Furthermore, these four compounds inhibited the TNF-α-induced expression of IL8, CXCL1, iNOS, and ICAM1 genes. Consequently, ginsenosides purified from steamed FBPG have therapeutic potential in TNF-α-mediated diseases such as chronic hepatic inflammation.
doi:10.4062/biomolther.2013.096
PMCID: PMC3936430  PMID: 24596622
NF-κB inhibitory activity; Panax ginseng flower buds; Tumor necrosis factor-α; Hepatocyte derived cells
9.  Neuroendocrine Tumor of Unknown Primary Accompanied with Stomach Adenocarcinoma 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2011;11(4):234-238.
A 67 year old male at a regular checkup underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. On performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a lesion about 1.2 cm depressed was noted at the gastric angle. The pathology of the biopsy specimen revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. On performing an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan & positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan, no definite evidence of gastric wall thickening or mass lesion was found. However, lymph node enlargement was found in the left gastric and prepancreatic spaces. This patient underwent laparoscopic assisted distal gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection. On final examination, it was found out that the tumor had invaded the mucosal layer. The lymph node was a metastasized large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with an unknown primary site. The patient refused chemotherapy. He opted to undergo a close follow-up. At the postoperative month 27, he had a focal hypermetabolic lesion in the left lobe of the liver that suggested metastasis on PET-CT scan. He refused to undergo an operation. He underwent a radiofrequency ablation.
doi:10.5230/jgc.2011.11.4.234
PMCID: PMC3273695  PMID: 22324016
Gastric cancer; Neuroendocrine tumors; Neoplasms, unknown primary
10.  Self-inflicted Chronic Bacterial Keratoconjunctivitis Using Self Semen 
This case report describes a case of self-inflicted chronic bacterial keratoconjunctivitis involving the patient's own semen. A 20-year-old male soldier was referred to our clinic for the evaluation of refractory chronic bacterial conjunctivitis. Over the previous 4 months, he had been treated for copious mucous discharge, conjunctival injection, and superficial punctate keratitis in both eyes at an army hospital and a local eye clinic. Despite the use of topical and systemic antibiotics according to the results of conjunctival swab culture, there was no improvement. During the repeated smear and culture of conjunctival swabs, surprisingly, a few sperm were detected on Gram staining, revealing that the condition was self-inflicted bacterial keratoconjunctivitis involving the patient's own semen. Thus, in cases of chronic keratoconjunctivitis that do not respond to appropriate antibiotic treatment, self-inflicted disease or malingering should be considered.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2013.27.6.459
PMCID: PMC3849311  PMID: 24311933
Keratoconjunctivitis; Malingering; Self-inflicted disease
11.  HOXA11 hypermethylation is associated with progression of non-small cell lung cancer 
Oncotarget  2013;4(12):2317-2325.
This study was aimed at understanding the functional significance of HOXA11 hypermethylation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). HOXA11 hypermethylation was characterized in six lung cancer cell lines, and its clinical significance was analyzed using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 317 NSCLC patients, and Ki-67 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The promoter region of HOXA11 was highly methylated in six lung cancer cell lines, but not in normal bronchial epithelial cells. The loss of expression was restored by treatment of the cells with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC). Transient transfection of HOXA11 into H23 lung cancer cells resulted in the inhibition of cell migration and proliferation. HOXA11 hypermethylation was found in 218 (69%) of 317 primary NSCLCs. HOXA11 hypermethylation was found at a higher prevalence in squamous cell carcinoma than in adenocarcinoma (74% vs. 63%, respectively). HOXA11 hypermethylation was associated with Ki-67 proliferation index (P = 0.03) and pT stage (P = 0.002), but not with patient survival. Patients with pT2 and pT3 stages were 1.85 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-3.29; P = 0.04) and 5.47 times (95% CI = 1.18-25.50; P = 0.01), respectively, more likely to show HOXA11 hypermethylation than those with pT1 stage, after adjusting for age, sex, and histology. In conclusion, the present study suggests that HOXA11 hypermethylation may contribute to the progression of NSCLC by promoting cell proliferation or migration.
PMCID: PMC3926829  PMID: 24259349
HOXA11; Hypermethylation; Non-small cell lung cancer; Progression; Migration
12.  Epigenetic Inactivation of Heparan Sulfate (Glucosamine) 3-O-Sulfotransferase 2 in Lung Cancer and Its Role in Tumorigenesis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79634.
Background
This study was aimed at investigating the functional significance of heparan sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 2 (HS3ST2) hypermethylation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Methodology/ Principal Findings
HS3ST2 hypermethylation was characterized in six lung cancer cell lines, and its clinical significance was analyzed using 298 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and 26 fresh-frozen tissues from 324 NSCLC patients. MS-HRM (methylation-specific high-resolution melting) and EpiTYPERTM assays showed substantial hypermethylation of CpG island at the promoter region of HS3ST2 in six lung cancer cell lines. The silenced gene was demethylated and re-expressed by treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC). A promoter assay also showed the core promoter activity of HS3ST2 was regulated by methylation. Exogenous expression of HS3ST2 in lung cancer cells H460 and H23 inhibited cell migration, invasion, cell proliferation and whereas knockdown of HS3ST2 in NHBE cells induced cell migration, invasion, and cell proliferation in vitro. A negative correlation was observed between mRNA and methylation levels of HS3ST2 in 26 fresh-frozen tumors tissues (ρ = -0.51, P = 0.009; Spearman’s rank correlation). HS3ST2 hypermethylation was found in 95 (32%) of 298 primary NSCLCs. Patients with HS3ST2 hypermethylation in 193 node-negative stage I-II NSCLCs with a median follow-up period of 5.8 years had poor overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.12, 95% confidence interval = 1.25–3.58, P = 0.005) compared to those without HS3ST2 hypermethylation, after adjusting for age, sex, tumor size, adjuvant therapy, recurrence, and differentiation.
Conclusions/ Significance
The present study suggests that HS3ST2 hypermethylation may be an independent prognostic indicator for overall survival in node-negative stage I-II NSCLC.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079634
PMCID: PMC3827134  PMID: 24265783
13.  Comparison of Movement of the Upper Dentition According to Anchorage Method: Orthodontic Mini-Implant versus Conventional Anchorage Reinforcement in Class I Malocclusion 
ISRN Dentistry  2010;2011:321206.
Objective. To compare the amounts of anchorage loss in the upper first molar (U6) and of retraction of the upper central incisor (U1) in cases with Class I malocclusion between orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) and conventional anchorage reinforcements (CARs). Methods. The subjects were 40 female adult patients with Class I malocclusion who were treated with extraction of the first premolars and sliding mechanics. The subjects were divided into Groups 1 (N = 20, CAR) and 2 (N = 20, OMI) according to anchorage method. Lateral cephalograms were taken before (T0) and after treatment (T1). Seven skeletal and dental variables and ten anchorage variables were measured. Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. Results. Group 2 showed significantly larger retraction of U1 (U1E-sag, 9.5 mm : 7.1 mm, P < .05) and less anchorage loss of U6 (U6M-sag, 0.2 mm : 2.2 mm, P < .05; U6A-sag, 0.3 mm versus 2.4 mm, P < .01) than Group 1. There was opposite vertical movement in U1 and U6 between Groups 1 and 2 (U1E-ver, 0.9 mm intrusion : 0.7 mm extrusion; U6F-ver, 1.0 mm intrusion : 0.9 mm extrusion, P < .05). Conclusion. Although OMI could not reduce the treatment duration, it could provide better maximum anchorage of U6, greater retraction of U1, intrusion of U1 and U6 than CAR.
doi:10.5402/2011/321206
PMCID: PMC3169901  PMID: 21991465
14.  Seasonal Variation in Months of Birth and Symptom Flares in Korean Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(6):661-667.
Background/Aims
Seasonal variation may influence the development and exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, most epidemiologic studies on this topic have been conducted in Western countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether birth dates and symptom flares follow a seasonal pattern in Korean patients with IBD.
Methods
Patients with a diagnosis of IBD established between January 2003 and December 2010 were investigated at six university hospitals in Korea. The expected births and flares, with a uniform distribution during the year and considering differences in the number of days in the months of 1 year, were calculated.
Results
A total of 411 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 316 patients with Crohn disease (CD) were included in the study. Birth during the winter period, and especially in January and February, was associated with an increased risk of IBD, especially in UC patients. The symptom flares of CD patients occurred most frequently in the spring, with a nadir in the autumn. However, no disease flare seasonality was noted for UC patients.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that seasonally varying environmental factors during pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with a susceptibility to IBD later in life and that exacerbations of CD are influenced by seasonal factors.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2013.7.6.661
PMCID: PMC3848533  PMID: 24312706
Inflammatory bowel diseases; Seasonality; Birth month; Symptom flares
15.  The cartilage degeneration and joint motion of bipolar hemiarthroplasty 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(10):2015-2020.
Purpose
The outcomes of bipolar hemiarthoplasty for osteonecrosis of femoral head have been disappointing due to cartilage degeneration and osteolysis. We investigated the cartilage degeneration, joint motion, and factors associated with osteolysis.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 134 bipolar hemiarthroplasties. The wear rate of acetabular cartilage was calculated. The ranges of motion of outer bearing and inner bearing were determined, and the ratio (O/I ratio) was calculated.
Results
The mean degeneration rate of acetabular cartilage was 0.34 ± 0.35 mm/year. We could observe that the outer bearing motion was dominant, but decreased over time. In addition, the degeneration rate of cartilage and the decline rate of outer bearing motion of the osteolysis group were significantly higher than those of the control group.
Conclusions
Close observation is needed in cases of high degeneration rate of cartilage and rapid decline of outer bearing motion due to possibility of osteolysis.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1567-9
PMCID: PMC3460100  PMID: 22588693
16.  Characteristics of Glottic Closure Reflex in a Canine Model 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2009;50(3):380-384.
Purpose
The most important function of the larynx is airway protection which is provided through a polysynaptic reflex closure triggered by the receptors in the glottic and supraglottic mucosa, evoking the reflex contraction of the laryngeal muscles especially by strong adduction of vocal cords. Based on the hypotheses that central facilitation is essential for this bilateral adductor reflex and that its disturbance can result in weakened laryngeal closure, we designed this study to elucidate the effect of central facilitation on this protective reflex.
Materials and Methods
Seven adult, 20 kg mongrel dogs underwent evoked response laryngeal electromyography under 0.5 to 1.0 MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) isoflurane anesthesia. The internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve was stimulated through bipolar platinum-iridium electrodes, and recording electrodes were positioned in the ipsilateral and contralateral thyroarytenoid muscles.
Results
Ipsilateral reflex closure was consistantly recorded regardless of anesthetic levels. However, contralateral reflex responses disappeared as anesthetic levels were deepened. Additionally, late responses (R2) were detected in one animal at lower level of anesthesia.
Conclusions
Deepened level of anesthesia affects central facilitation and results in the loss of the crossed adductor reflex, predisposing to a weakened glottic closure response. Precise understanding of this effect may possibly provide a way to prevent aspiration in unconscious patients.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2009.50.3.380
PMCID: PMC2703761  PMID: 19568600
Glottic closure reflex; anesthesia; central facilitation; aspiration
17.  Association between Plasma Levels of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and Colorectal Neoplasms 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(5):519-523.
Background/Aims
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is important for tumor growth, Invasion, and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between plasma levels of PAI-1 and colorectal adenomas.
Methods
We reviewed the medical records of 3,136 subjects who underwent colonoscopy as a screening exam. The subjects were classified into a case group with adenomas (n=990) and a control group (n=2,146). Plasma PAI-1 levels were categorized into three groups based on tertile.
Results
The plasma levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in adenoma cases than in controls (p=0.023). The prevalence of colorectal adenomas increased significantly with increasing levels of PAI-1 (p=0.038). In the adenoma group, advanced pathologic features, size, and number of adenomas did not differ among the three groups based on tertiles for plasma PAI-1 levels. Using multivariate analysis, we found that plasma level of PAI-1 was not associated with the risk of colorectal adenomas (p=0.675). Adjusted odds ratios for colorectal adenomas according to increasing plasma levels of PAI-1 were 0.980 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.768 to 1.251) for the second-highest plasma level and 1.091 (95% CI, 0.898 to 1.326) for the highest level, compared with the lowest levels.
Conclusions
These results suggest that elevated plasma PAI-1 levels are not associated with the risk of colorectal neoplasms.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2013.7.5.519
PMCID: PMC3782665  PMID: 24073308
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; Colorectal neoplasms
18.  Cytotoxic Compounds from Brucea mollis 
Scientia Pharmaceutica  2012;81(3):819-831.
Ten compounds, including soulameanone (1), isobruceine B (2), 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (3), bruceolline F (4), niloticine (5), octatriacontan-1-ol (6), bombiprenone (7), α-tocopherol (8), inosine (9), and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz. Their structures were determined using one-and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB (human carcinoma of the mouth), LU-1 (human lung adenocarcinoma), LNCaP (human prostate adeno-carcinoma), and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cancer cell lines. Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.39, 0.40, 0.34, and 0.23 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 5 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values around 1–4 μg/mL. Compounds 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (3) and niloticine (5) have been discovered for the first time from the Brucea genus.
doi:10.3797/scipharm.1206-02
PMCID: PMC3791942  PMID: 24106661
Brucea mollis; Cytotoxicity; Quassinoids; Alkaloids; Triterpenoids
19.  Effectiveness of Retropubic Tension-Free Vaginal Tape and Transobturator Inside-Out Tape Procedures in Women With Overactive Bladder and Stress Urinary Incontinence 
Purpose
We compared the effectiveness of the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and the transobturator inside-out tape (TVT-O) in treating symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI).
Methods
Women with urodynamic SUI and OAB (mean urgency episodes ≥1 and frequency ≥8/24 hours on a 3-day voiding diary) were assigned to the TVT or TVT-O group. Preoperative measures were based on a urodynamic study, 3-day voiding diary, the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTSSF), and the urgency perception scale (UPS). At 12 postoperative months, the 3-day voiding diary, symptoms questionnaire, patient satisfaction, and standing stress test were assessed. The primary endpoint was change in the number of urgency episodes/24 hours from baseline to 12 months.
Results
In this group of 132 women, 42 received TVT and 90 received TVT-O. The mean urgency episodes/24 hours decreased from 6.3±5.5 to 1.6±3.2 in the TVT group and from 5.1±4.4 to 1.8±3.0 in the TVT-O group. The mean percent change was significantly greater after TVT than after TVT-O (73% vs. 60%, P=0.049). All subscales of BFLUTSSF and UPS were significantly improved using either method, with significantly greater improvement seen in the quality of life (QoL) domain after TVT (P=0.002). There were no significant differences in the cure and satisfaction rates between the two groups.
Conclusions
Intervention with the TVT or the TVT-O significantly improved symptoms of OAB in women with SUI and OAB. Urgency and QoL significantly improved after TVT compared with that after TVT-O.
doi:10.5213/inj.2013.17.3.145
PMCID: PMC3797895  PMID: 24143294
Overactive urinary bladder; Stress urinary incontinence
20.  The association between cecal insertion time and colorectal neoplasm detection 
BMC Gastroenterology  2013;13:124.
Background
Information on the impact of cecal insertion time on colorectal neoplasm detection is limited. Our objective was to determine the association between cecal insertion time and colorectal neoplasm detection rate in colonoscopy screening.
Methods
We performed a cross-sectional study of 12,679 consecutive subjects aged 40–79 years undergoing screening colonoscopy in routine health check-ups at the Center for Health Promotion of the Samsung Medical Center from December 2007 to June 2009. Fixed effects logistic regression conditioning on colonoscopist was used to eliminate confounding due to differences in technical ability and other characteristics across colonoscopists.
Results
The mean cecal insertion time was 5.9 (SD, 4.4 minutes). We identified 4,249 (33.5%) participants with colorectal neoplasms, of whom 1,956 had small single adenomas (<5 mm), 595 had medium single adenomas (5–9 mm), and 1,699 had multiple adenomas or advanced colorectal neoplasms. The overall rates of colorectal neoplasm detection by quartiles of cecal insertion time were 36.8%, 33.4%, 32.7%, and 31.0%, respectively (p trend <0.001).The odds for small single colorectal adenoma detection was 16% lower (adjusted OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99) in the fourth compared to the first quartile of insertion time (p trend 0.005). Insertion time was not associated with the detection rate of single adenomas ≥5 mm, multiple adenomas or advanced colorectal neoplasms.
Conclusion
Shorter insertion times were associated with increased rates of detection of small colorectal adenomas <5 mm. Cecal insertion time may be clinically relevant as missed small colorectal adenomas may progress to more advanced lesions.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-13-124
PMCID: PMC3750659  PMID: 23915303
Cecal insertion time; Colorectal neoplasm; Screening colonoscopy
21.  Anti-Inflammatory Components of the Starfish Astropecten polyacanthus 
Marine Drugs  2013;11(8):2917-2926.
Inflammation is important in biomedical research, because it plays a key role in inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, allergies, asthma, and even cancer. In the present study, we describe the inhibitory effect of crude extracts and steroids isolated from the starfish Astropecten polyacanthus on pro-inflammatory cytokine (Interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Among those tested, compounds 5 and 7 showed potent inhibitory effects on the production of all three pro-inflammatory cytokines with IC50 values ranging from 1.82 ± 0.11 to 7.00 ± 0.16 μM. Potent inhibitory activities were also observed for compound 1 on the production of IL-12 p40 and IL-6 with values of 3.96 ± 0.12 and 4.07 ± 0.13 μM, respectively, and for compounds 3 and 4 on the production of IL-12 p40 with values of 6.55 ± 0.18 and 5.06 ± 0.16 μM, respectively. Moreover, compounds 2 (IC50 = 34.86 ± 0.31 μM) and 6 (IC50 = 79.05 ± 2.05 μM) exhibited moderate inhibitory effects on the production of IL-12 p40, whereas compounds 3 (IC50 = 22.80 ± 0.21 μM) and 4 (IC50 = 16.73 ± 0.25 μM) moderately inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6, respectively.
doi:10.3390/md11082917
PMCID: PMC3766873  PMID: 23945602
starfish; Astropecten polyacanthus; IL-12 p40; IL-6; TNF-α; LPS-stimulated BMDCs
22.  Evaluation of the RNase H Inhibitory Properties of Vietnamese Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Compounds 
Pharmaceutical biology  2011;49(10):1046-1051.
In research on anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents from natural sources, thirty two extracts of Vietnamese plants and twenty five isolated compounds were screened for their inhibitory effect against the ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the cytopathic effect of the HIV virus. At a concentration of 50 μg/mL, eleven plant extracts and five isolated compounds inhibited over 90 percent of RNase H enzymatic activity. Of these, the methanol extracts from the leaves of Phyllanthus reticulatus and Aglaia aphanamixis highly inhibited RNase H activity by 99% and 98%, respectively. Several fucoidans isolated from seaweeds Sargassum kuetzingii, Sargassum polycystum, and Gelidiella acerosa, as well as epigallocatechin-3-gallate isolated from Camellia chinensis also showed strong inhibitory effects over ninety percent. Sixteen plant extracts with inhibition of over seventy five percent in the RNase H assay were tested in a cellular model of HIV-1 cytopathicity; four extracts showed modest activity in protecting against the cytopathic effect of the HIV virus.
doi:10.3109/13880209.2011.563316
PMCID: PMC3724220  PMID: 21595586
RNase H; Cytopathic; Antivirus; Vietnamese plants; Screening
23.  Association between MSX1 SNPs and Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate in the Korean Population 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(4):522-526.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of MSX1 gene to the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NS-CL ± P) in the Korean population. The samples consisted of 142 NS-CL ± P families (9 with cleft lip, 26 with cleft lip and alveolus, and 107 with cleft lip and palate; 76 trios and 66 dyads). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: rs3821949, rs12532, and rs4464513) were tested for association with NS-CL ± P case-parent trios using transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and conditional logistic regression models (CLRMs). Minor allele frequency, heterozygosity, χ2 test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) at each SNP were computed. The family- and haplotype-based association test programs were used to perform allelic and genotypic TDTs for individual SNPs and to fabricate sliding windows of haplotypes. Genotypic odds ratios (GORs) were obtained from CLRMs using R software. Although the family-based TDT indicated a meaningful association for rs3821949 (P = 0.028), the haplotype analysis did not reveal any significant association with rs3821949, rs12532, or rs4464513. The A allele at rs3821949 had a significant increased risk of NS-CL ± P (GOR, 1.64; 95% confidence interval,1.03-2.63; P = 0.038, additive model). A positive association is suggested between MSX1 rs3821949 and NS-CL ± P in the Korean population.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.4.522
PMCID: PMC3617303  PMID: 23580168
MSX1 SNP; Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip with or without Palate; Korean; Association Analysis
24.  Oleanane-triterpenoids from Panax stipuleanatus inhibit NF-κB 
Journal of Ginseng Research  2013;37(1):74-79.
In continuation of our research to find biological components from Panax stipuleanatus, four oleanane-type triterpenes (12 to 15) were isolated successively. Fifteen oleanane-type saponins (1 to 15) were evaluated for nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity using a luciferase reporter gene assay in HepG2 cells. Compounds 6 to 11 inhibited NF-κB, with IC50 values between 3.1 to 18.9 μM. The effects on inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 by compounds 8, 10, and 11 were also examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Three compounds (8, 10, and 11) inhibited NF-κB activity by reducing the concentration of inflammatory factors in HepG2 cells.
doi:10.5142/jgr.2013.37.74
PMCID: PMC3659621  PMID: 23717159
Panax ginseng; Panax stipuleanatus; Oleanane-type triterpenoid; Nuclear factor-κB
25.  Effect of KOB03, a polyherbal medicine, on ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis in guinea pigs 
Chinese Medicine  2012;7:27.
Background
KOB03 is a polyherbal medicine that originated from the oriental prescription for the treatment of chronic allergic diseases such as rhinitis and asthma. This study aims to evaluate the effect of KOB03 on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) in guinea pigs.
Methods
Hartley guinea pigs were sensitized to OVA by intraperitoneal injection on days 0, 7, and 14 and challenged with intranasal exposure to OVA three times for 7 days after the last sensitization. KOB03 at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg were orally administrated to guinea pigs once daily during challenge. The serum levels of histamine, OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4 and IFN-γ) in OVA sensitization/challenge-induced AR guinea pigs were measured. We also observed histological changes in nasal tissues of AR guinea pigs by staining with H&E, Periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue.
Results
The administration of KOB03 at a dose of 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the serum levels of histamine (P = 0.001), OVA-specific IgE (P = 0.0017), ECP (P = 0.008), and TNF-α (P = 0.0003) in OVA-sensitized/challenged guinea pigs compared with controls. KOB03 significantly decreased the serum levels of a Th2 cytokine, IL-4 (P = 0.017), while significantly increasing the levels of a Th1 cytokine, IFN-γ (P = 0.0006) in OVA-sensitized/challenged guinea pigs compared with controls. In addition, KOB03 suppressed the epithelial destruction, goblet cell hyperplasia and eosinophilic infiltration into nasal mucosa associated with AR.
Conclusion
KOB03 may regulate allergic inflammation in AR by inhibiting nasal damage, the release of allergic mediators and modulating the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines.
doi:10.1186/1749-8546-7-27
PMCID: PMC3541982  PMID: 23253436

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