Single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) is a new advanced technique in laparoscopic surgery. Many laparoscopic surgeons seek to gain skill in this new technique. However, little data has been accumulated and published formally yet. This article reports the achievement of 100 cases of SPLC with the hopes it will encourage laparoscopic surgery centers in the early adoption of SPLC.
A retrospective review of 100 prospectively selected cases of SPLC was carried out. All patients had received elective SPLC by a single surgeon in our center from May 2009 to December 2010. Our review suggests patients' character, perioperative data and postoperative outcomes.
Forty-two men and 58 women with an average age of 45.8 years had received SPLC. Their mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.85 kg/m2. The mean operating time took 76.75 minutes. However, operating time was decreased according to the increase of experience of SPLC cases. Twenty-one cases were converted to multi-port surgery. BMI, age, previous low abdominal surgical history did not seem to affect conversion to multi-port surgery. No cases were converted to open surgery. Mean duration of hospital stay was 2.18 days. Six patients had experienced complications from which they had recovered after conservative treatment.
SPLC is a safe and practicable technique. The operating time is moderate and can be reduced with the surgeon's experience. At first, strict criteria was indicated for SPLC, however, with surgical experience, the criteria and area of SPLC can be broadened. SPLC is occupying a greater domain of conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Single port surgery; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
We sought to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts and surgical success, focusing on cyst recurrence.
From February 2004 to August 2011, 37 consecutive patients with symptomatic hepatic cysts were evaluated and treated at Dong-A University Hospital. Indications were simple cysts (n = 20), multiple cysts (n = 6), polycystic disease (n = 2), and cystadenoma (n = 9).
The median patient age was 64 years, with a mean lesion diameter of 11.4 cm. The coincidence between preoperative imaging and final pathologic diagnosis was 54% and half (n = 19) of the cysts were located in segments VII and VIII. Twenty-two patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification I and II, and nine had ASA classification III. Surgical treatment of hepatic cysts were open liver resection (n = 3), laparoscopic deroofing (n = 24), laparoscopic cyst excision (n = 4), laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (n = 2), hand assisted laparoscopic procedure (n = 2), and single port laparoscopic deroofing (n = 2). The mean fellow-up was 21 months, and six patients (16%) experienced radiographic-apparent recurrence. Reoperation due to recurrence was performed in two patients. Among the factors predicting recurrence, multivariate analysis revealed that interventional radiological procedures and pathologic diagnosis were statistically significant.
Laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts is a simple and effective method to relieve symptoms with minimal surgical trauma. Moreover, the recurrence is dependent on the type of pathology involved, and the sclerotherapy undertaken.
Liver; Hepatic cyst; Laparoscopy
Hepatobiliary surgery has changed dramatically in recent decades with the advent of laparoscopic techniques. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare survival rates according to stages, adjusting for important prognostic factors.
A retrospective study of a 17-year period from January 1994 to April 2011 was carried out. The cases studied were divided into two time period cohorts, those treated in the first 9-years (n = 109) and those treated in the last 7-years (n = 109).
An operation with curative intent was performed on 218 patients. The 5-year survival rates according to the depth of invasion were 86% (T1), 56% (T2), 45% (T3), and 5% (T4). The number of cases of incidental gallbladder cancer found during 3,919 laparoscopic cholecystectomies was 96 (2.4%). Incidental gallbladder cancer revealed a better survival rate (P = 0.003). Iatrogenic bile spillage was found in 20 perforations of the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomies, 16 preoperative percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainages and 16 percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainages; only percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage patients showed a significantly lower survival rate than patients without iatrogenic bile spillage (P < 0.034). Chemoradiation appeared to improve overall survival (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis also revealed that time period, type of surgery, surgical margin, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node involvement, and chemoradiation therapy had significant effects.
This study found that the prognosis of gallbladder cancer is still determined by the stage at presentation due to the aggressive biology of this tumor. Early diagnosis, radical resection and appropriate adjuvant therapy can increase overall survival.
Gallbladder cancer; Laparoscopy; Prognosis
AIM: To investigate the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) using floxuridine (FUDR) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) confined to the liver.
METHODS: Thirty-four patients who had advanced HCC with unresectability or unsuccessful previous therapy in the absence of extrahepatic metastasis were treated with intra-arterial FUDR chemotherapy at our hospital between March 2005 and May 2008. Among the 34 patients, 9 patients were classified as Child class C, and 18 patients had portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). One course of chemotherapy consisted of continuous infusion of FUDR (0.3 mg/kg during day 1-14) and dexamethasone (10 mg on day 1, 4, 7 and 11), and this treatment was repeated every 28 d.
RESULTS: Two patients (5.9%) displayed a complete response, and 12 patients (35.3%) had a partial response. The tumor control rate was 61.8%. The median overall survival times were 15.3 mo, 12.4 mo and 4.3 mo for the patients who were classified as Child class A, Child class B and Child class C, respectively (P = 0.0392). The progression-free survival was 12.9 mo, 7.7 mo and 2.6 mo for the patients who were classified as Child class A, Child class B and Child class C, respectively (P = 0.0443). The cumulative survival differed significantly according to the Child-Pugh classification and the presence of PVTT. In addition to hepatic reserve capacity and PVTT, the extent of HCC was an independent factor in determining a poor prognosis. The most common adverse reactions to HAIC were mucositis, diarrhea and peptic ulcer disease, but most of these complications were improved by medical treatment and/or a delay of HAIC.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that intra-arterial FUDR chemotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for advanced HCC that is recalcitrant to other therapeutic modalities, even in patients with advanced cirrhosis.
Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy; Floxuridine; Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma; Child-Pugh classification; Portal vein tumor thrombus
Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is now widely accepted and is being increasingly performed. The present study describes our experience with LLR at a single center over an eight-year period.
This retrospective study enrolled 100 patients between October 2002 and February 2010. Forty-six benign lesions and 54 malignant lesions were included. The LLR performed included 58 pure laparoscopy procedures, 18 hand-assisted laparoscopy procedures and 24 hybrid technique procedures.
The mean age of the patients was 57 years; among these patients, 31 were over 65 years of age. The mean operation time was 220 minutes. The overall morbidity was 11% and the mortality was zero. Among the 20 patients with simple hepatic cysts, 50% unexpectedly recurred. Among the 41 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 21 patients (51%) underwent preoperative radiofrequency ablation therapy or transarterial chemoembolization. During parenchymal-transection, 11 received blood transfusion. The width of the resection margins was under 0.5 cm in 11 cases (27%); 0.5 to 1 cm in 22 cases (54%) and over 1 cm in eight cases (12%). There was no port site seeding, but argon beam coagulation-induced tumor dissemination was observed in two cases. The overall two-year survival rate was 75%.
This study suggests that the applications for LLR can be gradually expanded when assuring that the safety and curability of LLR are equivalent to that of open liver resection.
Laparoscopic liver resection; Hepatic cyst; Hapatocellular carcinoma; Resection margin
Background and Objectives
The sinus venosus (SV) is not a well known source of atrial tachycardia (AT), but it can harbor AT during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF).
Subjects and Methods
A total of 1223 patients who underwent catheter ablation for AF were reviewed. Electrophysiological and electrocardiographic characteristics and outcomes after catheter ablation of AT originating from the SV were investigated.
Ten patients (0.82%) demonstrated AT from the SV (7 males, 53.9±16.0 years, 6 persistent) during ablation of AF. The mean cycle length was 281±73 ms. After pulmonary vein isolation and left atrial ablation, AF converted to AT from the SV during right atrial ablation in 2 patients, by rapid atrial pacing after AF termination in 7 patients, and during isoproterenol infusion in 1 patient. Positive P-waves in inferior leads were shown in most patients (90%). The activation sequence of AT was from proximal to distal in the superior vena cava and high to low in the right atrium, which was similar to that of AT from crista terminalis. Fragmented double potentials were recorded during sinus, and a second discrete potential preceded the onset of P wave by 80±37 ms during AT. Using 4.4±2.7 radiofrequency focal applications, ATs were terminated and became no longer inducible in all. After ablation procedure, two patients showed transient right phrenic nerve palsy. After 19.9±14.8 months, all but 1 patient were free of atrial tachyarrhythmia without complications.
The AT which develops during AF ablation is rarely originated from SV, and its electrophysiologic characteristics may be helpful in guiding effective focal ablation.
Atrial tachycardia; Sinus venosus; Atrial fibrillation
This research was performed to investigate the differences of the transplanted cells' survival and differentiation, and its efficacy according to the delivery routes following spinal cord injury. Allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were transplanted intravenously (IV group) or intralesionally (IL group) at post-injury 1 day in rats. Behavioral improvement, engraftment and differentiation of the transplanted cells and the expression of neurotrophic factors of the transplanted groups were analyzed and compared with those of the control group. At 6 weeks post-injury, the mean BBB motor scales in the control, IV and IL groups were 6.5 ± 1.8, 11.1 ± 2.1, and 8.5 ± 2.8, respectively. Regardless of the delivery route, the MSCs transplantation following spinal cord injuries presented better behavioral improvement. The differentiations of the engrafted cells were different according to the delivery routes. The engrafted cells predominantly differentiated into astrocytes in the IV group and on the other hand, engrafted cells of the IL group demonstrated relatively even neural and glial differentiation. The expressions of neuronal growth factor were significantly higher in the IL group (mean relative optical density, 2.4 ± 0.15) than those in the control (2.16 ± 0.04) or IV group (1.7 ± 0.23). Transplantation of MSCs in the early stage of spinal cord injury gives a significant clinical improvement. However, the fate of the transplanted MSCs and expression of neuronal growth factors are different along the transplantation route.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Spinal Cord Injuries; Stem Cell Transplantation; Neuronal Differentiation; Neuroprotection
As one of trials on neuroprotection after spinal cord injury, we used pregabalin. After spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats using contusion model, we observed the effect of pregabalin compared to that of the control and the methylprednisolone treated rats. We observed locomotor improvement of paralyzed hindlimb and body weight changes for clinical evaluation and caspase-3, bcl-2, and p38 MAPK expressions using western blotting. On histopathological analysis, we also evaluated reactive proliferation of glial cells. We were able to observe pregabalin's effectiveness as a neuroprotector after SCI in terms of the clinical indicators and the laboratory findings. The caspase-3 and phosphorylated p38 MAPK expressions of the pregabalin group were lower than those of the control group (statistically significant with caspase-3). Bcl-2 showed no significant difference between the control group and the treated groups. On the histopathological analysis, pregabalin treatment demonstrated less proliferation of the microglia and astrocytes. With this animal study, we were able to demonstrate reproducible results of pregabalin's neuroprotection effect. Diminished production of caspase-3 and phosphorylated p38 MAPK and as well as decreased proliferation of astrocytes were seen with the administration of pregabalin. This influence on spinal cord injury might be a possible approach for achieving neuroprotection following central nervous system trauma including spinal cord injury.
Spinal Cord Injuries; Pregabalin; Apoptosis; Astrocytes; Microglia
We wanted to investigate the leading cause of failed vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty.
Twelve patients (10 females and 2 males) who underwent revision surgery after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty were included. In 4 cases, vertebroplasty was done for two or more levels. Six cases with kyphoplasty were included. Through the retrospective review of the radiographic studies and medical record, we analyzed the etiology of the revision surgery.
Uncontrolled back pain was the main clinical presentation. In 4 cases, neurological symptoms were noted, including one case with conus medullaris syndrome. The average time to the revision surgery after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty was 15 months. Infection (4 cases) and progressive kyphosis with collapse (8 cases) were the causes for the revision. A solid pattern of inserted bone cement and bone resorption around the cement were noted in the all cases with progressive collapse and kyphosis.
Infection, misdiagnosis and progressive kyphosis were causes of the revision surgery after vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. A solid pattern of accumulation of bone cement and peri-cement bone resorption might be related with the progressive collapse.
Osteoporosis; Vertebral fracture; Vertebroplasty; Revision surgery
Background and Objectives
During the index procedure of catheter ablation (CA) for atrial fibrillation (AF), it is important to assess whether other atrial or ventricular tachyarrhythmia coexist. Their symptoms are often attributed to residual tachycardia after successful elimination of AF by CA. This tachycardia could also be non-pulmonary vein (PV) foci initiated AF. This study examined the coexistence of other sustained tachyarrhythmia of patients who underwent radiofrequency CA (RFCA) for AF.
Subjects and Methods
Four hundred fifty-nine consecutive patients (375 males, aged 53.4±11.4 years) who underwent RFCA for AF were investigated. Atrial and ventricular programmed stimulation (PS) with or without isoproterenol infusion were performed, and spontaneously developed tachycardias were analyzed.
Fifteen patients (3.3% of total) were diagnosed to have other sustained arrhythmias that included slow-fast type atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT, n=6), atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT, n=5) that utilized left posteroseptal (n=4) and parahisian bypass tract (n=1), atrial tachycardia (AT, n=2) originating from the foramen ovale (n=1) and the ostium of coronary sinus (n=1), sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT, n=2) involving one from the apical posterolateral wall of left ventricule in a normal heart and one from an anterolateral wall in an underlying myocardial infarction (MI). These sustained tachycardias were neither clinically documented nor had structural heart diseases, with the exception of one patient with MI associated VT. Two patients had the triple tachycardia; one involved AVNRT, AVRT, and AF, and the other involved VT, AT, and AF. All associated tachycardias were successfully eliminated by RFCA.
Fifteen (3.3%) patients with AF had coexisting sustained tachycardia. RFCA was successful in these patients. Identification of tachycardia by PS before RFCA for AF should be done to maximize the efficacy of the first ablation session.
Atrial fibrillation; Tachycardia supraventricular; Catheter ablation
A 65-year-old woman was treated for an atypical radiological presentation of spinal tuberculosis. Compared with previously reported cases, the following two different radiographic features were found. 1) Although there was multiple and skipped involvement of the vertebral body, the intervertebral disc was relatively preserved. 2) The presence of an epidural granuloma indicated an epidural extension of the lesion of the adjacent vertebral body. These findings strongly mimicked bone marrow infiltrative disease such as a malignancy. Tuberculosis was confirmed through an open biopsy and the patient was treated successfully with antitubercular chemotherapy. This case highlights the importance of being aware that spinal tuberculosis has many different radiographic features and can mimic a spinal malignancy.
Atypical tuberculosis; Spondylitis; Malignancy
Treatment of perimitral flutter (PMF) requires bidirectional mitral isthmus (MI) block, which can be difficult with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The vein of Marshall (VOM) is located within the MI.
To test whether VOM ethanol infusion could help achieve MI block.
Perimitral conduction was studied in patients undergoing ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Group 1 included 50 patients with a previous AF ablation undergoing repeat ablation, 30 of which had had MI ablation. Spontaneous (8/50) or inducible PMF (21/50) was confirmed by activation mapping. Group 2 included 21 patients undergoing de novo VOM ethanol infusion. The VOM was cannulated with a quadripolar catheter for pacing and with an angioplasty balloon to deliver up to four 1mL infusions of 98% ethanol. Voltage maps were created before and after VOM ethanol. Bidirectional MI block was verified by differential pacing. RFA times required to achieve it were assessed.
In Group 1, VOM ethanol infusion acutely terminated PMF in 5/29 patients. RFA needed to achieve bidirectional MI block was 2.2±1.6 min. Presence of PMF or previous MI ablation did not affect RFA times. In Group 2, RFA needed to achieve bidirectional MI block was 2.0±1.6 min (p=NS). Five patients had bidirectional MI block achieved solely by VOM ethanol without RFA. In both groups, ablation after VOM ethanol was required in the annular aspect of the MI. There were no acute complications.
VOM ethanol infusion is useful in the treatment of PMF and assists in reliably achieving bidirectional MI block.
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) is an enzyme that regulates the rate-limiting step in pyrimidine metabolism, especially catabolism of fluorouracil, a chemotherapeutic agent for cancer. In order to determine the genetic distribution of DPYD, we directly sequenced 288 subjects from five ethnic groups (96 Koreans, 48 Japanese, 48 Han Chinese, 48 African Americans, and 48 European Americans). As a result, 56 polymorphisms were observed, including 6 core polymorphisms and 18 novel polymorphisms. Allele frequencies were nearly the same across the Asian populations, Korean, Han Chinese and Japanese, whereas several SNPs showed different genetic distributions between Asians and other ethnic populations (African American and European American). Additional in silico analysis was performed to predict the function of novel SNPs. One nonsynonymous SNP (+199381A > G, Asn151Asp) was predicted to change its polarity of amino acid (Asn, neutral to Asp, negative). These findings would be valuable for further research, including pharmacogenetic and drug responses studies.
Ethnic Gropus; Pharmacogenetics; Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase; Fluorouracil
Clinical factors such as tall stature, lean body mass, obstructive sleep apnea, alcohol or caffeine, smoking, endurance sports, and genetic factors are proposed as risk factors for lone atrial fibrillation (LAF). The KORAF (KORean Atrial Fibrillation) study is a retrospective multicenter registry that enrolled 3,570 consecutive atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Data on risk factors were available for 2,133 patients, of whom 398 (18.7%) were identified as having LAF. In univariate analysis, patients with LAF were more likely to be men (82.4% vs 59.8%, P < 0.001) and current smokers (25.9% vs 15.6%, P < 0.01), alcohol drinkers (55.3% vs 31.2%, P < 0.01) and frequent consumers of caffeinated beverages (> 2 cups/day) (31.7% vs 19.3%, P < 0.01), and have a family history of AF (9.0% vs 2.6%, P < 0.001) than the non-LAF patients. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.61-3.27, P < 0.01), family history of AF (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.91-5.12, P < 0.01), current alcohol use (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.46-2.76, P < 0.01), and frequent caffeinated beverage consumption (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.20-2.29, P < 0.01) were independently associated with LAF. In Korean patients, LAF is more closely associated with male gender, family history of AF, current alcohol and frequent caffeinated beverage consumption than non-LAF.
Lone Atrial Fibrillation; Risk Factors
This study aimed to assess the efficacy of aripiprazole for the management of cognitive impairments and hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia on a stable dose of risperidone.
Thirty-five subjects stabilized on risperidone (3-6 mg/day) for a minimum of 3 months were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase for 12 weeks and an open-label phase for another 12 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 10 mg/day aripiprazole (n=17) or placebo (n=18). Over the following 12 weeks, the the aripiprazole group received a flexible dose of aripiprazole while tapering risperidone. At baseline, week 12, and week 24, subjects were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Extrapyramidal Syndrome Rating Scale (ESRS), and standardized neuropsychological assessments. Serum prolactin levels were checked at baseline, week 1, week 2, and week 24.
The mean change in total PANSS and cognitive function test scores between baseline and endpoint were similar in the aripiprazole and placebo groups. Scores on the ESRS and negative subscale of PANSS differed significantly between groups in both phases of the study (p<0.05), indicating a positive effect of aripiprazole. Compared with placebo, aripiprazole significantly reduced mean baseline serum prolactin levels within 1 week (p=0.015).
Adjunctive treatment with and switching to aripiprazole were not associated with improved cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia receiving risperidone; however, aripiprazole treatment decreased negative symptoms and risperidone-induced motor side effects and lowered serum prolactin levels.
Aripiprazole; Risperidone; Cognition; Prolactin; Schizophrenia
To compare the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) with that of gastroscopy for the extent of evaluation of longitudinal tumor and type-specific diagnosis of Borrmann type IV gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods
Fifty-nine patients (35 men with mean age of 60 years and 24 women with mean age of 55 years) who underwent surgical resection of Borrmann type IV gastric cancer were included in this study. Histopathological analysis data was used as a reference standard to confirm the clinical interpretations of gastroscopy and CT for the diagnosis of Borrmann type IV and evaluation of longitudinal tumor extent. For the evaluation of longitudinal extent, gastroscopic and CT results were classified as underestimated, accurate, or overestimated. The McNemar test was used to identify statistically significant differences in the accuracy between gastroscopy and CT.
For the diagnosis of Borrmann type IV gastric cancer, the accuracy of CT was significantly higher than that of gastroscopy (74.6% [44/59] vs. 44.1% [26/59], p < 0.001). CT was significantly more accurate in assessing the overall tumor extent than gastroscopy (61.4% [35/57] vs. 28.1% [16/57], p < 0.001). The proximal (75.4% [43/57] vs. 50.9% [29/57], p = 0.003) and distal tumor extent (71.9% [41/57] vs. 43.9% [25/57], p < 0.05) were more accurately predicted by CT compared with gastroscopy. The underestimation of tumor extent was a major source of error in both examinations.
CT was found to be more predictive than gastroscopy in type-specific diagnosis and the evaluation of longitudinal tumor extent in patients with Borrmann type IV gastric cancer.
Stomach; Cancer; CT; Gastroscopy; Borrmann type IV; Linitis plastica
Background and Objectives
Ventricular fibrillation (VF) can inadvertently occur during electrophysiologic study (EPS) or catheter ablation. We investigated the incidence, cause, and progress of inadvertently developed VF during EPS and catheter ablation.
Subjects and Methods
We reviewed patients who had developed inadvertent VF during EPS or catheter ablation. Patients who developed VF during programmed ventricular stimulation to induce ventricular tachycardia or VF were excluded.
Inadvertent VF developed in 11 patients (46.7±9.3 years old) among 2624 patients (0.42%); during catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) in nine patients, frequent ventricular premature beats (VPBs) in one, and Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome were observed in one. VF was induced after internal cardioversion in six AF patients due to incorrect R-wave synchronization of a direct current shock. Two AF patients showed spontaneous VF induction during isoproterenol infusion while looking for AF triggering foci. The remaining AF patient developed VF after rapid atrial pacing to induce AF, but the catheter was accidentally moved to the right ventricular (RV) apex. A patient with VPB ablation spontaneously developed VF during isoproterenol infusion. The focus of VPB was in the RV outflow tract and successfully ablated. A patient with WPW syndrome developed VF after rapid RV pacing with a cycle length of 240 ms. Single high energy (biphasic 150-200 J) external defibrillation was successful in all patients, except in two, who spontaneously terminated VF. The procedure was uneventfully completed in all patients. At a mean follow-up period of 17.4±15.5 months, no patient presented with ventricular arrhythmia.
Although rare, inadvertent VF can develop during EPS or catheter ablation. Special caution is required to avoid incidental VF during internal cardioversion, especially under isoproterenol infusion.
Ventricular fibrillation; Electrophysiologic study, cardiac; Catheter ablation
A C2-3 zygapophygeal joint is a major source of cervicogenic headache. Radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy is preformed widely for zygapophygeal joint pain. Conventional RF denervation technique is generally performed under fluoroscopic control. Recently, ultrasound-guided radiofrequency on zygapophygeal joint has emerged as an alternative method. We report our experiences of two successful ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequencies on 39-year-old and 42-year-old males, who complained occipital headache and posterior neck pain.
pulsed radiofrequency; third occipital nerve; ultrasound
Levodopa is the most effective anti-Parkinsonian agent. It has also been known to exhibit analgesic properties in laboratory and clinical settings. However, studies evaluating its effects on neuropathic pain are limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the anti-allodynic effects of levodopa in neuropathic rats.
Materials and Methods
Sprague-Dawley male rats underwent the surgical procedure for L5 and L6 spinal nerves ligation. Sixty neuropathic rats were randomly divided into 6 groups for the oral administration of distilled water and levodopa at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. We co-administered carbidopa with levodopa to prevent peripheral synthesis of dopamine from levodopa, and observed tactile, cold, and heat allodynia pre-administration, and at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min after drug administration. We also measured locomotor function of neuropathic rats using rotarod test to examine whether levodopa caused side effects or not.
Distilled water group didn't show any difference in all allodynia. For the levodopa groups (10-100 mg/kg), tactile and heat withdrawal thresholds were increased, and cold withdrawal frequency was decreased dose-dependently (p<0.01). In addition, levodopa induced biphasic analgesia. Different dosage of levodopa did not impact on the rotarod time (p>0.05).
Levodopa reversed tactile, cold and heat allodynia in neuropathic rat without any side effects.
Allodynia; levodopa; neuropathy; pain
Bupleuri Radix (BR) is a major component of several Oriental herbal medicines used to treat stress and mental illness. There are evidences that antidepressant drugs modulate oxidative damage implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorder, including depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant and proliferative effects of BR against oxidative stress induced by serum deprivation in SH-SY5Y cells.
We examined the antioxidant effects of BR on a number of measures, including cell viability, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and levels of both Bcl-2 and Bax. We also investigated the effects of BR on cell proliferation using the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay, and used Western blot analysis to measure changes in expression of the cell cycle phase regulators.
1) Serum deprivation significantly induced the loss of cell viability, the formation of ROS, the reduction of SOD activity, down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax expression. However, BR extract reversed these effects in dose-dependent manner. 2) Serum deprivation significantly reduced cell proliferation. Western blot analysis revealed that serum deprivation significantly decreased cyclinD1 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) expression, and increased p27 expression. On the other hand, BR dose dependently reversed these effects.
This study suggests that aqueous extract of BR may exert potent antioxidant effects and also play an important role in regulating cell cycle progression during neurogenesis. These effects of BR may be a potentially important mechanism of antidepressant underlying the observed antioxidant and proliferative effects.
Bupleuri Radix; Antioxidant effect; Proliferative effect; Antidepressant
We report here a case of oral myiasis in the Republic of Korea. The patient was a 37-year-old man with a 30-year history of Becker's muscular dystrophy. He was intubated due to dyspnea 8 days prior to admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). A few hours after the ICU admission, 43 fly larvae were found during suction of the oral cavity. All maggots were identified as the third instars of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by morphology. We discussed on the characteristics of myiasis acquired in Korea, including the infection risk and predisposing factors.
Lucilia sericata; oral myiasis; predisposing factor; nosocomial infection
We report a case about a 27-year-old healthy young male who developed syncope during exercise, which was subsequently identified to be attributable to non-sustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT). Occurrence of polymorphic VT was neither related to a prolonged QT interval nor a fixed short coupling interval. Standard examinations including echocardiography, coronary angiography, isoproterenol infusion study, and cardiac MRI showed no structural heart disease. On the electrophysiology study, activation mapping revealed that a discrete potential preceded the premature ventricular complex (PVC) triggered polymorphic VT, which was recorded just above the pulmonary valve. After radiofrequency ablation at this area, PVC and polymorphic VT disappeared and did not recur after a 2 month follow up.
Ventricular tachycardia; Pulmonary artery; Radiofrequency catheter ablation
Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are powerful tools for gene therapy and genetic engineering. The characterization of ZFN protein stability and the development of simple methods to improve ZFN function would facilitate the application of this promising technology. However, the factors that affect ZFN protein stability and function are not yet clear. Here, we determined the stability and half-life of two ZFN proteins and examined the effect of MG132 (carbobenzoxyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal-Hl), a proteasome inhibitor, on ZFN-mediated gene modifications.
ZFN proteins were expressed in 293T cells after transfection of ZFN-encoding plasmids. We studied two ZFN pairs: Z-224, which targets the CCR5 gene, and K-230, which targets a region 230 kbp upstream of CCR5. Western blotting after treatment with cycloheximide showed that the half-life of these ZFN proteins was around two hours. An immunoprecipitation assay revealed that the ZFN interacts with ubiquitin molecules and undergoes polyubiquitination in vivo. Western blotting showed that the addition of MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, increased ZFN protein levels. Finally, a surrogate reporter assay and a T7E1 assay revealed that MG132 treatment enhanced ZFN-directed gene editing.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate ZFN protein stability and to show that a small molecule can increase ZFN activity. Our protein stability study should lay the foundation for further improvement of ZFN technology; as a first step, the use of the small molecule MG132 can enhance the efficiency of ZFN-mediated gene editing.
In 2009, the first outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) or herpangina (HP) caused by enterovirus 71 occurred in the Republic of Korea. This study inquired into risk factors associated with complications of HFMD or HP. A retrospective medical records review was conducted on HFMD or HP patients for whom etiologic viruses had been verified in 2009. One hundred sixty-eight patients were examined for this investigation. Eighty patients were without complications while 88 were accompanied by complications, and 2 had expired. Enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4a was the most prevalent in number with 67 cases (54.9%). In the univariate analysis, the disease patterns of HFMD rather than HP, fever longer than 4 days, peak body temperature over 39℃, vomiting, headache, neurologic signs, serum glucose over 100 mg/dL, and having an enterovirus 71 as a causative virus were significant risk factors of the complications. After multiple logistic analysis, headache (Odds ratio [OR], 10.75; P < 0.001) and neurologic signs (OR, 42.76; P < 0.001) were found to be the most significant factors. Early detection and proper management of patients with aforementioned risk factors would be necessary in order to attain a better clinical outcome.
Coxsackievirus; Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease; Herpangina; Enterovirus A, Human; Risk Factors