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1.  Clinical and pathological differences between serum immunoglobulin G4-positive and -negative type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis 
AIM: To identify clinical and pathological differences between serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-positive (SIP) and IgG4-negative (SIN) type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) in South Korea.
METHODS: AIP was diagnosed by the international consensus diagnostic criteria. The medical records and pathology were retrospectively reviewed and IgG4-positive cells were counted in a high power field (HPF). Type I AIP was defined as a high serum level of IgG4 or histological finding. SIN type 1 AIP was defined as a histological evidence of type 1 AIP and a normal serum IgG4 level. The clinical and pathological findings were compared between the two groups. The analysis was performed using Student’s t test, Fischer’s exact test and Mann-Whitney’s U test. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. As repeated comparison was made, P values of less than 5% (P < 0.05) were considered significant.
RESULTS: Twenty five patients with definite type 1 AIP (19 histologically and six serologically diagnosed cases) were enrolled. The mean tissue IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in SIP than SIN group (40 cells per HPF vs 18 cells per HPF, P = 0.02). Among eight SIN patients, the tissue IgG4 concentrations were less than 15 cells per HPF in most of cases, except one. The sensitivity of serum IgG4 was 68% (17 SIP and eight SIN AIP). Other organ involvement was more frequently associated with SIP than SIN AIP (59% vs 26%, P = 0.016). However, the relapse rate and diffuse swelling of the pancreas were not associated with serum IgG4 level. The concentrations of IgG4-positive cells per HPF were higher in SIP than SIN AIP (40 vs 18, P = 0.02).
CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of serum IgG4 was 68% in type 1 AIP. High serum IgG4 level was associated with other organ involvement and tissue IgG4 concentration but did not affect the relapse rate in type 1 AIP.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i25.4031
PMCID: PMC3703191  PMID: 23840149
Autoimmunity; Chronic pancreatitis; Immunoglobulin G4-related systemic disease; Lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis; Immunoglobulin G4
2.  Bladder Wall Thickness is Associated with Responsiveness of Storage Symptoms to Alpha-Blockers in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(7):487-491.
Purpose
Bladder wall thickness (BWT) is reported to be related to detrusor overactivity and bladder outlet obstruction. We investigated the relationship between BWT and the responsiveness of storage symptoms to alpha-blockers in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
Materials and Methods
A total of 74 patients with LUTS were enrolled. International Prostate Symptom Score, uroflowmetry with post-void residual urine volume, and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) were investigated. BWT was measured by performing TRUS at the midsagittal plane view, and the average value of BWT at the anterior, dome, and trigone areas was used. After 4 weeks of alpha-blocker medication, patients were reevaluated and divided into two groups. The responder group consisted of patients who reported improvement in the storage symptom subscore of 2 points or more; the non-responder group consisted of patients who reported improvement of less than 2 points. Clinical parameters including BWT were compared between the two groups.
Results
A total of 52 patients were followed. BWT was positively correlated with intravesical prostate protrusion (IPP) (9.26±4.99, standardized beta=0.393, p=0.002) and storage symptom subscore (0.35±0.43, standardized beta=0.458, p=0.002). Compared with that in the responder group, BWT was thicker in the non-responder group, and improvement in the storage symptom score was correlated with BWT (0.58±0.09 cm vs. 0.65±0.11 cm, p=0.018) and prostate volume (27.08±16.26 ml vs. 36.44±10.1 ml, p=0.018).
Conclusions
BWT was correlated with IPP, the storage symptom subscore, and the responsiveness of storage symptoms to alpha-blockers in LUTS/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. As BWT increased, the responsiveness of storage symptoms to alpha-blocker decreased in LUTS/BPH patients.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.7.487
PMCID: PMC3406196  PMID: 22866221
Adrenergic alpha-antagonists; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Muscarinic antagonists
3.  Endoscopic management of occluded metal biliary stents: Metal versus 10F plastic stents 
AIM: To compare the efficacy of self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) with 10F plastic stents (PSs) in the endoscopic management of occluded SEMSs.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 56 patients who underwent SEMS insertion for palliation of unresectable malignant biliary obstruction between 2000 and 2007 and subsequent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) with SEMS or PS for initial SEMS occlusion between 2000 and 2008.
RESULTS: Subsequent ERBD with SEMS was performed in 29 patients and with PS in 27. The median time to stent occlusion after subsequent ERBD was 186 d in the SEMS group and 101 d in the PS group (P = 0.118). Overall median stent patency was 79 d for the SEMS group and 66 d for the PS group (P = 0.379). The mean number of additional biliary drainage procedures after subsequent ERBD in patients that died (n = 50) during the study period was 2.54 ± 4.12 for the SEMS group and 1.85 ± 1.95 for the PS group (P = 0.457). The mean total cost of additional biliary drainage procedures after the occlusion of subsequent SEMS or PS was $410.04 ± 692.60 for the SEMS group and $630.16 ± 671.63 for the PS group (P = 0.260). Tumor ingrowth as the cause of initial SEMS occlusion was the only factor associated with a shorter time to subsequent stent occlusion (101 d for patients with tumor ingrowth vs 268 d for patients without tumor ingrowth, P = 0.008).
CONCLUSION: Subsequent ERBD with PSs offered similar patency and number of additional biliary drainage procedures compared to SEMSs in the management of occluded SEMS.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i42.5347
PMCID: PMC2980685  PMID: 21072899
Stents; Biliary tract neoplasms; Obstructive jaundice; Endoscopy; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
4.  Stabilization of Oxygen-deficient Structure for Conducting Li4Ti5O12-δ by Molybdenum Doping in a Reducing Atmosphere 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4350.
Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) is recognized as being one of the most promising anode materials for high power Li ion batteries; however, its insulating nature is a major drawback. In recent years, a simple thermal treatment carried out in a reducing atmosphere has been shown to generate oxygen vacancies (VO) for increasing the electronic conductivity of this material. Such structural defects, however, lead to re-oxidization over time, causing serious deterioration in anode performance. Herein, we report a unique approach to increasing the electronic conductivity with simultaneous improvement in structural stability. Doping of LTO with Mo in a reducing atmosphere resulted in extra charges at Ti sites caused by charge compensation by the homogeneously distributed Mo6+ ions, being delocalized over the entire lattice, with fewer oxygen vacancies (VO) generated. Using this simple method, a marked increase in electronic conductivity was achieved, in addition to an extremely high rate capability, with no performance deterioration over time.
doi:10.1038/srep04350
PMCID: PMC3950810  PMID: 24618982
5.  Metastasis to the gallbladder: A single-center experience of 20 cases in South Korea 
AIM: To evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with metastases to the gallbladder (MGBs).
METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study of 20 patients with MGBs diagnosed pathologically from 1999 to 2007.
RESULTS: Among 417 gallbladder (GB) malignancies, 20 (4.8%) were MGBs. The primary malignancies originated from the stomach (n = 8), colorectum (n = 3), liver (n = 2), kidney (n = 2), skin (n = 2), extrahepatic bile duct (n = 1), uterine cervix (n = 1), and appendix (n = 1). Twelve patients were diagnosed metachronously, presenting with cholecystitis (n = 4), abdominal pain (n = 2), jaundice (n = 1), weight loss (n = 1), and serum CA 19-9 elevation (n = 1); five patients were asymptomatic. The median survival after the diagnosis of MGB was 8.7 mo. On Cox regression analysis, R0 resection was the only factor associated with a prolonged survival [hazard ratio (HR): 0.01, P = 0.002]; presentation with cholecystitis was associated with poor survival (HR: 463.27, P = 0.006).
CONCLUSION: MGBs accounted for 4.8% of all pathologically diagnosed GB malignancies. The most common origin was the stomach. The median survival of MGB was 8.7 mo.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.4806
PMCID: PMC2761559  PMID: 19824115
Gallbladder; Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal neoplasms; Neoplasm metastasis; Biliary tract neoplasms
6.  The Effect of Terpene Combination on Ureter Calculus Expulsion After Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy 
Korean Journal of Urology  2014;55(1):36-40.
Purpose
Terpene combination (Rowatinex) is known to help with the expulsion of urinary stones. The aim of this study was to determine how Rowatinex affects the expulsion of remnant stones after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL).
Materials and Methods
Clinical data were collected retrospectively from 499 patients with a diagnosis of ureteral stones who underwent SWL from January 2009 to August 2012. Ureteral stones were diagnosed in all patients by kidney, ureter, and bladder x-ray and abdominal computed tomography (CT). The progress of patients was documented every 2 weeks to confirm remnant stones after SWL. The patients with remnant stones underwent SWL again. Group 1 consisted of patients who were prescribed an analgesic, Tamsulosin 0.2 mg, and Rowatinex. Group 2 consisted of patients who were prescribed only an analgesic and Tamsulosin 0.2 mg. The expulsion rate of urinary stones was compared between groups.
Results
The expulsion rate of urinary stones was not significantly different between the two groups after 2 weeks. However, after 4 weeks, group 1 had a significantly higher expulsion rate (72.2% compared with 61.1%, p=0.022). Fifteen patients (10.2%) in group 1 and 40 (11.4%) in group 2 had to undergo ureteroscopic removal of the stone (p=0.756). Acute pyelonephritis occurred in one patient (0.7%) in group 1 and in one patient (0.3%) in group 2 (p=0.503).
Conclusions
The long-term administration of Rowatinex for 4 weeks increased the expulsion rate of urinary stones after SWL.
doi:10.4111/kju.2014.55.1.36
PMCID: PMC3897628  PMID: 24466395
Lithotripsy; Terpene combination; Urolithiasis
7.  Clinical Significance and Revisiting the Meaning of CA 19-9 Blood Level Before and After the Treatment of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Analysis of 1,446 Patients from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort in a Single Institution 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e78977.
Background
Life expectancy of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients is usually short and selection of the most appropriate treatment is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of serum CA 19-9 as a surrogate marker under no impress excluding other factors affecting CA 19-9 level other than tumor itself.
Methods
We recruited 1,446 patients with PDACs and patients with Lewis antigen both negative or obstructive jaundice were excluded to eliminate the false effects on CA 19-9 level. The clinicopathologic factors were reviewed including initial and post-treatment CA 19-9, and statistical analysis was done to evaluate the association of clinicopathologic factors with overall survival (OS).
Results
The total of 944 patients was enrolled, and205 patients (22%) underwent operation with curative intention and 541 patients (57%) received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. The median CA 19-9 levels of initial and post-treatment were 670 IU/ml and 147 IU/ml respectively. The prognostic factors affecting OS were performance status, AJCC stage and post-treatment CA 19-9 level in multivariate analysis. Subgroup analysis was done for the patients who underwent R0 and R1 resection, and patients with normalized post-operative CA 19-9 (≤37 IU/mL) had significantly longer OS and DFS regardless of initial CA 19-9 level; 32 vs. 18 months, P<0.001, 16 vs. 9 months, P = 0.004 respectively.
Conclusions
Post-treatment CA 19-9 and normalized post-operative CA 19-9 (R0 and R1 resected tumors) were independent factors associated with OS and DFS, however, initial CA 19-9 level was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078977
PMCID: PMC3826753  PMID: 24250822
8.  Changes in Demographic Features of Gallstone Disease: 30 Years of Surgically Treated Patients 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(6):719-724.
Background/Aims
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the clinical and demographical characteristics of gallstone disease in Korea, based on 30 years of surgically treated patients at a single institute.
Methods
In total, 7,949 gallstone patients who underwent surgery between 1981 and 2010 were analyzed. Patients were divided into six time periods: period I (1981 to 1985, n=831), period II (1986 to 1990, n=888), period III (1991 to 1995, n=1,040), period IV (1996 to 2000, n=1,261), period V (2001 to 2005, n=1,651) and period VI (2006 to 2010, n=2,278).
Results
The total number and mean age of the patients gradually increased, and the male/female ratio decreased. The proportion of gallbladder (GB)-stone cases increased, whereas the proportions of common bile duct (CBD)- and intrahepatic duct (IHD)-stone cases decreased. Differences in patient geographical origins also decreased. Based on the relationship between changes in the prevalence of gallstone disease and socioeconomic status, the prevalence of CBD stones showed a strong correlation with Engel's coefficient (p<0.001).
Conclusions
Our study indicates that although the total number of cases and the mean age of gallstone patients have continuously increased, there are trends of increasing GB-stone cases and decreasing CBD- and IHD-stone cases.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2013.7.6.719
PMCID: PMC3848536  PMID: 24312714
Cholelithiasis; Epidemiology; Surgery
9.  A Multicenter Phase II Trial of Gemcitabine Plus Oxaliplatin in Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(5):594-598.
Background/Aims
No standard chemotherapy has been established for advanced gallbladder cancer. The authors studied the activity and tolerability of a gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) combination in unresectable gallbladder cancer (GBC).
Methods
Adult patients with pathologically confirmed unresectable GBC were prospectively recruited at three centers. No patient had received prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Patients received cycles of gemcitabine at 1,000 mg/m2 on day 1, followed by oxaliplatin at 100 mg/m2 on day 2, every 2 weeks. The primary study endpoint was time to progression.
Results
Forty patients with unresectable GBC were enrolled. The median age was 60 years (range, 38 to 79 years). All patients showed good performance status. Of the 33 analyzable patients, 12 achieved partial response (36%), 17 stable disease (52%), and four progressive disease (12%). No patient achieved a complete response. The tumor control rate was 88%. At a median follow-up of 6.8 months, the median time to progression was 5.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7 to 6.9), and median overall survival was 6.8 months (95% CI, 6.1 to 7.5). Nine of the 40 patients (23%) experienced at least a grade-3 adverse event, but no patient experienced a grade-4 adverse event.
Conclusions
GEMOX combination therapy is a feasible option and is well tolerated in unresectable GBC.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2013.7.5.594
PMCID: PMC3782675  PMID: 24073318
Gallbladder neoplasms; Gemcitabine; Oxaliplatin
10.  Clinical Usefulness of Plasma Chromogranin A in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasm 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(5):750-754.
Chromogranin A (CgA) is widely used as an immunohistochemical marker of neuroendocrine neoplasms and has been measurable in plasma of patients. We assessed the clinical role of plasma CgA in diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (PNEN). CgA was checked in 44 patients with pancreatic mass who underwent surgical resection from 2009 through 2011. The cutoff value for diagnosing PNEN and the relationships between CgA and clinicopathologic variables were analyzed. Twenty-six patients were PNENs and 18 patients were other pancreatic disorders. ROC analysis showed a cutoff of 60.7 ng/mL with 77% sensitivity and 56% specificity, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.679. Among PNEN group, the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosing metastasis were 100% and 90% respectively when CgA cutoff was 156.5 ng/mL. The AUC was 0.958. High Ki-67 index (160.8 vs 62.1 ng/mL, P = 0.001) and mitotic count (173.5 vs 74.6 ng/mL, P = 0.044) were significantly correlated with plasma CgA, but the tumor size was not. In conclusion, CgA has a little value in diagnosing PNEN. However, the high level of CgA (more than 156.5 ng/mL) can predict the metastasis. Also, plasma CgA level correlates with Ki-67 index and mitotic count which represents prognosis of PNENs.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.5.750
PMCID: PMC3653089  PMID: 23678268
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasm; Chromogranin A; Diagnosis; Pancreatic Neoplasms
11.  A Case of Common Bile Duct Cancer That Completely Responded to Combination Chemotherapy of Gemcitabine and TS-1 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(3):371-376.
Common bile duct (CBD) cancer is a relatively rare malignancy that arises from the biliary epithelium and is associated with a poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of advanced metastatic CBD cancer successfully treated by chemotherapy with gemcitabine combined with S-1 (tegafur+gimeracil+oteracil). A 65-year-old male presented with pyogenic liver abscess. After antibiotic therapy and percutaneous drainage, follow-up computed tomography (CT) showed an enhanced nodule in the CBD. Biopsy was performed at the CBD via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, which showed adenocarcinoma. Additional CT and magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple small nodules in the right hepatic lobe, which were confirmed as metastatic adenocarcinoma by sono-guided liver biopsy. The patient underwent combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and S-1. After nine courses of chemotherapy, the hepatic lesion disappeared radiologically. Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed, and no residual tumor was found in the resected specimen. Three weeks after the operation, the patient was discharged with no complications. Through 3 months of follow-up, no sign of recurrence was observed on CT scan. Gemcitabine combined with S-1 may be a highly effective treatment for advanced cholangiocarcinoma.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2013.7.3.371
PMCID: PMC3661972  PMID: 23710321
Cholangiocarcinoma; Gemcitabine; S-1
12.  Antioxidant Dieckol Downregulates the Rac1/ROS Signaling Pathway and Inhibits Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP)-Family Verprolin-Homologous Protein 2 (WAVE2)-Mediated Invasive Migration of B16 Mouse Melanoma Cells 
Molecules and Cells  2012;33(4):363-369.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is linked to dynamic actin cytoskeleton reorganization, which is involved in tumor cell motility and metastasis. Thus, inhibition of ROS generation and actin polymerization in tumor cells may represent an effective anticancer strategy. However, the molecular basis of this signaling pathway is currently unknown. Here, we show that the Ecklonia cava-derived antioxidant dieckol downregulates the Rac1/ROS signaling pathway and inhibits Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-family verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2)-mediated invasive migration of B16 mouse melanoma cells. Steady-state intracellular ROS levels were higher in malignant B16F10 cells than in parental, nonmetastatic B16F0 cells. Elevation of ROS by H2O2 treatment increased migration and invasion ability of B16F0 cells to level similar to that of B16F10 cells, suggesting that intracellular ROS signaling mediates the prometastatic properties of B16 mouse melanoma cells. ROS levels and the cell migration and invasion ability of B16 melanoma cells correlated with Rac1 activation and WAVE2 expression. Overexpression of dominant negative Rac1 and depletion of WAVE2 by siRNA suppressed H2O2-induced cell invasion of B16F0 and B16F10 cells. Similarly, dieckol attenuates the ROS-mediated Rac1 activation and WAVE2 expression, resulting in decreased migration and invasion of B16 melanoma cells. In addition, we found that dieckol decreases association between WAVE2 and NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox. Therefore, this finding suggests that WAVE2 acts to couple intracellular Rac1/ROS signaling to the invasive migration of B16 melanoma cells, which is inhibited by dieckol.
doi:10.1007/s10059-012-2285-2
PMCID: PMC3887808  PMID: 22441674
dieckol; invasion; migration; ROS; WAVE2
13.  Risk Factors of Post Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Bacteremia 
Gut and Liver  2012;7(2):228-233.
Background/Aims
Bacteremia following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a severe complication, but the risk factors for this condition have not yet been clearly determined. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of post-ERCP bacteremia.
Methods
Among patients who underwent ERCP from June 2006 to May 2009, we selected patients without any signs of infection prior to the ERCP procedures. Of these patients, we further selected those who experienced bacteremia after ERCP as well as two-fold age and sex-matched controls who did not experience bacteremia after ERCP procedures. We compared clinical, laboratory and technical aspects between these two groups.
Results
There were 70 patients (3.1%) who developed bacteremia after ERCP. In the multivariate analysis, a history of previous liver transplantation, an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level and an endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage procedure were independent risk factors of post-ERCP bacteremia (p=0.006, p=0.001, and p=0.004, respectively). The microbiologic analysis revealed the presence of gram-negative organisms in 80% of the cases, and 11 patients had infections with bacteria expressing extended spectrum β-lactamases. Pseudomonas infection was significantly more common in patients who received liver transplantation as compared to patients without transplantation (p=0.014).
Conclusions
A history of liver transplantation, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase levels and endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage procedure were independent risk factors of post-ERCP bacteremia and require additional attention in future studies.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2013.7.2.228
PMCID: PMC3607778  PMID: 23560160
Bacteremia; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Liver transplantation; Alkaline phosphatase; Endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage
14.  Endoscopic Papillectomy for Benign Ampullary Neoplasms: How Can Treatment Outcome Be Predicted? 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(2):239-245.
Background/Aims
Endoscopic papillectomy is increasingly performed with curative intent for benign papillary tumors. This study was performed to identify factors that predict the presence of malignancy and affect endoscopic success.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients who received an endoscopic papillectomy for papillary adenoma from 2006 to 2009.
Results
A total of 43 patients received endoscopic papillectomy. The pathologic results after papillectomy revealed adenocarcinoma in five patients (12%), and the risk of malignancy was high in cases of large lesions, preprocedural pathology of high-grade dysplasia or high serum alkaline phosphatase. Endoscopic success was observed in 37 patients (86%) at the end of follow-up (mean duration, 10.4±9.6 months). The factor significantly affecting success was a complete resection at the initial papillectomy (p=0.007). Two patients experienced recurrence 10 and 32 months after the complete resection, but both achieved endoscopic success with repeated endoscopic treatment. Six patients with endoscopic failure received surgical resection.
Conclusions
Endoscopic papillectomy is a safe and effective method for the curative resection of benign papillary tumors, especially when complete resection is achieved at the initial papillectomy. Follow-up with surveillance should be performed for at least 3 years because of the possible recurrence of tumors during these periods.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2013.7.2.239
PMCID: PMC3607780  PMID: 23560162
Endoscopic sphincterotomy; Benign papillary tumor; Adenocarcinoma; Endoscopic success
15.  Pancreatic Pseudocyst after Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration of Pancreatic Mass 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(4):431-434.
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is well known as a safe diagnostic procedure. We report the first case of pancreatic pseudocyst after EUS-FNA of the pancreatic body mass. A 60-year-old male underwent EUS-FNA for incidentally detected pancreatic solid mass which was suspected as neuroendocrine tumor. Two weeks later, the patient visited emergency room with acute abdominal pain and right upper quadrant tenderness; leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein, amylase, and lipase levels were noted. Computed tomography discovered newly developed 11.5×9.5 cm sized cystic mass communicating with the main pancreatic duct. Cyst fluid analysis revealed amylase level of 3,423 U/L and fluid culture isolated Streptococcus parasanguinis. The cystic mass corresponds with pancreatic pseudocyst. FNA induced main pancreatic duct injury and fluid leakage may cause it. Endoscopists who perform EUS-FNA must remember that pancreatic main duct injury can occur as one of severe complications and that it could be treated successfully with endoscopic internal drainage.
doi:10.5946/ce.2012.45.4.431
PMCID: PMC3521949  PMID: 23251895
Pancreatic pseudocyst; Endosonography; Fine-needle biopsy; Complications
16.  Proposal of an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related perforation management guideline based on perforation type 
Purpose
Consensus for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) related perforation management is lacking. We aimed to identify candidate patients for conservative management by examining treatment results and to introduce a simple, algorithm-based management guideline.
Methods
A retrospective review of 53 patients with ERCP-related perforation between 2000 and 2010 was conducted. Data on perforation site (duodenum lateral wall or jejunum, type I; para-Vaterian, type II), management method, complication, mortality, hospital stay, and hospital cost were reviewed. Comparative analysis was done according to the injury types and management methods.
Results
The outcome was greater in the conservative group than the operative group with shorter hospital stay (20.6 days vs. 29.8 days, P = 0.092), less cost (10.6 thousand United States Dollars [USD] vs. 19.9 thousand USD, P = 0.095), and lower morbidity rate (22.9% vs. 55.6%, P = 0.017). Eighty-one percent (17/21) of type I injuries were operatively managed and 96.9% (31/32) of type II injuries were conservatively managed. Between the types, type II showed better results over type I with shorter hospital stay (19.3 days vs. 30.6 days, P = 0.010), less cost (9.5 thousand USD vs. 20.1 thousand USD, P = 0.028), and lower complication rate (18.8% vs. 57.1%, P = 0.004). There was no difference in mortality.
Conclusion
Type II injuries were conservatively manageable and demonstrated better outcomes than type I injuries. The management algorithm suggests conservative management in type II injuries without severe peritonitis or unsolved problem requires immediate surgical correction, including operative management in type I injuries unless endoscopic intervention is possible. Conservative management offers socio-medical benefits. Conservative management is recommended in well-selected patients.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.4.218
PMCID: PMC3467388  PMID: 23091794
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Intestinal perforation; Guideline; Algorithms
17.  Long-Term Outcome of Cystic Lesions in the Pancreas: A Retrospective Cohort Study 
Gut and Liver  2012;6(4):493-500.
Background/Aims
The management guidelines for cystic lesions of the pancreas (CLPs) are not yet well established. This study was performed to document the long-term clinical outcome of CLPs and provide guidelines for the management and surveillance of CLPs.
Methods
In this retrospective cohort study, an additional follow-up was performed in 112 patients with CLPs enrolled from 1998 to 2004 during a previous study.
Results
During follow-up for the median period of 72.3 months, the size of the CLPs increased in 18 patients (16.1%). Six of these patients experienced growth of their CLPs after 5 years of follow-up. Twenty-six patients underwent surgery during follow-up, and four malignant cysts were detected. The overall rate of malignant progression during follow-up was 3.6%. The presence of mural nodules or solid components was independently associated with the presence of malignant CLPs. Seven patients underwent surgery after 5 years of follow-up. The pathologic findings revealed malignancies in two patients. There was only one pancreas-related death during follow-up.
Conclusions
The majority of CLPs exhibit indolent behavior and are associated with a favorable prognosis. However, long-term surveillance for more than 5 years should be performed because of the potential for growth and malignant transformation in CLPs.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2012.6.4.493
PMCID: PMC3493732  PMID: 23170156
Pancreatic cyst; Natural history; Prognosis
18.  Analysis of the Risk Factors for Overactive Bladder on the Basis of a Survey in the Community 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(8):541-546.
Purpose
To evaluate the risk factors for overactive bladder (OAB) in a population aged 40 years and over in the community.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a community-based survey of OAB in a population aged 40 years and over in Guri City and Yangpyeong County, South Korea, by use of the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) questionnaire. A total of 926 subjects were included in the final analysis. The definition of OAB was more than 2 points for the urgency score and 3 points for the sum of scores. In addition, the subjects were asked about age, dwelling place, marital status, educational status, behavioral factors (smoking, drinking, etc), and medical history. Categorical variables were analyzed by using the logistic regression model and were adjusted for age by using the logistic regression model.
Results
Overall OAB prevalence was 14.1% (130/926), made up of 49/403 males (12.2%) and 81/523 females (15.5%). OAB prevalence increased with age (p<0.0001). Risk factors for OAB were educational status (age-adjusted p=0.0487), stroke (p=0.0414), osteoporosis (p=0.0208), asthma (p=0.0091), rhinitis (p=0.0008), and cataract. Other factors (dwelling place, marital status, smoking, drinking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, angina, tuberculosis, atopic dermatitis, hepatitis B, and depression) were not associated with OAB.
Conclusions
The prevalence of OAB in our study was about 14.1% and the risk factors for OAB were educational status, stroke, osteoporosis, asthma, rhinitis, and cataract. Knowledge of these risk factors may help in the diagnosis and treatment of OAB.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.8.541
PMCID: PMC3427838  PMID: 22949998
Overactive bladder; Risk factors
19.  Efficacy of Alpha Blocker Treatment According to the Degree of Intravesical Prostatic Protrusion Detected by Transrectal Ultrasonography in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(2):92-97.
Purpose
To analyze the effectiveness of tamsulosin 0.2 mg once daily for 3 months according to the degree of intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Materials and Methods
A total of 134 BPH patients over 40 years of age treated with tamsulosin 0.2 mg between January 2007 and January 2009 were enrolled retrospectively. The patients were classified into three groups according to the degree of IPP: below 5 mm (group A), between 5 and 10 mm (group B), and over 10 mm (group C). Prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostatic urethral length (PUL), and prostatic adenoma urethral length (PAUL) were evaluated before treatment. International Prostate Symptom Score and Quality of Life (IPSS/QoL), maximal urine flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual (PVR) volume were measured before treatment, and improvement in the three groups was compared after 3 months.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 65.01±7.38 years. Mean IPPs were 0.90±1.39 mm (group A, n=90), 6.92±1.10 mm (group B, n=24), and 16.60±4.06 mm (group C, n=20). Prostate volume, PUL, PAUL, PSA, Qmax, and PVR showed significant correlations with IPP (p<0.05), but not with IPSS/QoL score (p>0.05). Comparison of parameters before and after 3 months showed that medication improved total IPSS and subscores (p<0.001), QoL (p<0.001), Qmax (p<0.001), and PVR (p=0.030) in group A. In group B, it improved total IPSS (p=0.01), irritative subscore (p<0.001), and obstructive subscore (p=0.03). In group C, only total IPSS (p=0.01) and irritative score (p<0.001) were significantly improved.
Conclusions
Tamsulosin may be more effective in improving symptom scores and Qmax in patients with mild IPP than in those with moderate or severe IPP.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.2.92
PMCID: PMC3285715  PMID: 22379587
Prostate; Prostatic hyperplasia; Ultrasonography
20.  Analysis of Prescriptions of Alpha-Blockers and Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors from the Urology Department and Other Departments 
Purpose
We analyzed the prescriptions of alpha-blockers and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) in the urology department as well as in other departments of the general hospital.
Methods
We investigated the frequency of prescription of alpha-blockers and PDE5Is from 3 general hospitals from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009. For alpha-blockers, data were collected from patients to whom alpha-blockers were prescribed from among patients recorded as having benign prostatic hyperplasia according to the 5th Korean Standard Classification of Diseases. For PDE5Is, data were collected from patients to whom PDE5Is were prescribed by the urology department and by other departments. Alpha-blockers were classified into tamsulosin, alfuzosin, doxazosin, and terazosin, whereas PDE5Is were classified into sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, udenafil, and mirodenafil.
Results
Alpha-blockers were prescribed to 11,436 patients in total over 3 years, and the total frequency of prescriptions was 68,565. Among other departments, the nephrology department had the highest frequency of prescription of 3,225 (4.7%), followed by the cardiology (3,101, 4.5%), neurology (2,576, 3.8%), endocrinology (2,400, 3.5%), pulmonology (1,102, 1.6%), and family medicine (915, 1.3%) departments in order. PDE5Is were prescribed to 2,854 patients in total over 3 years, and the total frequency of prescriptions was 10,558. The prescription frequency from the urology department was 4,900 (46.4%). Among other departments, the endocrinology department showed the highest prescription frequency of 3,488 (33.0%), followed by the neurology (542, 5.1%), cardiology (467, 4.4%), and family medicine (407, 3.9%) departments in order.
Conclusions
A high percentage of prescriptions of alpha-blockers and PDE5Is were from other departments. For more specialized medical care by urologists is required in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction.
doi:10.5213/inj.2011.15.4.216
PMCID: PMC3256307  PMID: 22259736
Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists; Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors; Prescriptions
21.  Dimensional change of the healed periosteum on surgically created defects 
Purpose
The final goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is to restore the structure and function of the periodontium destroyed or lost due to periodontitis. However, the role of periosteum in periodontal regeneration was relatively neglected while bone repair in the skeleton occurs as a result of a significant contribution from the periosteum. The aim of this study is to understand the histological characteristics of periosteum and compare the native periosteum with the repaired periosteum after elevating flap or after surgical intervention with flap elevation.
Methods
Buccal and lingual mucoperiosteal flaps were reflected to surgically create critical-size, "box-type" (4 mm width, 5 mm depth), one-wall, intrabony defects at the distal aspect of the 2nd and the mesial aspect of the 4th mandibular premolars in the right and left jaw quadrants. Animals were sacrificed after 24 weeks.
Results
The results from this study are as follows: 1) thickness of periosteum showed difference as follows (P<0.05): control group (0.45±0.22 mm)>flap-elevation group (0.36±0.07 mm)>defect formation group (0.26±0.03 mm), 2) thickness of gingival tissue showed difference as follows (P<0.05): defect formation group (3.15±0.40 mm)>flap-elevation group (2.02±0.25 mm)>control group (1.88±0.27 mm), 3) higher cellular activity was observed in defect formation group and flap-elevation groups than control group, 4) the number of blood vessles was higher in defect formation group than control group.
Conclusions
In conclusion, prolonged operation with increased surgical trauma seems to decrease the thickness of repaired periosteum and increase the thickness of gingiva. More blood vessles and high cellular activity were observed in defect formation group.
doi:10.5051/jpis.2011.41.4.176
PMCID: PMC3175497  PMID: 21954422
Animal models; Periodontal guided tissue regeneration; Periosteum
22.  Effects of Tamsulosin, Solifenacin, and Combination Therapy for the Treatment of Ureteral Stent Related Discomforts 
Korean Journal of Urology  2011;52(7):485-488.
Purpose
To evaluate the effect of tamsulosin, solifenacin, and combination therapy of two agents in improving the lower urinary tract symptoms of patients with indwelling double-J ureteral stents.
Materials and Methods
A total of 168 patients underwent placement of a double-J ureteral stent after retrograde ureteroscopy for urinary stone disease. All patients received polyurethane double-J ureteral stents (6 Fr, 24 or 26 cm), which were removed a mean of 14 days postoperatively. A total of 48 patients were given no medication (Group 1), 43 patients were given tamsulosin 0.2 mg once daily (Group 2), 45 patients were given solifenacin 5 mg once daily (Group 3), and 32 patients were given a combination of two agents postoperatively (Group 4). International Prostate Symptom Score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and visual analogue pain scale (VAPS) questionnaires were completed by each patient at 1 day postoperatively and on the day of stent removal.
Results
In the total group of patients, the mean age was 50.24±12.90 years. There was a significant difference in the IPSS total score between group 1 and groups 3 and 4. Group 4 also differed significantly from group 1 in the irritative subscore. The obstructive subscore differed between groups 2 and 4 and group 1. There was a statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 4 in the QoL score. There were no significant differences in the VAPS.
Conclusions
Combination therapy with tamsulosin and solifenacin improved both irritative and obstructive symptoms more than in the other groups. Combination therapy should be strongly considered for patients who complain of stent-related symptoms.
doi:10.4111/kju.2011.52.7.485
PMCID: PMC3151637  PMID: 21860770
Pain; Stents; Ureter
23.  Concurrent Chemotherapy and Pulsed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy for the Treatment of Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer: Initial Experiences 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2011;12(2):176-186.
Objective
This study was performed to evaluate the potential clinical value of concurrent chemotherapy and pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy (CCHT), as well as the safety of pulsed HIFU, for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer.
Materials and Methods
Twelve patients were treated with HIFU from October 2008 to May 2010, and three of them underwent CCHT as the main treatment (the CCHT group). The overall survival (OS), the time to tumor progression (TTP), the complications and the current performance status in the CCHT and non-CCHT groups were analyzed. Nine patients in the non-CCHT group were evaluated to determine why CCHT could not be performed more than twice.
Results
The OS of the three patients in the CCHT group was 26.0, 21.6 and 10.8 months, respectively, from the time of diagnosis. Two of them were alive at the time of preparing this manuscript with an excellent performance status, and one of them underwent a surgical resection one year after the initiation of CCHT. The TTP of the three patients in the CCHT group was 13.4, 11.5 and 9.9 months, respectively. The median OS and TTP of the non-CCHT group were 10.3 months and 4.4 months, respectively. The main reasons why the nine patients of the non-CCHT group failed to undergo CCHT more than twice were as follows: pancreatitis (n = 1), intolerance of the pain during treatment (n = 4), palliative use of HIFU for pain relief (n = 1) and a poor physical condition due to disease progression (n = 3). No major complications were encountered except one case of pancreatitis.
Conclusion
This study shows that CCHT is a potentially effective and safe modality for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2011.12.2.176
PMCID: PMC3052608  PMID: 21430934
Pancreatic cancer; High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation; Gemcitabine; Chemotherapy
24.  Clinical Characteristics of Genitourinary Tuberculosis during a Recent 10-Year Period in One Center 
Korean Journal of Urology  2011;52(3):200-205.
Purpose
This study was conducted to analyze the clinical characteristics and treatments of patients with genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) over the past 10 years.
Materials and Methods
The study population comprised 101 patients who were diagnosed with GUTB and hospitalized from January 2000 to December 2009. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear, urine tuberculosis culture, urine tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction (PCR), intravenous urography, cystoscopy, and histopathologic findings were used for patient selection. Yearly proportion, gender, patient distribution according to age, history of tuberculosis, and presence of other organ tuberculosis were analyzed.
Results
The patients hospitalized with GUTB counted for 0.9% of all patients admitted to the department of urology. The sex ratio was 1:1.53 (male:female), and the patients' mean age was 45.57±12.55 years (range, 19-81 years). Among the patients, there was one immunocompromised patient. A total of 22 patients (21.8%) had a medical history of tuberculosis, mostly pulmonary tuberculosis (90.9%). The sensitivity of AFB stain, tuberculosis culture, and PCR was 41.6%, 55.4%, 33.7%, respectively. A total of 54 patients required additional surgical treatment: 30 cases of nephrectomy, 8 cases of epididymectomy, 8 cases of ureteral stent, 5 cases of nephrostomy, 1 case of ureterectomy, 1 case of augmentation cystoplasty, and 1 case of transurethral resection of prostate.
Conclusions
The frequency of GUTB tended to decrease progressively. However, GUTB is still a threat to public health. There was no previous history of tuberculosis in two-thirds of the cases of GUTB and more than half of them required further surgical treatment.
doi:10.4111/kju.2011.52.3.200
PMCID: PMC3065133  PMID: 21461285
Prevalence; Tuberculosis, urogenital; Urology
25.  The Influence of an Overactive Bladder on Falling: A Study of Females Aged 40 and Older in the Community 
Purpose
An overactive bladder (OAB) affects a person's quality of life. Patients who suffer from OAB run to the toilet frequently to prevent incontinence, and this behavior increases their risk of falling and fear of falling. This study evaluated the influence of OAB on falls and concern about falling in females aged 40 and over living in urban and rural communities.
Methods
We conducted a population-based cohort study using King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), the Korean version of Falls Efficacy Scale-International (KFES-I) and a questionnaire regarding falls, in females aged 40 and over in Guri city and Yangpyeong county. The data from 514 responders were analyzed. The definition of OAB was 'moderately' or 'a lot' of urgency, or urge incontinence in KHQ. Falls was defined as experience of falls in the last year. High fear of falling was defined as a score of 24 or over in KFES-I. The factors were analyzed by the exact chi-square test and Student's t-test. The multivariate logistic regression model was adopted in order to examine the effects of OAB on falls and concern about falling.
Results
Of the 514 responders, 98 fitted the criterion of OAB. Eighty-nine (17.3%) of the responders had experienced falls in the last year: twenty-seven (27.5%) in the group with OAB and 62 (14.9%) in the group without OAB. There was a significant association between falls and OAB (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 3.08; P=0.0485), and between high fear of falling and OAB (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.42 to 5.20; P=0.0024).
Conclusions
Urgency and symptoms of urge incontinence increase the risk of falls in women aged 40 or older in the community. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may prevent falls and improve quality of life in OAB patients.
doi:10.5213/inj.2011.15.1.41
PMCID: PMC3070226  PMID: 21468286
Urinary bladder; Overactive; Urinary incontinence; Urge; Accidental falls

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