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1.  Is close monitoring in the intensive care unit necessary after elective liver resection? 
Purpose
Many surgical patients are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), resulting in an increased demand, and possible waste, of resources. Patients who undergo liver resection are also transferred postoperatively to the ICU. However, this may not be necessary in all cases. This study was designed to assess the necessity of ICU admission.
Methods
The medical records of 313 patients who underwent liver resections, as performed by a single surgeon from March 2000 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed.
Results
Among 313 patients, 168 patients (53.7%) were treated in the ICU. 148 patients (88.1%) received only observation during the ICU care. The ICU re-admission and intensive medical treatment significantly correlated with major liver resection (odds ratio [OR], 6.481; P = 0.011), and intraoperative transfusions (OR, 7.108; P = 0.016). Patients who underwent major liver resection and intraoperative transfusion were significantly associated with need for mechanical ventilator care, longer postoperative stays in the ICU and the hospital, and hospital mortality.
Conclusion
Most patients admitted to the ICU after major liver resection just received close monitoring. Even though patients underwent major liver resection, patients without receipt of intraoperative transfusion could be sent to the general ward. Duration of ICU/hospital stay, ventilator care and mortality significantly correlated with major liver resection and intraoperative transfusion. Major liver resection and receipt of intraoperative transfusions should be considered indicators for ICU admission.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.3.155
PMCID: PMC3433552  PMID: 22977762
Hepatectomy; Major resection; Intensive care units; Intraoperative transfusion
2.  Synchronous double primary cancers associated with a choledochal cyst and anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union 
A 60-year-old female was admitted with epigastric pain lasting a month. Preoperative diagnosis was choledochal cyst with anomalous pancreaticobiliaryductal union (APBDU), C-P type. A papillary mass measuring 2.5 × 1.9 cm was found adjacent to the pancreaticocholedochal junction. Gallbladder (GB) cancer was also observed. Pyloric-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) was performed. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy/radiation therapy on the tumor bed. The gallbladder cancer showed serosal invasion, while the bile duct cancer extended into the pancreas. Although common bile duct (CBD) cancer lesion showed focally positive for p53 and the gallbladder cancer lesion showed negative for p53, the Ki-67 labeling index of the CBD cancer and GB cancer were about 10% and 30%, respectively. Nine months after curative resection, a stricture on the subhepatic colon developed due to adjuvant radiation therapy. Localized peritoneal seedings were incidentally found during a right hemicolectomy. The patient underwent chemotherapy and had no evidence of tumor recurrence for two years after PPPD.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.4.281
PMCID: PMC3219855  PMID: 22111085
Choledochal cyst; Gallbladder neoplsms; Bile duct neoplasms; Synchronous multiple primary neoplasms
3.  Solitary Extrahepatic Intraabdominal Metastasis from Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Liver Transplantation 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;52(1):199-203.
A liver transplantation is a treatment option in selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite the adequate selection of candidates, recurrences of HCC may still develop. Solitary extrahepatic metastasis from HCC after a liver transplantation is rare. Here we report two cases of HCC demonstrated extrahepatic recurrence to the adrenal gland and spleen, respectively, within one year after a liver transplantation. Since the treatment of solitary extrahepatic metastasis from HCC after a liver transplantation is not standardized, surgical resection was performed. In the case of HCC adrenal metastasis, innumerable intrahepatic metastases were found two months after the adrenalectomy. And 16 months after adrenalectomy, the patient expired due to tumor progression and hepatic failure. In the case of HCC splenic metastasis, postoperative radiation therapy was performed. However, two recurrent HCC nodules were found 15 months after the splenectomy and received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). And 29 month after the splenectomy, the patient also expired as same causes of former patient.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2011.52.1.199
PMCID: PMC3017699  PMID: 21155056
Hepatocellular carcinoma; adrenal metastasis; splenic metastasis; liver transplantation
4.  Early Experiences of Robotic-assisted Laparoscopic Liver Resection 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2008;49(4):632-638.
Purpose
The surgical robotic system is superior to traditional laparoscopy in regards to 3-dimensional images and better instrumentations. Robotic surgery for hepatic resection has not yet been extensively reported.
Patients and Methods
Between March and May 2007, we performed 3 robot-assisted left lateral sectionectomies of the liver. Case 1 had a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), case 2 had colon cancer with liver metastasis, and case 3 had intrahepatic duct stones.
Results
All patients had successful operation and recovered without complications. Shorter length of hospital stays, earlier start of oral feeding and less amount of ascites were found. However, case 1 had recurrent HCC at 3 months after operation.
Conclusion
Robotic-assisted liver surgery is still a new field in its developing stage. In patients with small malignant tumors and benign liver diseases, robotic-assisted laparoscopic resection is feasible and safe. Through experience, the use of robotics is expected to increase in the treatment of benign diseases and malignant neoplsms. However, careful patient selection is important and long-term outcomes need to be evaluated.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2008.49.4.632
PMCID: PMC2615291  PMID: 18729307
Hepatocellular carcinoma; robotic liver resection; minimally invasive surgery
5.  Postoperative radiotherapy dose correlates with locoregional control in patients with extra-hepatic bile duct cancer 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2014;32(1):7-13.
Purpose
To evaluate the results of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with extra-hepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC) and identify the prognostic factors for local control and survival.
Materials and Methods
Between January 2001 and December 2010, we retrospectively reviewed the cases of 70 patients with EHBDC who had undergone curative resection and received postoperative radiotherapy. The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 41.4 to 54 Gy). The resection margin status was R0 in 30 patients (42.9%), R1 in 25 patients (35.7%), and R2 in 15 patients (21.4%).
Results
The 5-year rates of overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and locoregional control (LRC) for all patients were 42.9%, 38.3%, and 61.2%, respectively. The major pattern of failure was distant relapses (33 patients, 47.1%). A multivariate analysis showed that the postradiotherapy CA19-9 level, radiation dose (≥50 Gy), R2 resection margins, perineural invasion, and T stage were the significant prognostic factors for OS, EFS, and LRC. OS was not significantly different between the patients receiving R0 and R1 resections, but was significantly lower among those receiving R2 resection (54.6%, 56.1%, and 7.1% for R0, R1, and R2 resections, respectively).
Conclusion
In patients with EHBDC who had undergone curative resection, a postoperative radiotherapy dose less than 50 Gy was suboptimal for OS and LRC. Higher radiation doses may be needed to obtain better LRC. Further investigation of novel therapy or palliative treatment should be considered for patients receiving R2 resection.
doi:10.3857/roj.2014.32.1.7
PMCID: PMC3977131  PMID: 24724046
Bile duct neoplasms; Adjuvant radiotherapy; Radiotherapy dosage
6.  The optimal follow-up period in patients with above 5-year disease-free survival after curative liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma 
Purpose
Although many patients with hepatocellular carcinoma experience recurrence within 2 years after hepatectomy, some patients with T1 and T2 hepatocellular carcinoma show recurrence-free survival for more than 5 years after surgery. This study was designed to analyze the optimal follow-up period on patients with T1 and T2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) showing recurrence-free survival 5 years after surgery.
Methods
One hundred seventy patients underwent hepatectomy from January 1995 to December 1999. Numbers of patients with T1 and T2 HCC were 76 and 73, respectively. The recurrence patterns of patients experiencing recurrence more than 5 years after liver resection were analyzed in aspect of clinicopathological features and follow-up period.
Results
Thirteen patients experienced recurrence more than 5 years after surgery. Only age was found as a significant factor for recurrence. Eight patients were checked regularly with 6-month intervals and the others were checked with 12-month or more intervals. The size of the recurrent tumors in the 6-month interval group had a median of 1.1 cm (range, 1 to 4.2 cm) and the size of the recurrent tumors in the 12-month or more interval group had a median of 3 cm (range, 1.6 to 4 cm). The tumor size was significantly smaller in the 6-month interval group.
Conclusion
Though the patients with early stage HCC showed high overall survival, some patients experienced a late recurrence of more than 5 years after surgery. Patients less than 60 years old with early stage HCC should be checked regularly with 6-month intervals even over 5 years after liver resection.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.6.269
PMCID: PMC3868678  PMID: 24368984
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Recurrence; Surveillance
7.  Antiviral efficacies of currently available rescue therapies for multidrug-resistant chronic hepatitis B 
Background/Aims
The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) chronic hepatitis B (CHB) during sequential lamivudine (LAM) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) treatment is increasing. We investigated the antiviral efficacies of various rescue regimens in patients who failed sequential LAM-ADV treatment.
Methods
Forty-eight patients (83.3% of whom were HBeAg-positive) who failed sequential LAM-ADV treatment were treated with one of the following regimens: entecavir (ETV) (1 mg) monotherapy (n=16), LAM+ADV combination therapy (n=20), or ETV (1 mg)+ADV combination therapy (n=12). All patients had confirmed genotypic resistance to both LAM and ADV and were evaluated every 12 weeks.
Results
The baseline characteristics and treatment duration did not differ significantly among the study groups. During the treatment period (median duration: 100 weeks), the decline of serum HBV DNA from baseline tended to be greatest in the ETV+ADV group at all-time points (week 48: -2.55 log10 IU/mL, week 96: -4.27 log10 IU/mL), but the difference was not statistically significant. The ETV+ADV group also tended to have higher virologic response rates at 96 weeks compared to the ETV monotherapy or LAM+ADV groups (40.0% vs. 20.0% or 20.0%, P=0.656), and less virologic breakthrough was observed compared to the ETV monotherapy or LAM+ADV groups (8.3% vs. 37.5% or 30.0%; P=0.219), but again, the differences were not statistically significant. HBeAg loss occurred in one patient in the ETV+ADV group, in two in the ETV monotherapy group, and in none of the LAM+ADV group. The safety profiles were similar in each arm.
Conclusions
There was a nonsignificant tendency toward better antiviral efficacy with ETV+ADV combination therapy compared to LAM+ADV combination therapy and ETV monotherapy for MDR CHB in Korea, where tenofovir is not yet available.
doi:10.3350/cmh.2013.19.1.29
PMCID: PMC3622853  PMID: 23593607
Hepatitis B virus; Multidrug resistance; Hepatitis B; Entecavir; Adefovir
8.  Immediately transcripted genes in various hepatic ischemia models 
Purpose
To elucidate the characteristic gene transcription profiles among various hepatic ischemia conditions, immediately transcribed genes and the degree of ischemic injury were compared among total ischemia (TI), intermittent clamping (IC), and ischemic preconditioning (IPC).
Methods
Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into control (C, sham-operated), TI (ischemia for 90 minutes), IC (ischemia for 15 minutes and reperfusion for 5 minutes, repeated six times), and IPC (ischemia for 15 minutes, reperfusion for 5 minutes, and ischemia again for 90 minutes) groups. A cDNA microarray analysis was performed using hepatic tissues obtained by partial hepatectomy after occluding hepatic inflow.
Results
The cDNA microarray revealed the following: interleukin (IL)-1β expression was 2-fold greater in the TI group than in the C group. In the IC group, IL-1α/β expression increased by 2.5-fold, and Na+/K+ ATPase β1 expression decreased by 2.4-fold. In the IPC group, interferon regulatory factor-1, osteoprotegerin, and retinoblastoma-1 expression increased by approximately 2-fold compared to that in the C group, but the expression of Na+/K+ ATPase β1 decreased 3-fold.
Conclusion
The current findings revealed characteristic gene expression profiles under various ischemic conditions. However, additional studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of protection against IPC.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.5.298
PMCID: PMC3491232  PMID: 23166889
Reperfusion injury; Ischemic preconditioning; Necrosis; Apoptosis; Microarray analysis
9.  Current Status of Laparoscopic Liver Resection in Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(7):767-771.
Since laparoscopic liver resection was first introduced in 2001, Korean surgeons have chosen a laparoscopic procedure as one of the treatment options for benign or malignant liver disease. We distributed and analyzed a nationwide questionnaire to members of the Korean Laparoscopic Liver Surgery Study Group (KLLSG) in order to evaluate the current status of laparoscopic liver resection in Korea. Questionnaires were sent to 24 centers of KLLSG. The questionnaire consisted of operative procedure, histological diagnosis of liver lesions, indications for resection, causes of conversion to open surgery, and postoperative outcomes. A laparoscopic liver resection was performed in 416 patients from 2001 to 2008. Of 416 patients, 59.6% had malignant tumors, and 40.4% had benign diseases. A total laparoscopic approach was performed in 88.7%. Anatomical laparoscopic liver resection was more commonly performed than non-anatomical resection (59.9% vs 40.1%). The anatomical laparoscopic liver resection procedures consisted of a left lateral sectionectomy (29.3%), left hemihepatectomy (19.2%), right hemihepatectomy (6%), right posterior sectionectomy (4.3%), central bisectionectomy (0.5%), and caudate lobectomy (0.5%). Laparoscopy-related serious complications occurred in 12 (2.8%) patients. The present study findings provide data in terms of indication, type and method of liver resection, and current status of laparoscopic liver resection in Korea.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.7.767
PMCID: PMC3390725  PMID: 22787372
Laparoscopic Liver Resection; Laparoscopy; Anatomical Liver Resection; Liver Diseases; HCC
10.  Clinicopathological Characteristics in Combined Hepatocellular-Cholangiocarcinoma: A Single Center Study in Korea 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;52(5):753-760.
Purpose
Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (CHCC) is an uncommon form of cancer, and its clinicopathological features have rarely been reported in detail. This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors of CHCC.
Materials and Methods
The clinicopathological features of patients diagnosed with CHCC at Severance Hospital between January 1996 and December 2007 were retrospectively studied by comparing them with the features of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or cholangiocarcinoma (CC) who had undergone a hepatic resection during the same period.
Results
Forty-three patients diagnosed with CHCC were included in this study (M : F=35 : 8, median age, 55 years). According to the parameters of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging, there were 6 (14.0%), 9 (20.9%), 25 (58.1%), and 3 (7.0%) patients with stages I, II, III, and IV cancer, respectively. Thirty-two of the 43 patients underwent resection with curative intent. After resection, 27 patients (84.4%) had tumor recurrence during the follow-up period of 18 months (range: 6-106 months), and the median time to recurrence was 13 months. Overall median survival periods after hepatic resection of CHCC, HCC and CC were 34, 103 and 38.9 months, respectively (p<0.001). The median overall survival for all patients with CHCC was 21 months, and the 5-year survival rate was 18.1%. The presence of portal vein thrombosis and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors of poor survival.
Conclusion
Even after curative hepatic resection, the presence of a cholangiocellular component appeared to be a poor prognostic indicator in patients with primary liver cancer.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2011.52.5.753
PMCID: PMC3159948  PMID: 21786439
Combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma; hepatocellular carcinoma; cholangiocarcinoma
11.  The effect of preconditioning on liver regeneration after hepatic resection in cirrhotic rats 
The Korean Journal of Hepatology  2011;17(2):139-147.
Background/Aims
Ischemic preconditioning (IP) decreases severity of liver necrosis and has anti-apoptotic effects in previous studies using liver regeneration in normal rats. This study assessed the effect of IP on liver regeneration after hepatic resection in cirrhotic rats.
Methods
To induce liver cirrhosis, thioacetamide (300 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into Sprague-Dawley rats twice per week for 16 weeks. Animals were divided into four groups: non-clamping (NC), total clamping (TC), IP, and intermittent clamping (IC). Ischemic injury was induced by clamping the left portal pedicle including the portal vein and hepatic artery. Liver enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured to assess liver damage. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining for apoptosis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining for cell replication were also performed.
Results
Day-1 ALT and AST were highest in IP, however, levels in NC and IC were comparably low on days 1-7. There was no significant correlation of AST or ALT with experimental groups (P=0.615 and P=0.186). On TUNEL, numbers of apoptotic cells at 100× magnification (cells/field) were 31.8±24.2 in NC, 69.0±72.3 in TC, 80.2±63.1 in IP, and 21.2±20.8 in IC (P<0.05). When regeneration capacity was assessed by PCNA staining, PCNA-positive cells (cells/field) at 400× were 3.4±6.0 in NC, 16.9±69 in TC, 17.0±7.8 in IP and 7.4±7.6 in IC (P<0.05).
Conclusions
Although regeneration capacity in IP is higher than IC, the liver is vulnerable to ischemic damage in cirrhotic rats. Careful consideration is needed in applying IP in the clinical setting.
doi:10.3350/kjhep.2011.17.2.139
PMCID: PMC3304634  PMID: 21757985
Liver cirrhosis; Ischemic preconditioning; Liver regeneration; Hepatectomy; Apoptosis
12.  Preoperative Radiologic and Postoperative Pathologic Risk Factors for Early Intra-Hepatic Recurrence in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Who Underwent Curative Resection 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2009;50(6):789-795.
Purpose
The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence must be considered ahead of surgery. This study was undertaken to identify pre-operative risk factors for early intrahepatic recurrence of HCC after curative resection in a large-scale.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the preoperative three-phase multi-detector CT (MDCT) and laboratory data for 240 HCC patients who underwent curative resection; tumor size, number, gross shape, capsule integrity, distinctiveness of tumor margin, portal vein thrombosis (PVT), alpha-fetoprotein level (AFP), and protein induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II) levels were assessed. Surgical pathology was reviewed; tumor differentiation, capsule, necrosis, and micro-vessel invasion were recorded.
Results
HCC recurred in 61 patients within six months (early recurrence group), but not in 179 patients (control group). In univariate analysis, large tumor size (p = 0.018), shape (p = 0.028), poor capsule integrity (p = 0.046), elevated AFP (p = 0.015), and PIVKA-II (p = 0.008) were significant preoperative risk factors. Among the pathologic features, PVT (p = 0.023), Glisson's capsule penetration (p = 0.033), microvascular invasion (p < 0.001), and poor differentiation (p = 0.001) showed statistical significance. In multivariate analysis, only the histopathologic parameters of microvascular invasion and poor differentiation achieved statistical significance.
Conclusion
Preoperative CT and laboratory parameters showed limited value, while the presence of microscopic vascular tumor invasion and poorly differentiated HCC correlated with higher risk of early recurrence after curative resection.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2009.50.6.789
PMCID: PMC2796405  PMID: 20046419
Hepatocellular carcinoma; preoperative CT; postoperative pathologic findings; early recurrence; curative resection
13.  The Efficacy of Hepatic Resection after Neoadjuvant Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE) and Radiation Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Greater Than 5 cm in Size 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(2):242-247.
In cases of large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), neoadjuvant treatment such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiation therapy can be performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of these treatments prior to hepatic resection. Between January 1994 and May 2007, 16 patients with HCC greater than 5 cm in size were treated with TACE and radiation therapy prior to hepatic resection. The clinicopathologic factors were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 16 patients, there were 14 men and two women, and the median age was 52.5 yr. TACE was performed three times in average, and the median radiation dosage was 45 Gy. The median diameter of tumor on specimen was 9.0 cm. The degree of tumor necrosis was more than 90% in 14 patients. The median survival time was 13.3 months. Five patients had survived more than 2 yr and there were two patients who had survived more than 5 yr. Although the prognosis of large HCC treated with neoadjuvant therapy is not satisfactory, some showed long-term survival loger than 5 yr. Further research will be required to examine the survival and disease control effect in a prospective randomized study.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.2.242
PMCID: PMC2672123  PMID: 19399265
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; TACE; Radiotherapy; Hepatic Resection
14.  Prediction of postoperative hepatic insufficiency by liver stiffness measurement (FibroScan®) before curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma: a pilot study 
Hepatology International  2008;2(4):471-477.
Background
Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) using transient elastography (FibroScan®) reflects the degree of hepatic fibrosis. This prospective study investigated how well LSM predicts the development of hepatic insufficiency after curative liver resection surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Methods
The study enrolled 72 consecutive patients who underwent a preoperative LSM to assess the degree of liver fibrosis followed by curative liver resection surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma between July 2006 and December 2007. The primary end point was the development of hepatic insufficiency.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 54.9 years. Twenty patients (27.7%) had chronic hepatitis and 52 (72.3%) had cirrhosis (44 and 8 patients showed Child-Pugh class A and B, respectively). The mean LSM was 17.1 kPa. Twelve patients (16.6%) had segmentectomy only, 16 patients (22.2%) had bisegmentectomy, and 44 patients (61.2%) had lobectomy. Nine patients (12.5%) had stage I tumor, 56 (77.7%) had stage II, and 7 (9.8%) had stage III. Univariate and subsequent multivariate analyses revealed that preoperative LSM was the only independent risk factor for predicting the development of postoperative hepatic insufficiency (cutoff, 25.6 kPa; P = 0.001; relative risk, 19.14; 95% confidence interval, 2.71–135.36).
Conclusions
LSM is potentially useful to predict the development of postoperative hepatic insufficiency in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing curative liver resection surgery.
doi:10.1007/s12072-008-9091-0
PMCID: PMC2716908  PMID: 19669322
Liver stiffness measurement; Indocyanine green; Hepatic insufficiency; Hepatectomy
15.  Laparoscopic Enucleation of a Nonfunctioning Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Pancreas 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2008;49(5):864-868.
Laparoscopic approaches are increasingly used in pancreatic surgery. In the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the pancreas, enucleation is one of the recommended surgery. Although many clinical experiences have reported the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic enucleation of functioning NETs, such as insulinomas, few reports have explored such treatment for non-functioning NETs. Here, we present a case of 70-year old female patient who underwent successful laparoscopic enucleation of a nonfunctioning NET located in the body of the pancreas.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2008.49.5.864
PMCID: PMC2615360  PMID: 18972611
Laparoscopy; enucleation; neuroendocrine tumor; pancreas
16.  Gallbladder carcinoma associated with anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction 
BACKGROUND:
Anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal junction (APBDJ) is believed to be one of the risk factors for gallbladder carcinoma. The present study aims to delineate the gallbladder carcinoma characteristics associated with APBDJ.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Patients with gallbladder carcinoma associated with APBDJ between August 1992 and February 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Two types of APBDJ classifications were considered: right-angle type (C-P) and acute-angle type (P-C).
RESULTS:
Ten of 218 patients (4.6%) with gallbladder carcinomas were associated with APBDJ. All patients were female with a mean age of 55.4 years (range 41 to 72 years). Gallstones were absent in nine patients. Seven patients (70%) had the P-C type and three patients (30%) had the C-P type. Survival differences between the P-C type and the C-P type of gallbladder carcinomas were noted (P=0.0269). Patients with incidentally detected gallbladder carcinoma had superior survival (P=0.0316).
CONCLUSION:
Gallbladder carcinomas associated with APBDJ were significantly related to relatively young female patients without gallbladder stones. Survival outcomes in these patients were not different from those of gallbladder carcinoma without APBDJ. In particular, the P-C type of APBDJ seemed to be more associated with relatively advanced gallbladder carcinomas, and patients with incidentally detected gallbladder carcinomas with APBDJ had superior survival.
PMCID: PMC2658122  PMID: 17571173
Anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction; Gallbladder carcinoma
17.  Comparison of CT and MRI for presurgical characterization of paraaortic lymph nodes in patients with pancreatico-biliary carcinoma 
AIM: To determine the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) for presurgical characterization of paraaortic lymph nodes in patients with pancreatico-biliary carcinoma.
METHODS: Two radiologists independently evaluated CT and MR imaging of 31 patients who had undergone lymphadenectomy (9 metastatic and 22 non-metastatic paraaortic nodes). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed using a five point scale to compare CT with MRI. To re-define the morphologic features of metastatic nodes, we evaluated CT scans from 70 patients with 23 metastatic paraaortic nodes and 47 non-metastatic ones. The short axis diameter, ratio of the short to long axis, shape, and presence of necrosis were compared between metastatic and non-metastatic nodes by independent samples t-test and Fisher’s exact test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: The mean area under the ROC curve for CT (0.732 and 0.646, respectively) was slightly higher than that for MRI (0.725 and 0.598, respectively) without statistical significance (P = 0.940 and 0.716, respectively). The short axis diameter of the metastatic lymph nodes (mean = 9.2 mm) was significantly larger than that of non-metastatic ones (mean = 5.17 mm, P < 0.05). Metastatic nodes had more irregular margins (44.4%) and central necrosis (22.2%) than non-metastatic ones (9% and 0%, respectively), with statistical significance (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The accuracy of CT scan for the characterization of paraaortic nodes is not different from that of MRI. A short axis-diameter (> 5.3 mm), irregular margin, and presence of central necrosis are the suggestive morphologic features of metastatic paraaortic nodes.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.2208
PMCID: PMC2703846  PMID: 18407595
Paraaortic lymph node; Pancreatico-biliary carcinoma; Computed tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging
18.  Hepatic Splenosis Preoperatively Diagnosed as Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Patient with Chronic Hepatitis B: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(2):336-341.
We report on a case of hepatic splenosis. A 32-yr-old man underwent a splenectomy due to trauma at the age of 6. He had been diagnosed as being a chronic hepatitis B-virus carrier 16 yr prior to the surgery. The dynamic computer tomography (CT) performed due to elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (128 ng/mL) demonstrated two hepatic nodules, which were located near the liver capsule. A nodule in Segment IVa had a slight enhancement during both the arterial and portal phases, and another nodule in Segment VI showed a slight enhancement only in the portal phases. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the mass in Segment VI showed enhanced development in the arterial phases and slight hyperintensivity to the liver parenchyma in the portal phases. These imaging findings suggested a hypervascular tumor in the liver, which could be either focal nodular hyperplasia, adenoma, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Even though these lesions were diagnosed as HCC, some of the findings were not compatible with typical HCC. On dynamic CT and MRI, all lesions showed a slight arterial enhancement and did not show early venous washout. All lesions were located near the liver capsule. These findings, along with a history of splenectomy, suggested a diagnosis of hepatic splenosis.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.2.336
PMCID: PMC2526445  PMID: 18437023
Hepatic Splenosis; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
19.  Acute Chylous Peritonitis Mimicking Ovarian Torsion in a Patient with Advanced Gastric Carcinoma 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(Suppl):S164-S166.
The extravasation of chyle into the peritoneal space usually does not accompany an abrupt onset of abdominal pain with symptoms and signs of peritonitis. The rarity of this condition fails to reach preoperative diagnosis prior to laparotomy. Here, we introduce a case of chylous ascites that presented with acute abdominal pain mimicking peritonitis caused by ovarian torsion in a 41-yr-old female patient with advanced gastric carcinoma. An emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed but revealed no evidence of ovarian torsion. Only chylous ascites was discovered in the operative field. She underwent a complete abdominal hysterectomy and salphingo-oophorectomy. Only saline irrigation and suction-up were performed for the chylous ascites. The postoperative course was uneventful. Her bowel movement was restored within 1 week. She was allowed only a fat-free diet, and no evidence of re-occurrence of ascites was noted on clinical observation. She now remains under consideration for additional chemotherapy.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.S.S164
PMCID: PMC2694377  PMID: 17923746
Chylous Peritonitis; Ovarian Torsion; Advanced Gastric Carcinoma
20.  The First Korean Experience of Telemanipulative Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Using the da Vinci System 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(3):540-545.
With the advancement of laparoscopic instruments and computer sciences, complex surgical procedures are expected to be safely performed by robot assisted telemanipulative laparoscopic surgery. The da Vinci system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, CA, USA) became available at the many surgical fields. The wrist like movements of the instrument's tip, as well as 3-dimensional vision, could be expected to facilitate more complex laparoscopic procedure. Here, we present the first Korean experience of da Vinci robotic assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy and discuss the introduction and perspectives of this robotic system.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2007.48.3.540
PMCID: PMC2628101  PMID: 17594166
da Vinci robotic system; laparoscopy; cholecystectomy
21.  Pancreaticoduodenectomy of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma in the Elderly 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(3):488-494.
Purpose
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has the highest incidence between the ages of 60 and 70 years. As the elderly population has been increasing in the last several decades, the proportion of patients older than 70 years of age with resectable pancreatic cancer is expected to increase in our society. This retrospective observation was performed to evaluate surgical value of pancreaticoduodenectomy for the elderly patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Materials and Methods
From January 1990 to June 2005, among the patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the elder patients older than 70 years of age were retrospectively reviewed. Perioperative surgical outcomes, including general clinicopathologic features, morbidity, mortality, and survival outcomes, were investigated based on available medical records.
Results
Seventy-seven patients underwent pancreaticoduodenenctomy (PD) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Among them, 11 patients (14.3%) were 70 years older. More frequent incidences of morbidity (8 out of 11 vs. 25 out of 65, p = 0.049), especially delayed gastric emptying (3 out of 8 vs. 3 out of 66, p = 0.035), were observed and overall length of hospital stay was also longer in the elderly (49.2 ± 13.9 days vs. 36.1 ± 13.2, p = 0.012). However, no significant differences in mortality rate and survival outcomes were noted when comparing with those of the younger patients (p > 0.05).
Conclusion
We agree with the opinion that age factor can not be absolute contraindication for pancreaticoduodenectomy, however, appropriate preoperative evaluations, proper patient selection considering life expectancy, advanced surgical techniques and detailed perioperative management are mandatory to guarantee the safety of pancreaticoduodenectomy performed in the elderly with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2007.48.3.488
PMCID: PMC2628082  PMID: 17594158
Pancreaticoduodenectomy; pancreatic cancer; elderly
22.  Long-term Follow-up of Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(3):420-424.
Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has been reserved for intractable and relapsing immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) despite medical treatment. With further experiences of LS in ITP, we investigated long term outcomes of LS, especially newly developed morbidities, and tried to find predictive factors for favorable outcomes. From August 1994 to December 2004, fifty-nine patients whose follow-up period was more than 12 months after LS were investigated. After a long-term follow-up (median 54 months, range 12.5-129 months), a complete response (CR) was found in 28 patients (47.5%), partial response in 24 (40.7%), and no response in 7 (11.9%). The relapse rate during follow-up periods was 15.2%. The rapid response group (p=0.017), in which the platelet count increased more than twice of the preoperative platelet count within 7 days after LS, relapsing after medical treatment (p=0.02), and the satisfactory group as the initial result of LS (p=0.001) were significant for predicting CR in univariate analysis, but only the initial satisfactory group was an independent predictive factor for CR in multivariate analysis (p=0.036, relative risk=6419; 95% CI, 1.171-35.190). Infections were the most frequent morbidities during the follow-up period, which were treated well without mortality. LS is a safe and effective treatment modality for ITP. Active referral to surgery might be required, considering complications and treatment results related to long-term use of steroid-based medications.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.3.420
PMCID: PMC2693631  PMID: 17596647
Laparoscopic Splenectomy (LS); Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP); Follow-up
23.  Surgical Experiences of Functioning Neuroendocrine Neoplasm of the Pancreas 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2006;47(6):833-839.
We present our surgical experiences with functioning neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas to define its natural history, and to suggest its proper management. From June 1990 to June 2005, patients with diagnosis of functioning neuroendocrine (islet cell) neoplasms of the pancreas were retrospectively reviewed. Fourteen patients (5 men and 9 women) with a median age of 49 years (range, 12 - 68 years) were identified. Twelve patients (86%) had insulinoma, two (14%) had gastrinoma. One (7%) with pancreatic insulinoma was multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Intraoperative ultrasound scan (sensitivity, 83%) was the most powerful modality for tumor localization. Fifteen neoplasms with median tumor size 1 cm (range 0-3 cm) were resected. Four insulinomas (26.7%) were located in the head of the pancreas and 5 (36%), in the tail. Another 5 (36%) insulinomas and 1 (7%) gastrinoma were located around the neck area near the SMV or PV. Eleven patients (79%) underwent enucleation, and 2 patients (14%), distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. 100% of patients with functioning neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas have survived. The overall disease free 10-year survival was found to be about 81%. Exact localization of tumor by intraoperative ultrasound and surgical removal are promising for good prognosis.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2006.47.6.833
PMCID: PMC2687824  PMID: 17191313
Neuroendocrine neoplasm; insulinoma; gastrinoma; pancreas
24.  Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Liver Treated by Hepatic Resection: A Case Report 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2006;47(1):140-143.
Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) of the liver is rare benign tumor. When the diagnosis of IPT is established with biopsy, simple observation or conservative therapy is preferred because of the possibility of regression. But IPT is unresponsive to the conservative treatment, surgical resection should be considered. We experienced a 63-year-old male, who was suspected hepatocellular carcinoma in abdominal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) scan, presented with 2-month history of intermittent fever and weight loss. Percutaneous ultrasound guided core biopsy confirmed IPT of the liver. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics were administered for 8 and 4 weeks, respectively, but fever continued. So, extended right hepatectomy was performed for IPT of the liver and then fever subsided. The patient remains well during a follow-up period of 12 months.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2006.47.1.140
PMCID: PMC2687572  PMID: 16502497
Inflammatory pseudotumor; liver; hepatic resection
25.  The Actual Five-year Survival Rate of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients after Curative Resection 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2006;47(1):105-112.
The five-year survival rate of patients after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been reported to be 30 to 50%, however the actual survival rate may be different. We analyzed the actual 5-year survival rate and prognostic factors after curative resection of HCC. Retrospective analysis was performed on 63 HCC patients who underwent curative resection from 1998 to 1999. A total of 63 cases were reviewed, consisting of 53 men and 10 women, with a median age of 49 years. These cases included all four pathologic T stages (pT stage) and had the following representation: stage 1 (1 case), stage 2 (17 cases), stage 3 (38 cases), and stage 4 (7 cases). In our study, the actual 5-year survival rate was 57.0% and the median survival time was 60 months. In addition, the patients in our study had an actual 5-year disease-free survival rate of 50.2% and a median disease-free survival time of 46 months. Thirty-one patients had recurrences, with a majority occurring within one year (65%). These patients with early recurrences had a poor actual 5-year survival rate of 5%. A univariate analysis showed that the prognostic factors influencing survival rate were the presence of satellite nodules, increased pT stage, HCC recurrence, and the time to recurrence (within one year). Interestingly, microvascular invasion made a difference in survival rate but was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). Furthermore, factors influencing the disease free survival rate include the presence of satellite nodules, microvascular invasion, and pT stage. Multivariate analysis identified pT stage as the only statistically related factor in determining the disease-free survival rate. The most important prognostic factor of HCC is recurrence. Moreover, the major risk factor for recurrence is an advanced pT stage. Therefore, performing prospective studies of postoperative adjuvant therapy is necessary to prevent recurrences after hepatic resection. Furthermore, active preventative treatment and early diagnosis of recurrences should be of the highest priority in the care of high-risk patient groups that have an advanced pT stage.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2006.47.1.105
PMCID: PMC2687566  PMID: 16502491
Hepatocellular carcinoma; hepatic resection; five-year survival rate

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