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1.  Left Paraduodenal Hernia Presenting with Atypical Symptoms 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(5):787-789.
Paraduodenal hernias are a rare congenital malformation, but they are the most common internal hernias. They develop secondary to a failure in midgut rotation, which may lead to small bowel obstruction or other clinical manifestations. The authors recently experienced a case of a left paraduodenal hernia presenting with unusual symptoms of left flank pain and vomiting.
PMCID: PMC2908883  PMID: 20635458
Paraduodenal hernia; small bowel obstruction; left flank pain
2.  Risk factors affecting pancreatic fistulas after pancreaticoduodenectomy 
AIM: To analyze the risk factors of pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 172 consecutive patients who had undergone pancreatico-duodenectomy at Inha University Hospital between April 1996 and March 2006. We analyzed the pancreatic fistula rate according to the clinical characteristics, the pathologic and laboratory findings, and the anastomotic methods.
RESULTS: The incidence of developing pancreatic fistulas in patients older than 60 years of age was 21.7% (25/115), while the incidence was 8.8% (5/57) for younger patients; the difference was significant (P = 0.03). Patients with a dilated pancreatic duct had a lower rate of post-operative pancreatic fistulas than patients with a non-dilated duct (P = 0.001). Other factors, including clinical features, anastomotic methods, and pathologic diagnosis, did not show any statistical difference.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that pancreatic fistulas are related to age and a dilated pancreatic duct. The surgeon must take these risk factors into consideration when performing a pancre-aticoduodenectomy.
PMCID: PMC2773861  PMID: 19058333
Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Pancreatic fistula; Pancreatic leakage
3.  Effect of preoperative biliary drainage on surgical results after pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with distal common bile duct cancer: Focused on the rate of decrease in serum bilirubin 
AIM: To examine if the rate of decrease in serum bilirubin after preoperative biliary drainagecan be used as a predicting factor for surgical complications and postoperative recovery after pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with distal common bile duct cancer.
METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in 49 consecutive patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for distal common bile duct cancer. Potential risk factors were compared between the complicated and uncomplicated groups. Also, the rates of decrease in serum bilirubin were compared pre- and postoperatively.
RESULTS: Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) was performed in 40 patients (81.6%). Postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were 46.9% (23/49) and 6.1% (3/49), respectively. The presence or absence of PBD was not different between the complicated and uncomplicated groups. In patients with PBD, neither the absolute level nor the rate of decrease in serum bilirubin was significantly different. Patients with rapid decrease preoperatively showed faster decrease during the first postoperative week (5.5 ± 4.4 μmol/L vs -1.7 ± 9.9 μmol/L, P = 0.004).
CONCLUSION: PBD does not affect the surgical outcome of pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with distal common bile duct cancer. There is a certain group of patients with a compromised hepatic excretory function, which is represented by the slow rate of decrease in serum bilirubin after PBD.
PMCID: PMC2689415  PMID: 18286694
Distal bile duct cancer; Drainage; Bilirubin; Rate
4.  Eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting as small bowel obstruction: A case report and review of the literature 
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall to a variable depth and symptoms associated with gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the authors experienced a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting as small bowel obstruction. A 51-year old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen with diffuse tenderness. Complete blood count showed mild leukocytosis without eosinophilia. Computed tomography confirmed a dilatation of the small intestine with ascites. An emergency laparotomy was performed for a diagnosis of peritonitis due to intestinal obstruction. Segmental resection of the ileum and end to end anastomosis were performed. Histologically, there was a dense infiltration of eosinophils throughout the entire thickness of ileal wall and eosinophilic enteritis was diagnosed. The patient recovered well, and was free from gastrointestinal symptoms at the time when we reported her disease.
PMCID: PMC4146961  PMID: 17461485
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis; Small bowel obstruction; Eosinophilic infiltration
5.  Subclinical vascular inflammation in subjects with normal weight obesity and its association with body Fat: an 18 F-FDG-PET/CT study 
Although body mass index (BMI) is the most widely accepted parameter for defining obesity, recent studies have indicated a unique set of patients who exhibit normal BMI and excess body fat (BF), which is termed as normal weight obesity (NWO). Increased BF is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether NWO subjects already have a higher degree of vascular inflammation compared to normal weight lean (NWL) subjects; moreover, the association of BF with vascular inflammation in normal weight subjects is largely unknown.
NWO and NWL subjects (n = 82 in each group) without any history of significant vascular disease were identified from a 3-year database of consecutively recruited patients undergoing 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG-PET/CT) at a self-referred Healthcare Promotion Program. The degree of subclinical vascular inflammation was evaluated using the mean and maximum target-to-background ratios (TBRmean and TBRmax) of the carotid artery, which were measured by 18 F-FDG-PET/CT (a noninvasive tool for assessing vascular inflammation).
We found that metabolically dysregulation was greater in NWO subjects than in NWL subjects, with a significantly higher blood pressure, higher fasting glucose level, and worse lipid profile. Moreover, NWO subjects exhibited higher TBR than NWL subjects (TBRmean: 1.33 ± 0.16 versus 1.45 ± 0.19, p < 0.001; TBRmax: 1.52 ± 0.23 versus 1.67 ± 0.25, p < 0.001). TBR was significantly associated with total BF (TBRmean: r = 0.267, p = 0.001; TBRmax: r = 0.289, p < 0.001), age (TBRmean: r = 0.170, p = 0.029; TBRmax: r = 0.165, p = 0.035), BMI (TBRmean: r = 0.184, p = 0.018; TBRmax: r = 0.206, p = 0.008), and fasting glucose level (TBRmean: r = 0.157, p = 0.044; TBRmax: r = 0.182, p = 0.020). In multiple linear regression analysis, BF was an independent determinant of TBRmean and TBRmax, after adjusting for age, BMI, and fasting glucose level (TBRmean: regression coefficient = 0.020, p = 0.008; TBRmax: regression coefficient = 0.028, p = 0.005). Compared to NWL, NWO was also independently associated with elevated TBRmax values, after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio = 2.887, 95% confidence interval 1.206–6.914, p = 0.017).
NWO is associated with a higher degree of subclinical vascular inflammation, of which BF is a major contributing factor. These results warrant investigations for subclinical atherosclerosis in NWO patients.
PMCID: PMC3994236  PMID: 24708764
Normal weight obesity; Fat; Atherosclerosis; 18 F-FDG-PET/CT; Vascular inflammation
6.  Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor with Osseous Component of the Small Bowel Mesentery: A Case Study 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(1):77-81.
A case of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the small bowel mesentery with osseous component is reported. A 23-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of acute severe abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large solid and cystic, oval shaped mass, measuring 11.0×6.0 cm in the pelvic cavity. Histologically the resected lesion consisted of sheets of undifferentiated small round cells forming Homer-Wright rosettes and perivascular pseudorosettes, and showed areas of osteoid and bone formation. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that tumor cells expressed positivity against CD99 (MIC2), CD57, neuron-specific enolase, and vimentin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization study revealed Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) gene rearrangement on chromosome 22q12. To the authors' knowledge this is the first documentation of a peripheral neuroectodermal tumor with osteoid and bone formation of the small bowel mesentery.
PMCID: PMC3589613  PMID: 23482293
Neuroectodermal tumor, primitive, peripheral; Intestine, small; Osteogenesis; Metaplasia; EWSR1
7.  Comparative Analysis of the Expression of Involucrin, Filaggrin and Cytokeratin 4, 10, 16 in Cholesteatoma 
Korean Journal of Audiology  2012;16(3):124-129.
Background and Objectives
The aim of this study is to determine whether the hyperproliferative and hyperkeratotic characters of cholesteatoma are associated with differentiation of keratinocytes in cholesteatoma by examining the localization of marker proteins, such as involucrin, filaggrin, and cytokeratins.
Materials and Methods
Immunohistochemical study was carried out in 30 cholesteatoma tissues and 10 retroauricular skins to examine the expression of involucrin, filaggrin, cytokeratin 4, 10 and 16. The staining results were graded as negative, weakly positive (<10%), moderately positive (10-70%), and strongly positive (>70%).
Involucrin was strongly expressed in upper spinous, granular, and corneal layer of cholesteatoma. Filaggrin was strongly expressed in granular and corneal layer of cholesteatoma. Cytokeratin 4 was expressed in basal layer of retroauricular skin, but occasionally expressed in suprabasal layer of cholesteatoma. Cytokeratin 10 was homogenously expressed in all suprabasal layer of retroauricular skin, whereas pattern of shift to surface layer was showed in cholesteatoma. Cytokeratin 16 was moderately expressed at suprabasal layer in cholesteatoma.
It can be suggested that early differentiation of suprabasal layer may lead to hyperdifferentiation and hyperkeratosis. Different expression of cytokeratins possibly indicates the altered differentiation of cholesteatoma.
PMCID: PMC3936667  PMID: 24653886
Involucrin; Filaggrin; Cytokeratin 4, 10, 16; Cholesteatoma
8.  Stent fractures after superficial femoral artery stenting 
Stent fracture is one of the major factors compromising implanted stent patency due to its consequences including in-stent restenosis, thrombosis, perforation, and migration. Stent fracture can occur from stress (extrinsic or intrinsic) and biomechanical forces at different implantation sites. We report on 2 cases of stent fractures and pertinent literature. One patient, a 75-year-old male, presented with recurrence of claudication 14 months after superficial femoral artery stenting; a femoral artery occlusion with stent fracture was found, and he underwent femoropopliteal bypass. The other patient, a 72-year-old male presented with recurrence of claudication; a stent fracture was found without femoral artery occlusion, and he was treated with additional femoral artery stenting to secure the fracture site.
PMCID: PMC3433557  PMID: 22977767
Stents; Vascular patency; Femoral artery; Early intervention
9.  The association of insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis with thigh and calf circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes 
The relationship between body composition parameters such as thigh and calf circumference and insulin resistance or atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and thigh and calf circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes.
A total of 4,427 subjects with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study. Insulin sensitivity was assessed according the rate constant for plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt) determined via the short insulin tolerance test. Biochemical and anthropometric profiles were measured according to a standardized protocol. Visceral fat thickness and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) were measured by ultrasonography.
Insulin sensitivity index (Kitt) was significantly correlated with weight adjusted thigh and calf circumference. Thigh circumference was inversely associated with IMT in men and women and calf circumference was negatively correlated with IMT in women. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that thigh circumference was independently correlated with insulin sensitivity index (Kitt) and IMT. Furthermore, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, thigh circumference was an independent determinant factor for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes even after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors.
Thigh and calf circumference were correlated with insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis, and thigh circumference was independently associated with insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3444381  PMID: 22682537
Insulin resistance; Intima media thickness; Thigh circumference; Calf circumference; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
10.  Serum Cystatin C Reflects the Progress of Albuminuria 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2011;35(6):602-609.
Research on the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and serum cystatin C in diabetes is restricted to cross-sectional studies. In this study, we investigated how well serial measurements of serum cystatin C level reflect changes in the urinary albumin excretion rate.
We enrolled and retrospectively collected data on 1,058 participants with type 2 diabetes who were older than 18 years and who had more than 3 years of follow-up with serial measurements of albuminuria and serum cystatin C at an outpatient clinic.
With the use of a linear mixed model, we found that the albuminuria level for each patient over time corresponded with the annual change in serum cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (cysC-eGFR) but did not correspond with the creatinine-based eGFR calculated by the modification of diet in renal disease formula (MDRD-eGFR). The discrepancy in the direction of the trend was smaller with cysC-eGFR than with MDRD-eGFR.
Serum cystatin C level reflects the trend in albuminuria level more accurately than serum creatinine level in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
PMCID: PMC3253971  PMID: 22247903
Albuminuria; Cystatin C; Creatinine; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Diabetic nephropathies
12.  Predictive Clinical Parameters for the Therapeutic Efficacy of Sitagliptin in Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2011;35(2):159-165.
Sitagliptin is a highly selective dipeptidyl peptide-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that increases blood levels of active glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP), resulting in increased insulin secretion. While studies conducted in other countries have indicated the efficacy and safety of using sitagliptin to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), its predictors of effects to sitagliptin are not well understood. Therefore, we evaluated the predictive clinical parameters for the therapeutic benefits of sitagliptin when added to an ongoing metformin or sulfonylurea therapy in Korean T2DM subjects.
We obtained data from 251 Korean T2DM subjects who had recently started taking sitagliptin as add-on therapy. Exclusion criteria included any insulin use. Changes in HbA1c (ΔHbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (ΔFPG) were assessed by comparing baseline levels prior to sitagliptin administration to levels 12 and 24 weeks after treatment. Responders were defined as subjects who experienced decrease from baseline of >10% in ΔHbA1c or >20% in ΔFPG levels at 24 weeks.
We classified 81% of the subjects (204 out of 251) as responders. The responder group had a lower mean body mass index (23.70±2.40 vs. 26.00±2.26, P≤0.01) and were younger (58.83±11.57 years vs. 62.87±12.09 years, P=0.03) than the non-responder group.
In Korean T2DM subjects, sitagliptin responders had lower body mass index and were younger compared to non-responders.
PMCID: PMC3122893  PMID: 21738898
Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Dipeptidyl peptide-4 inhibitor; Sitagliptin
13.  Effect of pioglitazone on serum concentrations of osteoprotegerin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as an important regulatory molecule in atherosclerosis. Recent studies report that thiazolidinediones could affect OPG expression. We investigated the relationship between OPG and inflammatory cytokines and the effects of pioglitazone (a PPARγ (PPARG) agonist) versus metformin on serum OPG levels in type 2 diabetic patients.
Design and methods
Sixty-seven type 2 diabetic patients were included in this study. They were assigned to pioglitazone (15 mg/day, n=34) or metformin (1000 mg/day, n=33) during 24 weeks. Various anthropometric and metabolic parameters, OPG, interleukin 6 (IL6), C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were measured at baseline and at 6 months of treatment.
Serum OPG levels correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbAlc, HOMA-IR, IL6, and CRP, and inversely correlated with adiponectin after adjusting for age (P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that FPG, HbAlc, and adioponectin were independently correlated with OPG level. After 6 months of treatment, the reduction in FPG and HbAlc levels was similar between the two groups. Pioglitazone treatment significantly increased body mass index (P<0.05) and waist circumference (P<0.05) and decreased triglycerides (P<0.05) and HOMA-IR (P<0.01). The adiponectin concentration was increased (P<0.05), and OPG and CRP levels were decreased in the pioglitazone group (P<0.05), but were unchanged in the metformin group. The changes in serum OPG in the pioglitazone group showed significant correlation with changes in FPG, HbAlc, and adiponectin.
In type 2 diabetic patients, pioglitazone decreases OPG levels, and this decrease in OPG levels might be associated with the increase in adiponectin.
PMCID: PMC3000683  PMID: 20961967
14.  Cox-2 and IL-10 Polymorphisms and Association with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of The Head and Neck in a Korean Sample 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(7):1024-1028.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is also regarded as anti-inflammatory factors with the multi-functional ability to positively and negatively influence functional immunity and tumor development. Genetic polymorphisms of COX-2 and IL-10 might contribute to the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of COX-2 and IL-10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the risk of SCCHN in a Korean sample. We analyzed the COX-2 SNPs, -1329A>G, +1266C>T, and +6365T>C, and the IL-10 SNPs, -1082A>G, +920T>G, and +3917T>C, in 290 Korean SCCHN patients and 358 healthy controls. There was no significant association between the risk of SCCHN and the three COX-2 or three IL-10 SNPs. We analyzed three haplotypes (ht1, ht2, ht3) for COX-2 and found that COX-2 ht3+/+ was associated with a decreased risk of SCCHN in a Korean sample, compared with the COX-2 ht3 -/- genotype (P=0.03). Two haplotypes (ht1, ht2) of IL-10 were analyzed and there was no statistical significance in the distribution of haplotypes. Based on these results, the COX-2 haplotype ht3 can be used as a molecular biomarker to predict low risk groups of SCCHN in a Korean sample.
PMCID: PMC2890878  PMID: 20592893
Carcinom, Squamous Cell; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Cyclooxygenase 2; Interleukin-10; Polymorphism, Genetic; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
15.  XPD Polymorphisms and Risk of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck in a Korean Sample 
XPD is a major player in nucleotide excision repair, which is one of the basic pathways of DNA repair. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of XPD single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) in Koreans.
We performed XPD +23591G>A and +35931A>C genotyping in 290 SCCHN patients and 358 controls.
The frequencies of the XPD +23591G>A (GG/GA/AA) genotypes were 89.0%/11.0%/0% in the patients and 90.3%/8.8%/0.9% in the controls, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of the XPD +23591 GA genotype was 1.94 (0.92 to 4.08) in reference to the GG genotype. The frequencies of the XPD +35931A>C (AA/AC/CC) genotypes were 86.9%/12.0%/1.1% in the patients and 85.6%/13.8%/0.6% in the controls, respectively. The OR of the XPD +35931 AC and CC genotypes were 0.98 (0.51 to 1.88) and 2.68 (0.71 to 10.1), respectively, in reference to the AA genotype. On the subgroup analyses according to the smoking and drinking statuses, the SNPs and haplotypes of XPD showed no statistically significant association with the risk of SCCHN.
The results of this study suggest that the XPD +23591G>A and +35931A>C SNPs are not associated with the risk of SCCHN in Koreans; however, a further study with a larger number of subjects is necessary to verify this conclusion.
PMCID: PMC2848318  PMID: 20379402
Polymorphism; XPD; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma
16.  Association of Abdominal Obesity with Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(5):781-788.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Total 530 patients with T2DM were included. To evaluate the severity of atherosclerosis, we measured the coronary artery calcification (CAC) score, intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery, and the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI). Subjects were classified according to body mass index (BMI), a marker of general obesity, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), a marker of regional obesity. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was measured by the short insulin tolerance test. All subjects were classified into four groups, according to BMI: the under-weight group, the normal-weight (NW) group, the over-weight (OW) group, and the obese (OB) group. WHR and systolic blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acids (FFA), fibrinogen, and fasting c-peptide levels were significantly different between BMI groups. TG, HDL-C, FFA, fibrinogen and ISI were significantly different between patients with and without abdominal obesity. In the OW group as well as in the NW group, carotid IMT, ABPI and CAC score were significantly different between patients with and without abdominal obesity. This study indicates that abdominal obesity was associated with atherosclerosis in T2DM patients.
PMCID: PMC2580022  PMID: 18955782
Obesity; Insulin Resistance; Diabetes Mellitus Type 2; Atherosclerosis
17.  Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 with Multiple Leiomyomas Linked to a Novel Mutation in the MEN1 Gene 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2008;49(4):655-661.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome. MEN1 is characterized by the presence of functioning and nonfunctioning tumors or hyperplasia of the pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, and pancreatic islet cells. In addition, MEN1 carriers can have adrenal or thyroid tumors and non-endocrine tumors, such as lipomas, angiofibromas, and leiomyomas. Although leiomyoma is not a major component of MEN1, it is thought to occur more frequently than expected. However, there has been no report of a case of MEN1 with leiomyoma in Korea so far. This report describes a patient with multiple leiomyomas in MEN1. A 50-year-old woman was referred for further evaluation of elevated calcium levels and osteoporosis. Biochemical abnormalities included hypercalcemia with elevated parathyroid hormone. There was hyperprolactinemia with pituitary microadenoma in sella MRI. An abdominal MRI demonstrated adrenal nodules and leiomyomas in the bladder and uterus. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated esophageal leiomyoma and pancreatic islet cell tumor. A subtotal parathyroidectomy with thymectomy was performed. Sequencing of the MEN1 gene in this patient revealed a novel missense mutation (D350V, exon 7). This is the first case of MEN1 accompanied with multiple leiomyomas, parathyroid adenoma, pituitary adenoma, pancreatic tumor, and adrenal tumor.
PMCID: PMC2615294  PMID: 18729310
Leiomyoma; multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
18.  A Case of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Combined with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2008;49(3):503-506.
This is the first report of papillary thyroid carcinoma combined with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) in Korea. MEN1 is a hereditary disease comprising neoplastic disorders such as pituitary, parathyroid and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, such as gastrinoma. But papillary thyroid cancer was never regarded as its component before in Korea. Herein we present a 39-year-old woman who manifested typical features of MEN1 with a coincidental papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the family history of MEN1 was definite, her genetic analysis of DNA had revealed no germline mutation in MEN1 gene locus. Unidentified culprit gene unable us further genetic study to find LOH (loss of heterogeneity) in 11q13, the possible explanation of papillary thyroid carcinoma as a new component of MEN1. As we have first experienced a case of MEN1 combined with papillary thyroid carcinoma in Korea, we report it with the review of literature.
PMCID: PMC2615331  PMID: 18581603
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1; papillary thyroid carcinoma; prolactinoma; gastrinoma; parathyroid hyperplasia
19.  Visceral Fat Thickness Predicts Fatty Liver in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(2):256-261.
Our aim was to study whether visceral adiposity is a predictor of diabetic fatty liver in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, abdominal ultrasonography was used to assess the presence of fatty liver in 1,898 patients with type 2 diabetes. We measured visceral fat thickness by high-resolutional ultrasonography and insulin resistance by Kitt. Half of the cohort had a fatty liver (50.2%). High visceral fat thickness had the highest odds ratio for developing fatty liver in both sexes (odds ratio [S.D]: 3.14 [2.24-4.69], p<0.00 in male, 2.84 [2.04-3.93], p<0.00 in female). In addition, visceral fat thickness of 42.45 and 37.7 mm in men and women, respectively, were chosen as the discriminating value to predict the presence of fatty liver with a sensitivity of 71% and 73% and a specificity of 70% and 70% in men and women, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was 0.759 in men and 0.764 in women. Therefore we could conclude that the degree of visceral adiposity predicts the presence of fatty liver type 2 diabetes mellitus, whether centrally obese or not, suggesting that hepatic fat accumulation in a diabetic fatty liver may be influenced by visceral fat accumulation regardless of waist circumference.
PMCID: PMC2526434  PMID: 18437009
Visceral Fat Thickness; Fatty Liver; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
20.  TAP1 and TAP2 Gene Polymorphisms in Korean Patients with Allergic Rhinitis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(5):825-831.
Antigen peptides are actively transported across the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporters associated with antigen presentation (TAP). TAP genes polymorphism could influence the selection process that determines which antigen peptides play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of TAP genes polymorphism with allergic rhinitis. TAP1 and TAP2 genotyping were performed on 110 allergic rhinitis patients and 107 healthy controls. TAP1 polymorphic residues at codons 333 and 637, and TAP2 polymorphic residues at codons 379, 565, 651, and 665 were analyzed by the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). Analysis of TAP1 gene polymorphism demonstrated decreased frequencies of Ile/Val genotype at codon 333, Asp/Gly genotype at codon 637, and haplotype A and B in allergic rhinitis patients when compared to controls (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the genotype, phenotype, or allele frequencies at four TAP2 codons between controls and allergic rhinitis patients. In conclusion, TAP1 gene polymorphism may be an important factor contributing to the genetic susceptibility in the development of allergic rhinitis in the Korean population.
PMCID: PMC2693848  PMID: 17982230
Allergic Rhinitis; TAP1; TAP2; Polymorphism
21.  Gasless Endoscopic Thyroidectomy via an Anterior Chest Wall Approach Using a Flap-Lifting System 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(3):480-487.
Endoscopic thyroidectomy (ET) requires a proper working space for adequate visualization of anatomical structures and proper instrument manipulation. The purpose of this prospective study was to estimate the feasibility and safety of ET using an anterior chest wall approach without gas insufflation.
Materials and Methods
The working space was created under a direct and endoscopic view through a 3-cm incision on the anterior chest wall. A retracting device was then inserted to establish the working space, and subsequent procedures were performed endoscopically. All data were reviewed using a prospective database.
We performed 30 ETs in patients with benign thyroid tumors from December 2003 to December 2005. The procedures were completed successfully in 29 patients (mean operative time: 160.6 min; range: 90-345 min). One patient with ET was converted to open thyroidectomy secondary to substernal extension of the tumor. None of the patients developed permanent postoperative hypocalcemia or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Three patients exhibited some degree of transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy.
These data suggest that gasless ET using an anterior chest wall approach is safe and feasible in selected patients for treating benign thyroid tumors. This technique may offer good operative working space when performed by surgeons with relatively low-volume ET practices.
PMCID: PMC2628087  PMID: 17594157
Thyroidectomy; endoscopes; thyroid neoplasms
22.  The Relation between Birth Weight and Insulin Resistance in Korean Adolescents 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2006;47(1):85-92.
Low birth weight is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in adults. The fetal programming hypothesis has shown that insulin resistance and its associated metabolic disturbances result from a poor gestational environment, for which low birth weight is a surrogate. An at-home questionnaire survey was performed on 660 middle school students (12-15 years) in Seoul, Korea, and 152 cases were randomly selected based on their birth weight. Subjects were divided into three groups according to birth weight. We recorded their birth weight and measured their current anthropometric data, blood pressure, lipid profile, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-β, and compared these parameters among the groups. The relation of birth weight to physiological characteristics in adolescence was examined. Systolic blood pressure, lipid profiles, and fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-β were not significantly different among the groups, but diastolic blood pressure was lower in the third tertile. Insulin, C-peptide, and HOMA-IR were higher in the lower birth weight tertile. After adjustment for confounding factors, birth weight was inversely related to diastolic blood pressure, insulin, C-peptide, and HOMA-IR. We conclude that low birth weight may predict the risk of the insulin resistance and its progression over age, and that adequate gestational nutrition is therefore necessary to prevent low birth weight.
PMCID: PMC2687585  PMID: 16502489
Birth weight; insulin resistance; adolescence
23.  Characteristics of Type 2 Diabetes in Terms of Insulin Resistance in Korea 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2005;46(4):484-490.
The aim of this study was to assess the implications of insulin resistance on the clinical and biochemical profiles of Korean type 2 diabetic patients. 122 patients with type 2 diabetes underwent a short insulin tolerance test to assess insulin resistance. Subjects were classified in tertiles according to ISI (insulin sensitivity index), and the tertile I (the insulin-resistant group) and tertile III (the insulin-sensitive group) clinical and biochemical parameters were compared. Age, waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), HbA1c, body fat content, and fasting plasma glucose were significantly higher in tertile I than tertile III (all p < 0.05). The frequency of hypertension and family history of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) were greater in tertile I than III (p < 0.05). To evaluate the factors affecting ISI, multiple regression was performed, and age, WC, SBP, HbA1c, and body fat content were found to be independently related to insulin resistance (p < 0.05). Old age, hypertension, central obesity, and poor glycemic control were identified as clinical parameters of insulin resistance in Korean type 2 diabetic patients.
PMCID: PMC2815832  PMID: 16127772
Insulin resistance; type 2 diabetes; Korea

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