Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is important for tumor growth, Invasion, and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between plasma levels of PAI-1 and colorectal adenomas.
We reviewed the medical records of 3,136 subjects who underwent colonoscopy as a screening exam. The subjects were classified into a case group with adenomas (n=990) and a control group (n=2,146). Plasma PAI-1 levels were categorized into three groups based on tertile.
The plasma levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in adenoma cases than in controls (p=0.023). The prevalence of colorectal adenomas increased significantly with increasing levels of PAI-1 (p=0.038). In the adenoma group, advanced pathologic features, size, and number of adenomas did not differ among the three groups based on tertiles for plasma PAI-1 levels. Using multivariate analysis, we found that plasma level of PAI-1 was not associated with the risk of colorectal adenomas (p=0.675). Adjusted odds ratios for colorectal adenomas according to increasing plasma levels of PAI-1 were 0.980 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.768 to 1.251) for the second-highest plasma level and 1.091 (95% CI, 0.898 to 1.326) for the highest level, compared with the lowest levels.
These results suggest that elevated plasma PAI-1 levels are not associated with the risk of colorectal neoplasms.
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; Colorectal neoplasms
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is a common complication of antibiotic use. There is growing interest in probiotics for the treatment of AAD and Clostridium difficile infection because of the wide availability of probiotics. The aim of this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was to assess the efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus (Lacidofil® cap) for the prevention of AAD in adults. From September 2008 to November 2009, a total of 214 patients with respiratory tract infection who had begun receiving antibiotics were randomized to receive Lactobacillus (Lacidofil® cap) or placebo for 14 days. Patients recorded bowel frequency and stool consistency daily for 14 days. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who developed AAD within 14 days of enrollment. AAD developed in 4 (3.9%) of 103 patients in the Lactobacillus group and in 8 (7.2%) of 111 patients in the placebo group (P=0.44). However, the Lactobacillus group showed lower change in bowel frequency and consistency (50/103, 48.5%) than the placebo group (35/111, 31.5%) (P=0.01). Although the Lacidofil® cap does not reduce the rate of occurrence of AAD in adult patients with respiratory tract infection who have taken antibiotics, the Lactobacillus group maintains their bowel habits to a greater extent than the placebo group.
Probiotics; Lactobacillus; Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea
Foreign bodies in the upper esophagus should be removed as soon as possible to avoid serious complications. However, removals of foreign bodies in the upper esophagus are very difficult, especially if they have sharp edges, such as press-through-packs (PTPs). We experienced four cases of the impacted PTPs in the upper esophagus which was successfully extracted endoscopically with the overtube. Because two edges of PTPs were so firmly impacted in the esophageal wall in all cases, the PTPs were not movable in the upper esophagus. However, after insertion of the overtube, PTPs became movable and were successfully extracted and no serious complications occurred after extraction of PTPs. In one case, insertion of the overtube rapidly expanded the upper esophagus and PTP progressed to the gastric cavity and it could be extracted with the endoscopic protector hood. The endoscopic removal with the overtube was a simple, safe and effective technique for the removal of the impacted PTPs in upper esophagus.
Esophagus; Foreign body; Endoscopy
We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors.
The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome.
Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (≥ 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ≥ 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated.
The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities.
Foremost fine hairs in the frontal hairline region are critical in hair transplantation for hairline correction (HTHC) in women. However, there are few studies on a nonsurgical revisionary method for improving an unnatural foremost hairline with thick donor hairs resulting from a previous HTHC.
To investigate the efficacy and safety of using a hair removal laser (HRL) system to create fine hairs in Asian women with thick donor hairs.
Through a retrospective chart review, the HRL parameters, hair diameter (measured with a micrometer before and after the procedures), subjective results after the procedures, adverse effects, and the number of procedures were investigated. The reduction rate of the hair diameter was calculated.
Twenty-four women who received long-pulse Neodymium-Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet therapy after HTHC were included. The parameters were as follows: delivered laser energy, 35~36 J/cm2; pulse duration, 6 ms; and spot size, 10 mm. The mean number of laser sessions was 2.6. The mean hair diameter significantly decreased from 80.0±11.5 µm to 58.4±13.2 µm (p=0.00). The mean rate of hair diameter reduction was -25.7% (range, -44.6% to 5.7%). The number of laser sessions and the hair diameter after the procedures showed a negative correlation (r=-0.410, p=0.046). Most of the patients (87.5%) reported subjective improvement of their hairlines. Most complications were transient and mild.
HRL can be an alternative method for creating fine hairs and revising foremost hairline in Asian women with thick donor hairs.
Hair; Transplantation; Hair removal; Lasers; Nd:YAG
Primary systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is divided into two entities according to the expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). We investigated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) findings in primary systemic ALCL according to ALK expression.
Thirty-seven patients who had baseline PET before CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone)-based chemotherapy were enrolled. Among them, patients who underwent interim and/or post-therapy PET were further investigated for the treatment response and survival analysis. Baseline PET was analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively using peakSUV, and interim and post-therapy PETs were visually analyzed.
All cases were 18F-FDG-avid on baseline PET. The peakSUV of ALK-positive ALCL (n = 16, 18.7 ± 10.5) was higher than that of ALK-negative ALCL (n = 21, 10.0 ± 4.9) (P = 0.006). In ALK-negative ALCL, complete response (CR) rate in negative-interim PET was higher than positive-interim PET (100 % vs 37.5 %, P = 0.02); however, there was no such difference in ALK-positive ALCL (100 % vs 75 %, P = 0.19). The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) was not significantly different between ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL (72.7 % vs 47.6 %, P = 0.34). In ALK-negative ALCL, negative interim and post-therapy PET patients had better 3-year PFS than positive interim (83.3 % vs 25.0 %, P = 0.06) and post-therapy PET patients (70.0 % vs 20.0 %, P = 0.04). In contrast, ALK-positive ALCL had no such differences between PFS and PET results.
On baseline PET, all cases showed 18F-FDG-avidity, and ALK expression was related to higher 18F-FDG uptake. ALK-positive patients tend to have better PFS than ALK-negative patients. Negative-interim PET was a good indicator of CR, and interim or post-therapy PET was helpful for predicting the prognosis only in the ALK-negative group.
Primary systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma; Anaplastic lymphoma kinase; 18F-FDG PET
Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) is an uncommon subtype of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), accounting for only 0.3% of NHL in adults and less than 10% of all LBL cases. Unlike T-cell LBL, it usually presents with extranodal involvement while sparing the bone marrow (BM). Among the 27 patients with LBL treated in the Asan Medical Center between January 2007 and March 2012, 3 had B-LBL. All had a good performance status and low International Prognostic Index. However, unlike most previously reported cases, the patients had lymphoma in their bone marrow and extranodal sites such as bone and lung. After intensive combination chemotherapy, one patient achieved a complete response and the other 2 patients, a partial response. Our experience suggests that multiple extranodal sites may be involved in B-LBL and BM involvement may not be as infrequent as previously thought. Furthermore, intensive chemotherapy seems to be effective.
B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma; Chemotherapy; Bone marrow involvement
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has lent urgency to finding new drug leads with novel modes of action. A high-throughput screening campaign of >65,000 actinomycete extracts for inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability identified ecumicin, a macrocyclic tridecapeptide that exerts potent, selective bactericidal activity against M. tuberculosis
in vitro, including nonreplicating cells. Ecumicin retains activity against isolated multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis. The subcutaneous administration to mice of ecumicin in a micellar formulation at 20 mg/kg body weight resulted in plasma and lung exposures exceeding the MIC. Complete inhibition of M. tuberculosis growth in the lungs of mice was achieved following 12 doses at 20 or 32 mg/kg. Genome mining of lab-generated, spontaneous ecumicin-resistant M. tuberculosis strains identified the ClpC1 ATPase complex as the putative target, and this was confirmed by a drug affinity response test. ClpC1 functions in protein breakdown with the ClpP1P2 protease complex. Ecumicin markedly enhanced the ATPase activity of wild-type (WT) ClpC1 but prevented activation of proteolysis by ClpC1. Less stimulation was observed with ClpC1 from ecumicin-resistant mutants. Thus, ClpC1 is a valid drug target against M. tuberculosis, and ecumicin may serve as a lead compound for anti-TB drug development.
Paravalvular leaks (PVLs) often occur after surgical valve replacement. Surgical reoperation has been the gold standard of therapy for PVLs, but it carries a higher operative risk and an increased incidence of re-leaks compared to the initial surgery. In high surgical risk patients with appropriate geometries, transcatheter closure of PVLs could be an alternative to redo-surgery. Here, we report a case of successful staged transcatheter closures of a fistula tract between the aorta and right atrium, and mitral PVLs after mitral valve replacement and tricuspid annuloplasty.
Paravalvular leaks; Transcatheter closure; Mitral valve replacement
Postoperative wound healing status has not been considered in earlier studies on olfactory changes after surgery. This may be a factor accounting for the equivocal postoperative olfactory results. The aim of this study was to investigate postoperative olfactory results according to wound healing status.
Fifty patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps with smelling disturbance were examined preoperatively, and at 6 months after surgery. Patients were divided into two groups according to postoperative Lund-Kennedy score: favorable and unfavorable wound healing. Preoperative ostiomeatal unit computed tomography (CT), such as Lund-Mackay score and olfactory cleft opacification score, clinical characteristics and olfactory function tests such as the butanol threshold test and cross-cultural smell identification test, and questionnaire responses were compared between the two groups.
There were no differences in preoperative clinical characteristics between the favorable and unfavorable wound healing groups. The favorable wound healing group displayed greater improvement of olfactory results after surgery than the unfavorable wound healing group. Postoperative olfactory improvement patterns showed a hierarchy from subjective to objective improvement and from threshold to identification improvement. Patients who had postoperative favorable wound healing but showed no success of olfaction were characterized by more severe preoperative subjective symptoms and higher olfactory cleft opacification, especially in the upper part of olfactory cleft on preoperative CT scan.
Wound healing status is an apparent risk factor for postoperative olfactory improvement. Moreover, preoperative opacification in the olfactory cleft may predict bad olfactory results after surgery, even in patients with favorable wound healing.
Chronic rhinosinusitis; Endoscopic sinus surgery; Nasal polyps; Olfaction; Wound healing
We investigated the particle mass size distribution and chemical properties of air pollution particulate matter (PM) in the urban area and its capacity to induce cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells.
To characterize the mass size distributions and chemical concentrations associated with urban PM, PM samples were collected by a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor close to nearby traffic in an urban area from December 2007 to December 2009. PM samples for in vitro cytotoxicity testing were collected by a mini-volume air sampler with PM10 and PM2.5 inlets.
The PM size distributions were bi-modal, peaking at 0.18 to 0.32 and 1.8 to 3.2 µm. The mass concentrations of the metals in fine particles (0.1 to 1.8 µm) accounted for 45.6 to 80.4% of the mass concentrations of metals in PM10. The mass proportions of fine particles of the pollutants related to traffic emission, lead (80.4%), cadmium (69.0%), and chromium (63.8%) were higher than those of other metals. Iron was the dominant transition metal in the particles, accounting for 64.3% of the PM10 mass in all the samples. We observed PM concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells.
We found that exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 from a nearby traffic area induced significant increases in protein expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8). The cell death rate and release of cytokines in response to the PM2.5 treatment were higher than those with PM10. The combined results support the hypothesis that ultrafine particles from vehicular sources can induce inflammatory responses related to environmental respiratory injury.
Cell toxicity; Transition metals; Ultrafine particles; Vehicle source
The purpose of this study is to analyze the current attitudes toward professionalism, the core values, and the type of professionalism among plastic surgeons in Korea to establish a code of ethics regarding the role of professionalism for plastic and reconstructive surgeons.
From March 9, to July 1, 2012, face-to-face and mail surveys were conducted targeting the 325 participants (256 specialists and 69 residents) who are registered members of the Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. The proportion of each response given to an item was obtained through statistical processing through frequency analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the differences in the responses between the resident group and the specialist group.
The survey results on the perception of professionalism in plastic surgery showed that a high proportion (90.5%) of the respondents viewed the future of plastic surgeons as bright. Through evaluation of the importance of the value items,"professional dominance" (4.58 pts), "autonomy" (4.45 pts), "lifestyle" (4.34 pts), and "commercialism" (4.31 pts) were assessed as critical values. "Altruism" (3.84 pts), "interpersonal competence" (3.79 pts), and "social justice" (3.61 pts) were viewed as lesser values. This difference showed the characteristics of an entrepreneurial outlook.
Plastic surgeons should pursue excellence, humanism, accountability, and altruism in order to overcome the crisis of professionalism in plastic surgery. In order to develop the necessary competencies of professionals, vocational education should be arranged by the Korean Society of Plastic Surgeons, and an appropriate code of ethics should be established.
Code of ethics; Plastic surgery; Professional role
Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare systemic vascular disorder characterized by multiple venous malformations involving many organs. BRBNS can occur in various organs, but the most frequently involved organs are the skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GI lesions of BRBNS can cause acute or chronic bleeding, and treatment is challenging. Herein, we report a case of GI BRBNS that was successfully treated with a combination of intraoperative endoscopy and radical resection.
Intestines; Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome; Bleeding; Hemorrhage
We evaluated the risk factors for late complications and functional outcome after total proctocolectomy (TPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC).
Pre- and postoperative clinical status and follow-up data were obtained for 55 patients who underwent TPC with IPAA between 1999 and 2010. The median follow-up duration was 4.17 years. Late complications were defined as those that appeared at least one month after surgery. For a functional assessment, telephone interviews were conducted using the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Twenty-eight patients completed the interview.
Late complications were found in 20 cases (36.3%), comprising pouchitis (n = 8), bowel obstruction (n = 5), ileitis (n = 3), pouch associated fistula (n = 2), and intra-abdominal infection (n = 2). The preoperative serum albumin level for patients with late complications was lower than for patients without (2.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.9 ± 0.7, P = 0.04). Functional outcomes were not significantly associated with clinical characteristics, follow-up duration, operation indication, or late complications.
This study demonstrated that a low preoperative albumin level could be a risk factor for late complications of TPC with IPAA. Preoperative nutritional support, especially albumin, could reduce late complications. Functional outcomes are not related to late complications.
Ulcerative colitis; Proctocolectomy; Complications
Amoxicillin, an antibiotic that is widely prescribed for various infections, is associated with a very low rate of drug-induced liver injury; hepatitis and cholestasis are rare complications. Here we present a case of a 39-year-old woman who was diagnosed with abdominal actinomycosis and received amoxicillin treatment. The patient displayed hepatocellular and bile-duct injury, in addition to elevated levels of liver enzymes. The patient was diagnosed with amoxicillin-induced cholestatic hepatitis. When amoxicillin was discontinued, the patient's symptoms improved and her liver enzyme levels reduced to near to the normal range.
Drug-induced liver injury; Amoxicillin; Cholestatic hepatitis
The isoflavonol glycoside Talosin A, genistein (GT)-7-α-L-6-deoxy talopyranose (GT-Tal), was first isolated from the culture broth of Kitasatospora kifunensis MJM341. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oral absorption and metabolism of the newly isolated isoflavonol glycoside, GT-Tal compared to genistin (GT-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside; GT-Glu). Free GT-Glu and GT-Tal could not be detected prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of the corresponding conjugates in rat plasma. Following oral administration of GT-Tal (15 min), GT-Tal was rapidly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and metabolized into GT-Tal conjugates with a mean Cmax of 2.74 µg/mL. GT-Tal was further metabolized to its aglycone, free GT and conjugated GT. After oral administration, GT-Glu was absorbed after being convereted to its aglycone and then further metabolized into its conjugate metabolites (free GT with a mean Cmax of 0.24 mg/mL at 1.25 h; conjugated GT with a mean Cmax of 1.31 mg/mL at 2.00 h). Significant differences in absorption and metabolism of GT-Tal and GT-Glu were observed. GT-Tal was metabolized into its corresponding conjugates or underwent deglycosylation to form GT, whereas GT-Glu was metabolized into its aglycone, GT.
genistin; isoflavonol; metabolism; pharmacokinetics; Talosin A
Propofol induced sedation with bispectral index (BIS) monitoring has been reported to lead to higher satisfaction in patients and endoscopists during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) procedures. There are no data, however, regarding the efficacy of midazolam and meperidine (M/M) induced sedation with BIS monitoring during ESD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether M/M induced sedation with BIS monitoring could improve satisfaction and reduce the dose of M/M required during ESD.
Between September 2009 and January 2010, 56 patients were prospectively enrolled and randomly assigned to a BIS group (n=28) and a non-BIS group (n=28). Patient and endoscopist satisfaction scores were assessed using the visual analog scale (0 to 100) following the ESD.
The mean satisfaction scores did not significantly differ between the BIS and non-BIS groups (92.3±16.3 vs 93.3±15.5, p=0.53) or endoscopists (83.1±15.4 vs 80.0±16.7, p=0.52). Although the mean meperidine dose did not differ (62.5±27.6 vs 51.0±17.3, p=0.18) between the two groups, the mean dose of midazolam in the non-BIS group was lower than in the BIS group (6.8±2.0 vs 5.4±2.1, p=0.01).
BIS monitoring during ESD did not increase the satisfaction of endoscopists or patients and did not lead to an M/M dose reduction. These results demonstrate that BIS monitoring provides no additional benefit to M/M induced sedation during ESD.
Bispectral index monitoring; Satisfaction; Midazolam; Endoscopic submucosal dissection
Although gastric hyperplastic polyps are usually considered as benign lesions, a low risk of carcinomatous conversion is currently recognized. We aimed to identify the characteristics of hyperplastic polyps undergoing neoplastic transformation.
A total of 269 gastric hyperplastic polyps from 216 patients removed by endoscopic polypectomy (EP) or surgical resection were enrolled in this study, and their endoscopic pictures and pathology slides were reviewed.
Neoplastic transformation was detected on forceps biopsy specimen in 11 cases. However, the pathology findings from the EP or surgical specimen revealed neoplastic transformation in 14 cases (5.2%; 4 with dysplasia and 10 with adenocarcinoma). No significant difference was found between hyperplastic polyps with and without neoplastic transformation in age, sex, location, number of polyps or gross appearance. However, neoplastic transformations were more frequently found in gastric hyperplastic polyps >1 cm than in polyps ≤1 cm (12 of 143; 8.4% vs. 2 of 126; 1.6%) (p=0.013).
Neoplastic transformations were more frequently found in gastric hyperplastic polyps >1 cm. Therefore, EP should be considered for gastric hyperplastic polyps >1 cm for the accurate diagnosis and definitive treatment.
Hyperplastic polyp; Neoplastic transformation; Endoscopic polypectomy
Primary community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) endocarditis has rarely been reported in healthy individuals without risk factors, such as skin and soft tissue infections, and intravenous drug abuse. We describe a case of infective endocarditis by CA-MRSA (ST72-PVL negative-SCCmec IVA) in previously healthy individuals with no underlying medical condition and CA-MRSA colonization in the family.
Endocarditis; colonization in family; community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Ectopic stomal varices are an unusual cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The term "ectopic stomal varices" means abnormally dilated veins that have developed in the stomal mucosa. We describe the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images by MDCT in a patient with an episode of acute bleeding from the colonic stoma. This case indicates that the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images are useful to detect this rare complication of portal hypertension, and they help to tailor adequate treatment for the patients with bleeding from stomal varices.
Computed tomography (CT); Surgery, Complications; Varices
The spontaneous defecation of the surpical retained sponge is very rare. Here, we report a case of migrating surgical sponge that was retained in the colon and it was evacuated by defecation.
Surgical sponge; Foreign bodies; Computed tomography (CT); Colon