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1.  The surgical experience for retroperitoneal, mesenteric and omental cyst in children 
Purpose
Intra-abdominal cystic masses originating from the retroperitoneum, mesentery or omentum are very rare and mostly benign tumors, but sometimes present as a complicated cyst encasing the major organs.
Methods
We analyzed the clinical findings, histologic diagnosis, and surgical outcomes in children who underwent operation for retroperitoneal, omental, and mesenteric cyst from 1998 to 2010, retrospectively.
Results
Twenty-three patients (male, 12; female, 11) underwent the operation at a median age of 46 months (range, 9 days to 16 years). Among them, 17 cysts presented one or two symptoms such as abdominal mass, abdominal pain or abdominal distension. The median duration of symptoms was 7 days (range, 1 day to 365 days). Five were detected prenatally. Ten cysts were found in retroperitoneum, 8 in the omentum and 5 in the mesentery. The median diameter was 13 cm (range, 3 to 30 cm). Twenty cysts were completely removed. Five mesenteric cysts required bowel resection and anastomosis. Three of retroperitoneal cysts were impossible to complete excise because of location and extensiveness. Pathologically, 20 cysts were lymphangioma and 3 were pseudocyst. The morbidity was one of adhesive ileus and the mortality was one who had extensive retroperitoneal cyst with mesenteric cyst. He died from sepsis. During follow-up period, there was no recurrence.
Conclusion
Preoperative diagnosis and localization for these cysts are very difficult. Complete excision was possible in almost all cases despite the size, bringing a favorable outcome. The possibility of this disease entity should be considered as the cause of acute abdomen.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.2.102
PMCID: PMC3412181  PMID: 22880185
Retroperitoneal cyst; Mesenteric cyst; Omental cyst; Lymphangioma; Pseudocyst
2.  Adrenocortical tumors in children 18 years old and younger 
Purpose
Pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) are rare. We reviewed findings in 8 children, 18 years of age or younger, diagnosed with ACT in our institution over the past 15 years.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 8 children with ACTs treated between 1996 and 2010.
Results
Three girls and 5 boys were treated for ACTs; their median age at presentation was 144 months (range, 28 months to 18 years). Seven patients showed signs of endocrine dysfunction, 4 with Cushing syndrome, 2 with virilization, and 1 with hyperaldosteronism. One patient, with symptoms of hematuria, underwent a computed tomography scan, which showed an adrenal mass. The median duration of symptoms prior to resection was 6 months (range, 1 to 24 months). Five patients had adenomas and 3 had carcinomas. All underwent complete resection of the tumor, with laparoscopic adrenalectomy performed on 3 patients with adenoma and 1 with carcinoma. The median tumor weight was 12.5 g (range, 1 to 130 g) and the median tumor volume was 18.3 cm3 (range, 2.2 to 299.2 cm3). At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 4 months to 15 years), all 8 patients remain alive with no recurrence of disease.
Conclusion
The characteristics of pediatric ACTs vary considerably. Laboratory findings, clinical hormonal features, and tumor size could not distinguish adenomas from carcinomas before surgery. Complete tumor resection was successful, with no tumor recurrence. However, the small number of patients and short follow-up period limit assessments of prognosis.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.4.246
PMCID: PMC3319779  PMID: 22493766
Adrenocortical adenoma; Carcinoma; Child
3.  Beneficial effects of melatonin on stroke-induced muscle atrophy in focal cerebral ischemic rats 
Laboratory Animal Research  2012;28(1):47-54.
Muscle atrophy is the result of two opposing conditions that can be found in pathological or diseased muscles: an imbalance in protein synthesis and degradation mechanisms. Thus, we investigated whether exogenous melatonin could regulate muscle components in stroke-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Comparing muscle phenotypes, we found that long-term melatonin administration could influence muscle mass. Muscle atrophy-related genes, including muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) were significantly down-regulated in melatonin-administered rats in the gastrocnemius. However, only MAFbx at the mRNA level was attenuated in the soleus of melatonin-administered rats. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was significantly over-expressed in melatonin-administered rats in both the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Comparing myosin heavy chain (MHC) components, in the gastrocnemius, expression of both slow- and fast-type isoforms were significantly enhanced in melatonin-administered rats. These results suggest that long-term exogenous melatonin-administration may have a prophylactic effect on muscle atrophy through the MuRF1/MAFbx signaling pathway, as well as a potential therapeutic effect on muscle atrophy through the IGF-1-mediated hypertrophic signaling pathway in a stroke animal model.
doi:10.5625/lar.2012.28.1.47
PMCID: PMC3315192  PMID: 22474474
Melatonin; muscle atrophy; focal cerebral ischemia
4.  Clinical experience with persistent cloaca 
Purpose
Persistent cloaca is one of the most severe types of anorectal malformation. Appropriate initial drainage is difficult due to their various malformations and hydrocolpos or dilated urinary bladder. Corrective surgery also differs among individual patients. We describe our experiences with the surgical management of children with persistent cloaca.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 16 children diagnosed with persistent cloaca at Asan Medical Center.
Results
Sixteen patients were managed in their neonatal period. Twelve patients had enlarged bladder or vagina at birth. Three patients, who did not undergo cystostomy or vaginostomy at first operation, had earlier complications after surgery or required drainage tube insertion. One patient who did not undergo hydrocolpos drainage died of sepsis and complications. Nine patients underwent corrective surgery; posterior sagittal anorectovaginourethroplasty using the Pena method. Three patients required additional operations due to complications after surgery.
Conclusion
Patients found to have anatomical malformations before colostomy, as well as hydrocolpos and bladder enlargement, require a vaginostomy with or without a cystostomy to reduce complications. Follow-up is required in patients with hydrocolpos and bladder enlargement to determine whether vaginal drainage improves dilated bladder. Continuous long-term follow-up examination is required to determine the long-term results of corrective surgery.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.6.431
PMCID: PMC3204684  PMID: 22066071
Persistent cloaca; Anorectal malformation; Hydrocolpos; Posterior sagittal anorectovaginourethroplasty
5.  An 18-year experience of tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2010;53(6):705-710.
Purpose
To determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes of patients with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) and esophageal atresia (EA) born at a single neonatal intensive care unit.
Methods
A retrospective analysis was conducted for 97 patients with confirmed TEF and EA who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between 1990 and 2007.
Results
The rate of prenatal diagnosis was 12%. The average gestational age and birth weight were 37+2 weeks and 2.5┬▒0.7 kg, respectively. Thirty-one infants were born prematurely (32%). Type C was the most common. The mean gap between the proximal and distal esophagus was 2 cm. Esophago-esophagostomy was performed in 72 patients at a mean age of 4 days after birth; gastrostomy or duodenostomy were performed in 8 patients. Forty patients exhibited vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, limb (VACTERL) association with at least 2 combined anomalies, and cardiac anomaly was the most common. The most common post-operative complications were esophageal stricture followed by gastroesophageal reflux. Balloon dilatation was performed for 1.3 times in 26 patients at a mean age of 3 months. The mortality and morbidity rates were 24% and 67%, respectively, and the most common cause of death was sepsis. The weight of approximately 40% patients was below the 10th percentile at 2 years of age.
Conclusion
Mortality and morbidity rates of patients with TEF and EA are high as compared to those of infants with other neonatal surgical diseases. Further efforts must be taken to reduce mortality and morbidity and improve growth retardation.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2010.53.6.705
PMCID: PMC2994136  PMID: 21189942
Tracheoesophageal fistula; Esophageal atresia; VACTERL association; Mortality; Morbidity; Growth

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