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1.  Early Colorectal Epithelial Neoplasm in Korea: A Multicenter Survey of Pathologic Diagnosis 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(3):245-251.
Background
The incidence of early colorectal epithelial neoplasm (ECEN) is increasing, and its pathologic diagnosis is important for patient care. We investigated the incidence of ECEN and the current status of its pathologic diagnosis.
Methods
We collected datasheets from 25 institutes in Korea for the incidence of colorectal adenoma with high grade dysplasia (HGD) and low grade dysplasia in years 2005, 2007, and 2009; and early colorectal carcinoma in the year 2009. We also surveyed the diagnostic terminology of ECEN currently used by the participating pathologists.
Results
The average percentage of diagnoses of adenoma HGD was 7.0%, 5.0%, and 3.4% in years 2005, 2007, and 2009, respectively. The range of incidence rates of adenoma HGD across the participating institutes has gradually narrowed over the years 2005 to 2009. The incidence rate of early colorectal carcinoma in the year 2009 was 21.2%. The participants did not share a single criterion or terminology for the diagnosis of adenoma HGD. The majority accepted the diagnostic terms that distinguished noninvasive, mucosal confined, and submucosal invasive carcinoma.
Conclusions
Further research requirements suggested are a diagnostic consensus for the histopathologic diagnosis of ECEN; and standardization of diagnostic terminology critical for determining the disease code.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.3.245
PMCID: PMC3701820  PMID: 23837017
Colorectal neoplasms; Pathology, surgical; Multicenter study; Incidence; Diagnosis
2.  Hypoparathyroidism and Subclinical Hypothyroidism with Secondary Hemochromatosis 
Endocrinology and Metabolism  2014;29(1):91-95.
Hemochromatosis is an inherited genetic disorder of iron metabolism which can also occur as a secondary result of iron-overload. It leads to organ damage such as cardiomyopathy, liver cirrhosis, hypogonadism, and diabetes. This paper discusses a case of secondary hemochromatosis associated with repeated transfusions, presenting as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with multiple organ involvement. The 29-year-old female, who had severe aplastic anemia, received multiple transfusions totaling approximately 1,400 units of red blood cells over 15 years. During her routine laboratory examination, hypocalcemia was detected with decreased intact parathyroid hormone and increased thyroid stimulating hormone. Serum ferritin, iron, and total iron binding capacity had increased to 27,583.03 ng/mL, 291 µg/dL, and 389 µg/dL, respectively. She had unusually bronze skin and computed tomography revealed iron deposition in the thyroid, liver, and heart. Multiorgan involvement as seen in this case is rare in hemochromatosis associated with secondary transfusions. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first case report in Korea of hypoparathyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism due to iron deposition in the parathyroid and thyroid gland.
doi:10.3803/EnM.2014.29.1.91
PMCID: PMC3970271  PMID: 24741460
Hypoparathyroidism; Hypothyroidism; Hemochromatosis
3.  Current Trends of the Incidence and Pathological Diagnosis of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP-NETs) in Korea 2000-2009: Multicenter Study 
Purpose
As a result of various independently proposed nomenclatures and classifications, there is confusion in the diagnosis and prediction of biological behavior of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). A comprehensive nationwide study is needed in order to understand the biological characteristics of GEP-NETs in Korea.
Materials and Methods
We collected 4,951 pathology reports from 29 hospitals in Korea between 2000 and 2009. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine the prognostic significance of clinicopathological parameters.
Results
Although the GEP-NET is a relatively rare tumor in Korea, its incidence has increased during the last decade, with the most significant increase found in the rectum. The 10-year survival rate for well-differentiated endocrine tumor was 92.89%, in contrast to 85.74% in well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and 34.59% in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Disease related death was most common in the biliary tract (62.2%) and very rare in the rectum (5.2%). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, tumor location, histological classification, extent, size, mitosis, Ki-67 labeling index, synaptophysin expression, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and lymph node metastasis showed prognostic significance (p<0.05), however, chromogranin expression did not (p=0.148). The 2000 and 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification proposals were useful for prediction of the prognosis of GEP-NET.
Conclusion
The incidence of GEP-NET in Korea has shown a remarkable increase during the last decade, however, the distribution of tumors in the digestive system differs from that of western reports. Assessment of pathological parameters, including immunostaining, is crucial in understanding biological behavior of the tumor as well as predicting prognosis of patients with GEP-NET.
doi:10.4143/crt.2012.44.3.157
PMCID: PMC3467418  PMID: 23091441
Gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor; Incidence; Prognosis; Pathology
4.  Quantitative Assessment of the T2 Relaxation Time of the Gluteus Muscles in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a Comparative Study Before and After Steroid Treatment 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2010;11(3):304-311.
Objective
To determine the feasibility of using T2 mapping as a quantitative method to longitudinally follow the disease activity in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are treated with steroids.
Materials and Methods
Eleven boys with DMD (age range: 5-14 years) underwent evaluation with the clinical functional score (CFS), and conventional pelvic MRI and T2 mapping before and during steroid therapy. The gluteus muscle inflammation and fatty infiltration were evaluated on conventional MRI. The histograms and mean T2 relaxation times were obtained from the T2 maps. The CFS, the conventional MRI findings and the T2 values were compared before and during steroid therapy.
Results
None of the patients showed interval change of their CFSs. On conventional MRI, none of the images showed muscle inflammation. During steroid treatment, two boys showed increased fatty infiltration on conventional MRI, and both had an increase of the mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). The remaining nine boys had no increase in fatty infiltration. Of these, three showed an increased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05), two showed no change and four showed a decreased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
T2 mapping is a feasible technique to evaluate the longitudinal muscle changes in those children who receive steroid therapy for DMD. The differences of the mean T2 relaxation time may reflect alterations in disease activity, and even when the conventional MRI and CFS remain stable.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2010.11.3.304
PMCID: PMC2864857  PMID: 20461184
Magnetic resonance (MR); Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); Muscle; T2 relaxation time map
5.  Predictors of Viral Pneumonia in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114710.
Background
Viruses are increasingly recognized as major causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Few studies have investigated the clinical predictors of viral pneumonia, and the results have been inconsistent. In this study, the clinical predictors of viral pneumonia were investigated in terms of their utility as indicators for viral pneumonia in patients with CAP.
Methods
Adult patients (≥18 years old) with CAP, tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for respiratory virus, at two teaching hospitals between October 2010 and May 2013, were identified retrospectively. Demographic and clinical data were collected by reviewing the hospital electronic medical records.
Results
During the study period, 456 patients with CAP were identified who met the definition, and 327 (72%) patients were tested using the respiratory virus PCR detection test. Viral pneumonia (n = 60) was associated with rhinorrhea, a higher lymphocyte fraction in the white blood cells, lower serum creatinine and ground-glass opacity (GGO) in radiology results, compared to non-viral pneumonia (n = 250) (p<0.05, each). In a multivariate analysis, rhinorrhea (Odd ratio (OR) 3.52; 95% Confidence interval (CI), 1.58–7.87) and GGO (OR 4.68; 95% CI, 2.48–8.89) were revealed as independent risk factors for viral pneumonia in patients with CAP. The sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values (PPV and NPV) of rhinorrhea were 22, 91, 36 and 83%: the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of GGO were and 43, 84, 40 and 86%, respectively.
Conclusion
Symptom of rhinorrhea and GGO predicted viral pneumonia in patients with CAP. The high specificity of rhinorrhea and GGO suggested that these could be useful indicators for empirical antiviral therapy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114710
PMCID: PMC4273967  PMID: 25531901
6.  Frameshifting Dynamics 
Biopolymers  2013;99(12):1147-1166.
doi:10.1002/bip.22293
PMCID: PMC4011568  PMID: 23722586
7.  Tumorigenesis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Is Not BRAF-Dependent in Patients with Acromegaly 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e110241.
Introduction
Several studies have reported a high frequency of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in patients with acromegaly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly and to investigate the frequency of the BRAFV600E mutation in PTC patients with and without acromegaly.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients with acromegaly. Thyroid ultrasonography (US) and US-guided fine needle aspiration were performed on nodules with sonographic features of malignancy. We selected 16 patients with non-acromegalic PTC as a control group. The BRAFV600E mutation was analyzed in paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of PTC by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and tumor specimens from patients with PTC were stained immunohistochemically with an antibody against insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor β (IGF-1Rβ).
Results
Thyroid cancer was found in 15 (25.0%) patients. No differences in age, sex, initial growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 percentage of the upper limit of normal values or treatment modalities were observed between patients with and without PTC. Acromegaly was active in 12 of 15 patients at the time of PTC diagnosis; uncontrolled acromegaly had a significantly higher frequency in the PTC group (60%) than in the non-PTC group (28.9%) (p = 0.030). The BRAFV600E mutation was present in only 9.1% (1/11) of PTC patients with acromegaly, although 62.5% (10/16) of control patients with PTC had the mutation (p = 0.007). IGF-1Rβ immunostaining showed moderate-to-strong staining in all malignant PTC cells in patients with and without acromegaly. Significantly less staining for IGF-1Rβ was observed in normal adjacent thyroid tissues of PTC patients with acromegaly compared with those without (p = 0.014).
Conclusion
The prevalence of PTC in acromegalic patients was high (25%). An uncontrolled hyperactive GH-IGF-1 axis may play a dominant role in the development of PTC rather than the BRAFV600E mutation in patients with acromegaly.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110241
PMCID: PMC4201528  PMID: 25329702
8.  Perigastric Lymph Node Metastasis from Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Patient with Early Gastric Cancer: The First Case Report 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2014;14(3):215-219.
Distant metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), particularly from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, is rare. We present a case of perigastric lymph node metastasis from PTC in a patient with early gastric cancer and breast cancer. During post-surgical follow-up for breast cancer, a 56-year-old woman was diagnosed incidentally with early gastric cancer and synchronous left thyroid cancer. Therefore, laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection and left thyroidectomy were performed. On the basis of the pathologic findings of the surgical specimens, the patient was diagnosed to have papillary thyroid microcarcinoma with perigastric lymph node metastasis and early gastric cancer with mucosal invasion. Finally, on the basis of immunohistochemical staining with galectin-3, the diagnosis of perigastric lymph node metastasis from PTC was made. When a patient has multiple primary malignancies with lymph node metastasis, careful pathologic examination of the surgical specimen is necessary; immunohistochemical staining may be helpful in determining the primary origin of lymph node metastasis.
doi:10.5230/jgc.2014.14.3.215
PMCID: PMC4199891  PMID: 25328769
Thyroid neoplasms; Lymph nodes; Neoplasm metastasis; Stomach neoplasms
9.  Long-Term Efficacy of Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Compared with Surgery for Early Gastric Cancer: A Retrospective Cohort Study 
Gut and Liver  2014;8(5):519-525.
Background/Aims
This study aimed to compare the outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and gastrectomy based on the two sets of indications for ESD, namely guideline criteria (GC) and expanded criteria (EC).
Methods
Between January 2004 and July 2007, 213 early gastric cancer (EGC) patients were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 142 underwent ESD, and 71 underwent gastrectomy. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of these patients according to the criteria.
Results
The complication rates in the ESD and gastrectomy groups were 8.5% and 28.2%, respectively. The duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the ESD group than the gastrectomy group according to the GC and EC (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). There was no recurrence in the ESD and gastrectomy groups according to the GC, and the recurrence rates in the ESD and gastrectomy groups were 4.7% and 0.0% according to the EC, respectively (p=0.279). The occurrence rates of metachronous cancer in the ESD and gastrectomy groups were 5.7% and 5.0% according to the GC (p=1.000) and 7.5% and 0.0% according to the EC (p=0.055), respectively.
Conclusions
Based on safety, duration of hospital stay, and long-term outcomes, ESD may be an effective and safe first-line treatment for EGC according to the EC and GC.
doi:10.5009/gnl13061
PMCID: PMC4164255  PMID: 25228976
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Gastrectomy; Long-term outcome; Indication
10.  Update on the Epidemiology, Treatment, and Outcomes of Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter infections 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2014;50(2):37-44.
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter species are increasingly recognized as major nosocomial pathogens, especially in patients with critical illnesses or in intensive care. The ability of these organisms to accumulate diverse mechanisms of resistance limits the available therapeutic agents, makes the infection difficult to treat, and is associated with a greater risk of death. In this review, we provide an update on the epidemiology, resistance mechanisms, infection control measures, treatment, and outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter infections.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2014.50.2.37
PMCID: PMC4161759  PMID: 25229014
Acinetobacter baumannii; Colistin; Drug therapy
11.  Solitary fibrous tumor of the post-styloid parapharyngeal space 
Acta Radiologica Short Reports  2014;3(6):2047981614536158.
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a well-known tumor composed of spindle cells found most commonly in the pleura. Recently, accounts of their rare occurrence at other sites, including the head and neck area, have been reported. The parapharyngeal space is a rare location even for head and neck SFTs, and thus, could be confused with a variety of other tumors that can originate in this area. Here, we report a case of SFT originating from the post-styloid parapharyngeal space and discuss the possible differential diagnosis on radiographic findings.
doi:10.1177/2047981614536158
PMCID: PMC4184415  PMID: 25298872
Head and neck; neoplasm; parapharyngeal space; solitary fibrous tumor
12.  A Case of Localized Amyloid Light-Chain Amyloidosis in the Small Intestine 
Intestinal Research  2014;12(3):245-250.
Amyloidosis is characterized by the abnormal deposition of extracellular amyloid fibrils. Cases involving amyloid light-chain amyloidosis in the small intestine have been reported infrequently in Korea. Here, we report a case of localized light chain protein amyloidosis in the small intestine. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, push enteroscopy, and capsule endoscopy revealed submucosal tumor-like lesions, multiple shallow ulcers, and several erosions in the distal duodenum and jejunum. An endoscopic biopsy established the diagnosis of amyloidosis. In through an immunohistochemical analysis, the presence of lambda light chain protein was detected. The patient had no evidence of an underlying clonal plasma cell disorder or additional organ involvement. Therefore, we concluded that the patient had localized amyloidosis of the small intestine.
doi:10.5217/ir.2014.12.3.245
PMCID: PMC4204724  PMID: 25349599
Amyloidosis; Intestine, small; Endosonography; Enteroscopy; Capsule endoscopy
13.  In Vivo Efficacy of the Combination of Ciprofloxacin and Cefotaxime against Vibrio vulnificus Sepsis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e101118.
Objectives
The in vivo efficacy of a cefotaxime-ciprofloxacin combination against Vibrio vulnificus and the effects on rtxA1 expression of commonly used antibiotics are unknown.
Methods
In vitro time-kill studies were performed to evaluate synergism. Female BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with 1×107 or 1×108 cfu of V. vulnificus. Antibiotic therapy was initiated at 2 h after inoculation in the following four therapy groups: cefotaxime; ciprofloxacin; cefotaxime-plus-ciprofloxacin; and cefotaxime-plus-minocycline. The cytotoxicity of V. vulnificus for HeLa cells was measured using the lactate dehydrogenase assay; rtxA1 transcription was measured in a transcriptional reporter strain using a β-galactosidase assay.
Results
In vitro time-kill assays exhibited synergism between cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin. In the animal experiments, the 96-h survival rate for the cefotaxime-plus-ciprofloxacin group (85%; 17/20) was significantly higher than that of the cefotaxime-plus-minocycline (35%; 7/20) and cefotaxime alone (0%; 0/20) groups (P<0.05 for both). Bacterial counts in the liver and spleen were significantly lower in the cefotaxime-plus-ciprofloxacin group 24 and 48 h after treatment, relative to the other groups. At sub-inhibitory concentrations, ciprofloxacin inhibited more effectively rtxA1 transcription and mammalian cell cytotoxicity than either minocycline or cefotaxime (P<0.05 for both).
Conclusions
Ciprofloxacin is more effective at reducing rtxA1 transcription and subsequent cytotoxicity than either minocycline or cefotaxime, and the combination of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime was more effective in clearing V. vulnificus in vivo than previously used regimens. These data suggest that the combination of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime is an effective option for the treatment of V. vulnificus sepsis in humans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101118
PMCID: PMC4076242  PMID: 24978586
14.  A Cervical Vagal Schwannoma Mimicking a Parathyroid Cyst 
Cervical vagal schwannomas with cystic degeneration changes are extremely rare. These tumors are typically benign and slow growing. A 44-year-old woman underwent complete resection of a tumor measuring 4×3.5 cm in the right neck using the endoscopic approach, instead of the conventional transcervical approach. We applied the new scarless neck surgery technique with an endoscopic unilateral axillo-breast approach. The tumor originated from the right vagus nerve, and was confirmed to be a vagal schwannoma pathologically. The patient has been followed up for 18 months postoperatively with no evidence of tumor recurrence or neurological deficit. We report an extremely rare vagal schwannoma with cystic degeneration that was removed by an endoscopic approach, along with a review of the relevant literature.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2014.7.2.153
PMCID: PMC4050091  PMID: 24917916
Cervical vagal schwannoma; Unilateral axillo-breast approach
15.  Diffuse Metastasis to the Thyroid: Unique Ultrasonographic Finding and Clinical Correlation 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(6):818-824.
Cases of metastases to the thyroid gland seem to be increasing in recent years. The clinical and ultrasonographic findings of diffuse metastases have been sparsely reported. Thirteen cases of diffuse metastases to the thyroid gland were documented by thyroid ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology between 2004 and 2013. We retrospectively reviewed the patients with diffuse thyroid metastases. The most common primary site was the lung (n=9), followed by unknown origin cancers (n=2), cholangiocarcinoma (n=1), and penile cancer (n=1). Eleven patients were incidentally found to have thyroid metastases via surveillance or staging FDG-PET. Other 2 patients were diagnosed during work-up for hypothyroidism and palpable cervical lymph nodes. On ultrasonography, the echogenicity of the enlarged thyroid gland was heterogeneously hypoechoic or isoechoic, and reticular pattern internal hypoechoic lines were observed without increased vascularity found by power Doppler ultrasonography (3 right lobe, 2 left lobe, and 8 both lobes). In the 8 patients who had involvement of both lobes, 3 had hypothyroidism. In conclusion, ultrasonographic finding of diffuse metastasis is a diffusely enlarged heterogeneous thyroid with reticular pattern internal hypoechoic lines. Thyroid function testing should be performed in all patients with diffuse thyroid metastases, especially those with bilateral lobe involvement.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.6.818
PMCID: PMC4055816  PMID: 24932084
Thyroid; Diffuse; Metastasis; Ultrasonography; Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology
17.  Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pediatric Muscular Disorders Recent Advances and Clinical Applications 
doi:10.1016/j.rcl.2013.03.002
PMCID: PMC3950969  PMID: 23830795
Magnetic resonance imaging; Skeletal muscle; T2 relaxation time; Diffusion-weighted imaging; Dixon imaging; Diffusion tensor imaging; Magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Magnetic resonance elastography
18.  Atypia of undetermined significance on thyroid fine needle aspiration: surgical outcome and risk factors for malignancy 
Purpose
This study was performed to analyze the surgical pathology results of the "atypia of undetermined significance" (AUS) category from thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) and to describe the characteristics to distinguish a malignant from a benign nodule.
Methods
A retrospective analysis was done on 116 patients who underwent thyroid surgery from December 2008 to December 2012, following a diagnosis of AUS from preoperative thyroid FNA. We investigated the age, gender, size and site of the nodules, ultrasonographic criteria, cytological features, the number of atypia results after repeated FNAs, surgical method, and final pathologic results.
Results
Sixty-five out of 116 patients underwent total thyroidectomy and the rest had partial thyroidectomy. The final pathologic results were 41 malignancies (35.3%) and 75 benign diseases (64.7%). AUS was divided into group 1: 'cannot rule out malignancy' or group 2: 'cannot rule out follicular neoplasm'. After surgery, group 1 revealed papillary thyroid cancer in most cases and group 2 revealed follicular adenoma in most cases. Age over 40 years, ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy, more than 2 results of atypia from repeated FNAs and nodules less than 2 centimeters were risk factors for malignancy on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy was a significant risk factor for malignancy.
Conclusion
For proper evaluation of the risk for malignancy in thyroid AUS patients, the ultrasonographic criteria should be considered along with other clinicopathological findings such as age, nodule size, number of atypia, cytologic features.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.3.109
PMCID: PMC3994624  PMID: 24761418
Atypia of undetermined significance; Fine needle aspiration; Thyroid neoplasms
19.  Predictive factors of durability to sitagliptin: Slower reduction of glycated hemoglobin, older age and higher baseline glycated hemoglobin 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction
The goal of the present study was to evaluate predictive factors for good efficacy and durability to sitagliptin with ongoing metformin or metformin plus glimepiride therapy in a real practice situation. The present observational study was carried out over a 60‐week period and involved Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Materials and Methods
A total of 100 mg of sitagliptin were added once daily to the two most popular therapy regimens (group 1: metformin, group 2: metformin plus glimepiride). Before adding sitagliptin, mean initial glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were 7.8% (62 mmol/mol) and mean diabetes duration was 8.3 years.
Results
After 60 weeks, the mean change in HbA1c from baseline was −0.9% (−10 mmol/mol) in group 1 and −1.0% (−11 mmol/mol) in group 2. Decreased HbA1c levels were significantly associated with higher initial HbA1c and lower log‐transformed C‐peptide levels in a multivariate regression analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed that a sustained reduction in HbA1c levels after 12 weeks was significantly associated with older age (≥60 years), higher baseline HbA1c (group 1 ≥ 7.0% [53 mmol/mol], group 2 ≥ 7.5% [58 mmol/mol]) and slower reduction of HbA1c (ΔHbA1c <1.0% [11 mmol/mol]) in group 1 and group 2. In group 2, a higher ratio of reduction of postprandial glucose/reduction of fasting plasma glucose (ΔPPG/ΔFPG) during 12 weeks was also associated with a sustained reduction in HbA1c levels after 12 weeks.
Conclusions
The effects of sitagliptin lasted more than 12 weeks in older patients with a higher baseline HbA1c, and slower reduction of HbA1c during 12 weeks.
doi:10.1111/jdi.12127
PMCID: PMC4025229  PMID: 24843737
Sitagliptin; Durability; Predictive factors
20.  A case of masked toxic adenoma in a patient with non-thyroidal illness 
Background
Non-thyroidal illness (NTI) refers to changes in thyroid hormone levels in critically ill patients in the absence of primary hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid dysfunction, and these abnormalities usually resolve after clinical recovery. However, NTI can be accompanied by primary thyroid dysfunction. We report herein a case of a woman with NTI accompanied by primary hyperthyroidism.
Case presentation
A 52-year-old female was admitted to the intensive care unit with heart failure and atrial fibrillation. She had a longstanding thyroid nodule, and a thyroid function test revealed low levels of triiodothyronine and free thyroxine as well as undetectable thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). She was diagnosed with NTI, and her TSH level began to recover but not completely at discharge. The thyroid function test was repeated after 42 months to reveal primary hyperthyroidism, and a thyroid scan confirmed a toxic nodule.
Conclusion
This case suggests that although NTI was diagnosed, primary hyperthyroidism should be considered as another possible diagnosis if TSH is undetectable. Thyroid function tests should be repeated after clinical recovery from acute illness.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-14-1
PMCID: PMC3883471  PMID: 24383500
Thyroid; Non-thyroidal illness; Hyperthyroidism; Toxic adenoma
21.  Gd Complexes of DO3A-(Biphenyl-2,2′-bisamides) Conjugates as MRI Blood-Pool Contrast Agents 
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters  2012;3(12):1003-1007.
We report the synthesis of DO3A derivatives of 2,2′-diaminobiphenyl (1a,b) and their Gd complexes of the type [Gd(1)(H2O)]·xH2O (2a,b) for use as new MRI blood-pool contrast agents (BPCAs) that provide strong and prolonged vascular enhancement. Pharmacokinetic inertness of 2 compares well with that of structurally related Dotarem, a DOTA-based MRI CA currently in use. The R1 relaxivity in water reaches 7.3 mM–1 s–1, which is approximately twice as high as that of Dotarem (R1 = 3.9 mM–1 s–1). They show interaction with HSA to give association constants (Ka) in the order of two (∼102), revealing the existence of the blood-pool effect. The in vivo MR images of mice obtained with 2 are coherent, showing strong signal enhancement in both heart, abdominal aorta, and small vessels. Furthermore, the brain tumor is vividly enhanced for an extended period of time.
doi:10.1021/ml300223b
PMCID: PMC4025651  PMID: 24900422
Gd chelates; DO3A; biphenyl; MRI BPCA; brain tumor
22.  Histopathological Findings of Hemorrhagic Ganglion Cyst Causing Acute Radicular Pain: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(4):242-245.
Although juxtafacet cysts of the lumbar spine are being reported with increasing frequency, hemorrhage from a ganglion cyst is rare, and the pathophysiologic mechanism of the hemorrhage from the cyst is still unclear. A 75-year-old male presented with sudden radicular leg pain caused by hemorrhage from the ganglion cyst. Computed tomography revealed bony erosion of vertebral body and multiple punched-out lesions on facets. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the neural structure was compressed by a sharply delineating mass. Capsule and old hematoma with elastic consistency that extended to the epidural space were removed through a paramedian transforaminal approach, which led to the resolution of the patient's symptoms. Histopathologically, chronic inflammation with neovascularization and myxoid degeneration were present in the capsule. Alcian blue staining demonstrated the mixture of mucin and hematoma. The probable pathogenesis of hemorrhage from the cyst was discussed from the unique histopathological findings of surgical specimen.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2013.10.4.242
PMCID: PMC4040643  PMID: 24891856
Ganglion cyst; Hemorrhage; Lumbar vertebrae; Mucins; Radiculopathy; Zygapophyseal joint
23.  Malignant thyroid bed mass after total thyroidectomy 
Purpose
Ultrasonographic (US) criteria on malignant thyroid bed mass have been suggested, including taller than wide shape, loss of echogenic hilum, abnormal vascularity, and microcalcification. The relationship between fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology findings and US findings on thyroid bed mass is unknown. We have retrospectively assessed the malignant thyroid bed mass after total thyroidectomy due to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
Methods
We retrospectively evaluated 2,048 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy due to PTC. FNA was performed in 97 patients on the thyroid bed under US surveillance. The 97 suspicious thyroid bed masses were divided into two groups: metastatic thyroid bed group (n = 34) and nonmetastatic group (n = 63). The groups were evaluated according to various clinical, serologic, and US findings.
Results
Within a median 47.0 months of follow-up, the proportion of malignant thyroid bed mass was high in large tumor size (1.37 cm vs. 1.03 cm), isthmic position (10.3% vs. 3.9%), and previous N1a (55.9% vs. 34.9%). US findings revealed that the presence of microcalcification or macrocalcification (47.1% vs. 19.0%) and thyroid bed mass height (5.4 mm vs. 3.9 mm) were the only discriminable criteria for central compartment recurrence. But, degree of echogenicity, loss of hilum, and irregularity of margin failed to discriminate malignant thyroid bed mass.
Conclusion
US findings on malignant thyroid bed mass were different from previously reported general criteria on lateral metastatic nodes. Additional FNA cytology should be performed on patients, even low-risk patients, who present the above findings.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.97
PMCID: PMC3764368  PMID: 24020017
Ultrasonography; Fine-needle biopsy; Thyroidectomy; Papillary thyroid cancer
24.  Effect of polishing and glazing on the color and spectral distribution of monolithic zirconia 
PURPOSE
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polishing and glazing on the color and spectral distribution of monolithic zirconia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Forty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (16.3 mm × 16.4 mm × 2.0 mm) were fabricated and divided into 5 groups according to the number of A2-coloring liquid applications (Group I to V). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups according to the method of surface treatments (n=3): N: no treatment; P: polishing; G: glazing. Color and spectral distribution of five different areas of each specimen were measured according to CIELAB color space in the reflectance mode relative to the standard illuminant D65 on a reflection spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD test, Pearson correlation and regression analysis (α=.05).
RESULTS
There was a significant difference in CIE L* between Subgroup N and P, and in CIE b* between Subgroup P and G in each group. Spectral reflectance generally decreased in Subgroup P and G in comparison with Subgroup N. Color differences between Subgroup P and G were within the perceptibility threshold (ΔE*ab< 3.7) in most groups. Highly significant correlation was found between CIE b*and each subgroups as the number of coloring liquid applications increased (R2>0.88, P<.001).
CONCLUSION
A perceptible color difference can be detected after polishing of monolithic zirconia. Polishing decreases the lightness, and glazing also decreases the lightness, but increases the yellowness of monolithic zirconia.
doi:10.4047/jap.2013.5.3.296
PMCID: PMC3774944  PMID: 24049571
Zirconia-based ceramic; Color; Dental polishing; Surface properties
25.  Noninvasive predictors of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in Korean patients with histologically proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease 
Clinical and molecular hepatology  2013;19(2):120-130.
Background/Aims
The aims of this study were (1) to identify the useful clinical parameters of noninvasive approach for distinguishing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and (2) to determine whether the levels of the identified parameters are correlated with the severity of liver injury in patients with NASH.
Methods
One hundred and eight consecutive patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (age, 39.8±13.5 years, mean±SD; males, 67.6%) were prospectively enrolled from 10 participating centers across Korea.
Results
According to the original criteria for NAFLD subtypes, 67 patients (62.0%) had NASH (defined as steatosis with hepatocellular ballooning and/or Mallory-Denk bodies or fibrosis ≥2). Among those with NAFLD subtype 3 or 4, none had an NAFLD histologic activity score (NAS) below 3 points, 40.3% had a score of 3 or 4 points, and 59.7% had a score >4 points. Fragmented cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) levels were positively correlated with NAS (r=0.401), as well as NAS components such as lobular inflammation (r=0.387) and ballooning (r=0.231). Fragmented CK-18 was also correlated with aspartate aminotransferase (r=0.609), alanine aminotransferase (r=0.588), serum ferritin (r=0.432), and the fibrosis stage (r=0.314). A fragmented CK-18 cutoff level of 235.5 U/L yielded sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 69.0%, 64.9%, 75.5% (95% CI 62.4-85.1), and 57.1% (95% CI 42.2-70.9), respectively, for the diagnosis of NASH.
Conclusions
Serum fragmented CK-18 levels can be used to distinguish between NASH and NAFL. Further evaluation is required to determine whether the combined measurement of serum CK-18 and ferritin levels improves the diagnostic performance of this distinction.
doi:10.3350/cmh.2013.19.2.120
PMCID: PMC3701844  PMID: 23837136
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Cytokeratin-18; Ferritin

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