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1.  Fasting serum C-peptide is useful for initial classification of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents 
Purpose
With rising obesity rates in children, it is increasingly difficult to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM) on clinical grounds alone. Using C-peptide as a method of classifying diabetes mellitus (DM) has been suggested. This study aimed to find a correlation between fasting C-peptide level and DM types in children and adolescents.
Methods
A total of 223 diabetic children, newly diagnosed at 5 hospitals between January 2001 and December 2012, were enrolled in this study. Initial DM classification was based on clinical and laboratory data including fasting C-peptide at diagnosis; final classification was based on additional data (pancreatic autoantibodies, human leukocyte antigen type, and clinical course).
Results
Of 223 diabetic children, 140 were diagnosed with T1DM (62.8%) and the remaining 83 with T2DM (37.2%). The mean serum C-peptide level was significantly lower in children with T1DM (0.80 ng/mL) than in children with T2DM (3.91 ng/mL). Among 223 children, 54 had a serum C-peptide level <0.6 ng/mL; they were all diagnosed with T1DM. The proportion of children with T2DM increased in accordance with C-peptide level. Forty-nine of 223 children had a C-peptide level >3.0 ng/mL; 48 of them (97.9%) were diagnosed with T2DM.
Conclusion
In this study, we found that if the C-peptide level was <0.6 ng/mL at diagnosis, T2DM could be excluded; if C-peptide level was >3.0 ng/mL, a T1DM diagnosis is unlikely. This finding suggests that serum fasting C-peptide level is useful for classifying DM type at the time of diagnosis in youth.
doi:10.6065/apem.2014.19.2.80
PMCID: PMC4114050  PMID: 25077090
C-peptide; Classification; Diabetes mellitus; Child
2.  The effects of fucodian on senescence are controlled by the p16INK4a-pRb and p14Arf-p53 pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic cell lines 
Fucoidan is known to have various pharmacological effects, including antitumor activity. Although it has potential as a therapeutic agent for cancer cells, the anti-senescence effects and detailed mechanism of action remain poorly understood in normal hepatic cells. We investigated the anticancer functions of fucoidan using HepG2 cells as well as the mechanisms mediating the anti-senescent actions in Chang liver cells. Fucoidan effectively inhibited HepG2 cell viability and induced apoptosis. Also, fucoidan-induced G1 phase arrest was caused by the activity of the p16INK4a-Rb and p14Arf-p53 pathways. Furthermore, upregulation of p16INK4a was critical to the antitumor activity of HepG2 cells treated with fucoidan and was correlated with inhibition of Cdk4 and pRb and upregulation of p21 expression. Our results suggest that fucoidan upregulates INK4a locus genes to induce apoptosis through p38 MAPK in HepG2 cells. Moreover, it prevents cellular senescence of Chang-L cells, by decreasing p14Arf expression as cells enter quiescence, with the reduction of p16INK4a. Fucoidan treatment also downregulated the expression of α2M. In conclusion, fucoidan can be considered a potential therapeutic agent against liver cancer that does not cause senescence in normal hepatic cells. Thus, it may be possible to use fucoidan therapeutically in both tumor suppression and aging.
doi:10.3892/ijo.2014.2426
PMCID: PMC4079163  PMID: 24807532
fucoidan; anti-tumor; anti-senescence; p16INK4a-Rb; p14Arf-p53; α2M
3.  Development of a Multiplex and Cost-Effective Genotype Test toward More Personalized Medicine for the Antiplatelet Drug Clopidogrel 
There has been a wide range of inter-individual variations in platelet responses to clopidogrel. The variations in response to clopidogrel can be driven by genetic polymorphisms involved in the pathway of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and the target receptor P2Y12. A set of genetic variants known for causing variations in clopidogrel responses was selected, which included CYP2C19*2, *3, *17, CYP2B6*4, *6, *9, CYP3A4*18, CYP3A5*3, MDR1 2677G > T/A, 3435C > T, and P2Y12 H2 (742T > C). The simultaneous detection of these 10 variants was developed by using a multiplex PCR and single-base extension (MSSE) methodology. The newly developed genotyping test was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing in the representative positive control samples and validated in an extended set of 100 healthy Korean subjects. Genotyping results from the developed MSSE exhibited a perfect concordance with the direct DNA sequencing data and all of variants tested in 100 healthy Korean subjects were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p > 0.05). The present molecular diagnostic studies provide an accurate, convenient, and fast genotyping method for the detection of multiple variants. This would be helpful for researchers, as well as clinicians, to use genetic information toward more personalized medicine of clopidogrel and other antiplatelet drugs in the future.
doi:10.3390/ijms15057699
PMCID: PMC4057700  PMID: 24857912
clopidogrel; genotypes; CYP2C19; P2Y12; SNaPshot; pharmacogenetics
4.  Prolonged survival of islet allografts in mice treated with rosmarinic acid and anti-CD154 antibody 
Pancreatic islet transplantation can correct the abnormal glucose metabolism of Type 1 diabetes. Although immunosuppressants greatly reduce the acute rejection rate in transplant patients, the long-term side effects can be debilitating. Therefore, researchers are seeking to develop new immunosuppressive regimens that induce maximal levels of immunosuppression with minor side effects. Rosmarinic acid (Ros A) is a secondary metabolite of certain herbs and has multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we have investigated whether treatment of mice with a combination of Ros A and anti-CD154 monoclonal antibody (MR1) improves islet allograft survival in a murine model. After transplantation, the mice were treated with either Ros A, MR1, or both (the "double" treatment). Allograft survival was prolonged in the double-treated animals compared to animals that received only Ros A or MR1. As is the case with the single-treated animals at 15 days after transplantation, the double-treated recipients did not display a significant decrease in the expression of cytokines or the population of activated T cells. Infiltrating CD3+ T cells were reduced in the MR1- or double therapy relative to control or RosA group. However, at the same time point, double-treated graft showed fewer apoptotic cells and increased expression of insulin and glucagons, compared to the single-treatment groups. Furthermore, long-term (> 150 days) allografts that were received with double therapy exhibited larger islet clusters and contained more insulin- and glucagon-positive cells, relative to the MR1-treated grafts. In conclusion, treatment with both Ros A and MR1 has a synergistic effect in murine islet allotransplantation.
doi:10.3858/emm.2008.40.1.1
PMCID: PMC2679315  PMID: 18305392
apoptosis; CD40 ligand; graft survival; immunosuppressive agents; islets of Langerhans transplantation; rosmarinic acid
5.  Evaluation of prognostic factors on recurrence after curative resections for hepatocellular carcinoma 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(45):17132-17140.
AIM: To select appropriate patients before surgical resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially those with advanced tumors.
METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2012, we retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 298 patients who had undergone surgical resections for HCC with curative intent at our hospital. We evaluated preoperative prognostic factors associated with histologic grade of tumor, recurrence and survival, especially the findings of pre-operative imaging studies such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). And then, we established a scoring system to predict recurrence and survival after surgery dividing the patients into two groups based on a tumor size of 5 cm.
RESULTS: Of the 298 patients, 129 (43.3%) developed recurrence during the follow-up period. The 5 year disease free survival and overall survival were 47.0% and 58.7% respectively. In multivariate analysis, a serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level of > 100 ng/mL and a standardized uptake value (SUV) of PET-CT of > 3.5 were predictive factors for histologic grade of tumor, recurrence, and survival. Tumor size of > 5 cm and a relative enhancement ratio (RER) calculated from preoperative MRI were also significantly associated with prognosis in univariate analysis. We established a scoring system to predict prognosis using AFP, SUV, and RER. In those with tumors of > 5 cm, it showed predicted both recurrence (P = 0.005) and survival (P = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The AFP, tumor size, SUV and RER are useful for prognosis preoperatively. An accurate prediction of prognosis is possible using our scoring system in large size tumors.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i45.17132
PMCID: PMC4258583  PMID: 25493027
Carcinoma; Hepatocellular; Hepatectomy; Prognostic factor; Survival; Recurrence
6.  Resistance to thyroid hormone due to a novel mutation of thyroid hormone receptor beta gene 
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare inherited syndrome characterized by diminished response of the target tissue to thyroid hormone caused, in the majority of cases, by mutation of the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRβ) gene. Despite elevated serum levels of free thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), the paucity of symptoms and signs of thyroid dysfunction suggest RTH. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl with goiter. Her thyroid function tests showed increased serum levels of free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and TSH. The genetic analysis of THRβ confirmed a novel mutation in exon 9; this was a heterozygous C-to-T change in the 327th codon, substituting threonine for isoleucine (T327I).
doi:10.6065/apem.2014.19.4.229
PMCID: PMC4316411  PMID: 25654071
Thyroid hormone resistance syndrome; Mutation; Thyroid hormone receptors beta
7.  Fine-Needle Biopsy: Should This Be the First Choice in Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Tissue Acquisition? 
Clinical Endoscopy  2014;47(5):425-428.
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition is an indispensable technique for the diagnosis of many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and adjacent structures. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is known for its high accuracy and low complication rate. However, the outcome of EUS-FNA highly depends on several factors such as the location and characteristics of the lesion, endosonographer's experience, technique of sampling and sample preparation, type and size of the needle used, and presence of a cytopathologist for rapid on-site examination. EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy is useful to obtain core tissue samples with relatively fewer passes. Aspiration of core tissue with preserved architecture is beneficial for the diagnosis of certain diseases and the performance of ancillary testing such as tumor molecular profiling. Issues related to needle size, type, and their acquired samples for cytologic and histologic evaluation are discussed here.
doi:10.5946/ce.2014.47.5.425
PMCID: PMC4198559  PMID: 25325002
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue acquisition; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy; Cytology; Core biopsy
8.  Chicken soup for teaching and learning ESD 
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is becoming a popular procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of superficial mucosal lesions, and has the advantage of en bloc resection which yields a higher complete resection and remission rate compared to endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). However, the learning process of this advanced endoscopic procedure requires a lengthy training period and considerable experience to be proficient. A well framed training protocol which is safe, effective, easily reproducible and cost-effective is desirable to teach ESD. In addition, the training course may need to be tailored around settings such as ethnicity, culture, workload, and disease incidence. In Asian countries with a large volume of early gastric lesions which need endoscopic treatment, endoscopists would be able to learn ESD expanding their skills from EMR to ESD under the supervision of experts. Whereas, in Western countries due to the low incidence of superficial gastric tumors, trials have utilized simulator models to improve learning. In Korea, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) is playing an important role in training many gastroenterologists who have shown an interest in performing ESD by providing an annual live demonstration and a nationwide tutoring program. The purpose of this article is to introduce our ESD tutoring experience, review the published papers related to this topic, and propose several suggestions for future directions in teaching and learning ESD.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i21.2618
PMCID: PMC3110923  PMID: 21677829
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Learning; Teaching
9.  Inflammatory markers as selection criteria of hepatocellular carcinoma in living-donor liver transplantation 
AIM: To investigate that inflammatory markers can predict accurately the prognosis of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) patients in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT).
METHODS: From October 2000 to November 2011, 224 patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation for HCC at our institution were enrolled in this study. We analyzed disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) after LT in patients with HCC and designed a new score model using pretransplant neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP).
RESULTS: The DFS and OS in patients with an NLR level ≥ 6.0 or CRP level ≥ 1.0 were significantly worse than those of patients with an NLR level < 6.0 or CRP level < 1.0 (P = 0.049, P = 0.003 for NLR and P = 0.010, P < 0.001 for CRP, respectively). Using a new score model using the pretransplant NLR and CRP, we can differentiate HCC patients beyond the Milan criteria with a good prognosis from those with a poor prognosis.
CONCLUSION: Combined with the Milan criteria, new score model using NLR and CRP represent new selection criteria for LDLT candidates with HCC, especially beyond the Milan criteria.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i21.6594
PMCID: PMC4047346  PMID: 24914382
C-reactive protein; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver transplantation; Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio; Selection criteria
10.  Rapamycin Rescues the Poor Developmental Capacity of Aged Porcine Oocytes 
Unfertilized oocytes age inevitably after ovulation, which limits their fertilizable life span and embryonic development. Rapamycin affects mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression and cytoskeleton reorganization during oocyte meiotic maturation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin treatment on aged porcine oocytes and their in vitro development. Rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes for 24 h (68 h in vitro maturation [IVM]; 44 h+10 μM rapamycin/24 h, 47.52±5.68) or control oocytes (44 h IVM; 42.14±4.40) significantly increased the development rate and total cell number compared with untreated aged oocytes (68 h IVM, 22.04±5.68) (p<0.05). Rapamycin treatment of aged IVM oocytes for 24 h also rescued aberrant spindle organization and chromosomal misalignment, blocked the decrease in the level of phosphorylated-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and increased the mRNA expression of cytoplasmic maturation factor genes (MOS, BMP15, GDF9, and CCNB1) compared with untreated, 24 h-aged IVM oocytes (p<0.05). Furthermore, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and DNA fragmentation (p<0.05), and downregulated the mRNA expression of mTOR compared with control or untreated aged oocytes. By contrast, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes increased mitochondrial localization (p<0.05) and upregulated the mRNA expression of autophagy (BECN1, ATG7, MAP1LC3B, ATG12, GABARAP, and GABARAPL1), anti-apoptosis (BCL2L1 and BIRC5; p<0.05), and development (NANOG and SOX2; p<0.05) genes, but it did not affect the mRNA expression of pro-apoptosis genes (FAS and CASP3) compared with the control. This study demonstrates that rapamycin treatment can rescue the poor developmental capacity of aged porcine oocytes.
doi:10.5713/ajas.2013.13816
PMCID: PMC4093196  PMID: 25049998
Porcine Oocyte; Age; Rapamycin; Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS); Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR)
11.  Comparing Self-Selected Speed Walking of the Elderly With Self-Selected Slow, Moderate, and Fast Speed Walking of Young Adults 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2014;38(1):101-108.
Objective
To find the characteristics of elderly gait, we compared the elderly walking at a moderate speed with the young adult walking at a slow, moderate, and fast speed.
Methods
3D gait analysis was performed on 15 elderly and 15 young adults. Temporo-spatial, kinematic, and kinetic parameters were obtained. Self-selected moderate speed of the elderly walking was compared with self-selected varying speed of the young adults walking.
Results
The elderly walked at slower speeds and had shorter step length, but showed similar cadences compared to the young adults. These results remained identical even after the normalization with height. The kinematic and the kinetic graph patterns did not show specific differences between the elderly and the young subjects. Ankle plantarflexion (APF) motion was prominently decreased in the elderly subjects. Hip flexion (HF) motion remained within similar range for the young adults'. HF moment and power were similar with the young adults', but APF power and hip extension power were decreased in the elderly subjects'.
Conclusion
A decreased APF motion and power were thought to be specific findings in the elderly walking. The preservation of HF motion and power could be considered a compensation mechanism or a modified neuromuscular pattern in the elderly. The characteristics of the elderly walking should be taken into account when planning rehabilitation strategies of elderly gait training and for future studies on the elderly population.
doi:10.5535/arm.2014.38.1.101
PMCID: PMC3953351  PMID: 24639933
Aging; Gait
12.  Role of Repeated Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration for Inconclusive Initial Cytology Result 
Clinical Endoscopy  2013;46(5):540-542.
For tissue diagnosis of suspected pancreatic cancer, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the procedure of choice with high safety and accuracy profiles. However, about 10% of cytologic findings of EUS-FNA are inconclusive. In that situation, careful observation, surgical exploration, or alternative diagnostic tools such as bile duct brushing with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or computed tomography-guided biopsy can be considered. However, some concerns and/or risks of these options render repeat EUS-FNA a reasonable choice. Repeated EUS-FNA may impose substantial clinical impact with low risk.
doi:10.5946/ce.2013.46.5.540
PMCID: PMC3797941  PMID: 24143318
Endosonography; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration; Pancreatic neoplasms
13.  Improved Cloning Efficiency and Developmental Potential in Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer with the Oosight Imaging System 
Cellular Reprogramming  2012;14(4):305-311.
Abstract
In somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedures, exquisite enucleation of the recipient oocyte is critical to cloning efficiency. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two enucleation systems, Hoechst staining and UV irradiation (hereafter, irradiation group) and Oosight imaging (hereafter, Oosight group), on the in vitro production of bovine SCNT embryos. In the Oosight group, the apoptotic index (2.8±0.5 vs. 7.3±1.2) was lower, and the fusion rate (75.6% vs. 62.9%), cleavage rate (78.0% vs. 63.7%), blastocyst rate (40.2% vs. 29.2%), and total cell number (128.3±4.8 vs. 112.2±7.6) were higher than those in the irradiation group (all p<0.05). The overall efficiency after SCNT was twice as high in the Oosight group as that in the irradiation group (p<0.05). The relative mRNA expression levels of Oct4, Nanog, Interferon-tau, and Dnmt3A were higher and those of Caspase-3 and Hsp70 were lower in the Oosight group compared with the irradiation group (p<0.05). This is the first report to show the positive effect of the Oosight imaging system on molecular gene expression in the SCNT embryo. The Oosight imaging system may become the preferred choice for enucleation because it is less detrimental to the developmental potential of bovine SCNT embryos.
doi:10.1089/cell.2011.0103
PMCID: PMC3411338  PMID: 22816525
14.  Diagnosis of Subepithelial Lesion: Still "Tissue Is the Issue" 
Clinical Endoscopy  2013;46(4):313-314.
doi:10.5946/ce.2013.46.4.313
PMCID: PMC3746133  PMID: 23964325
15.  Hyponatremia caused by excessive intake of water as a form of child abuse 
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder that requires careful management. Water intoxication with hyponatremia is rare condition that originated from overhydration. Water intoxication, also known as dilutional hyponatremia, develops only because the intake of water exceeds the kidney's ability to eliminate water. Causes of this water intoxication include psychiatric disorder, forced water intake as a form of child abuse and iatrogenic infusion of excessive hypotonic fluid. We experienced and reported a case of symptomatic hyponatremia by forced water intake as a form of child abuse.
doi:10.6065/apem.2013.18.2.95
PMCID: PMC4027093  PMID: 24904860
Hyponatremia; Water intoxication; Child abuse
16.  Combined aerobic and resistance exercise is effective for achieving weight loss and reducing cardiovascular risk factors without deteriorating bone health in obese young adults 
Purpose
Weight loss reduces cardiovascular risk factors in the obese. However, weight reduction through diet negatively affects long-term bone health. The aim of study was to determine the ability of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CE) to reduce weight and cardiovascular risk without diminishing bone health.
Methods
Twenty-five young adults participated in an 8-week weight loss CE program. Subjects were allocated to an obese group or a control group by body mass index (BMI). Body weight, BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and total hip were measured before and after the CE trial. Serum levels of metabolic markers, including adipokines and bone markers, were also evaluated.
Results
Weight loss was evident in the obese group after the 8 weeks CE trial. Fat mass was significantly reduced in both groups. Fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin and aminotransferases level were significantly reduced from baseline only in the obese group. High density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in both groups. Hip BMD increased in the obese group. In all study subjects, BMI changes were correlated with HOMA-IR, leptin, and HDL changes. BMI decreases were correlated with lumbar spine BMD increases, lumbar spine BMD increases were positively correlated with osteocalcin changes, and lumbar spine bone mineral content increases were correlated negatively with C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen changes.
Conclusion
These findings suggest that CE provides effective weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors without diminishing BMD. Furthermore, they indicate that lumbar spine BMD might be maintained by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption.
doi:10.6065/apem.2013.18.1.26
PMCID: PMC4027068  PMID: 24904847
Exercise; Bone; Adipokines; Cardiovascular risk; Obesity
17.  Trends of CT Use in the Pediatric Emergency Department in a Tertiary Academic Hospital of Korea during 2001-2010 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2012;13(6):771-775.
Objective
We wanted to assess the trends of computed tomography (CT) examinations in a pediatric emergency department (ED).
Materials and Methods
We searched the medical database to identify the pediatric patients who had visited the ED, and the number of CTs conducted from January 2001 to December 2010. We analyzed the types of CTs, according to the anatomic region, and the patients who underwent CT examinations for multiple regions. Data were stratified, according to the patient age (< 13 years and 13 ≤ ages < 18 years).
Results
The number of CTs performed per 1000 patients increased by 92% during the 10-year period (per 1000 patients, increased from 50.1 CTs in 2001 to 156.5 CTs in 2006, and then decreased to 96.0 CTs in 2010). Although head CTs were performed most often (74.6% of all CTs), facial bone CTs showed the largest rate of increase (3188%) per 1000 patients, followed by cervical CTs (642%), abdominal CTs (474%), miscellaneous CTs (236%), chest CTs (89%) and head CTs (39%). The number of patients who had CT examinations for multiple regions in the same day showed a similar pattern of increase, to that of overall CT examinations. Increase of CT utilization was more pronounced in adolescents than in pediatric patients younger than 13 years (189% vs. 59%).
Conclusion
The utilization of CTs increases from 2001 to 2006, and has declined since 2006. The increase of CTs is more pronounced in adolescents, and facial bone CTs prevail in increased number of examination followed by cervical CTs, abdominal CTs, miscellaneous CTs, chest CTs, and head CTs.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2012.13.6.771
PMCID: PMC3484298  PMID: 23118576
Computed tomography; Utilization; Pediatric; Emergency department
18.  Urine Cotinine for Assessing Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Korean: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 
Background
The level of urine cotinine is an indicator of tobacco smoke exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate urine cotinine for the purpose of assessing the smoking status of Korean smokers and non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke.
Methods
The subjects were identified from the 2007-2009 and the 2010 data sets of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). They were assigned as non-smokers, current smokers and ex-smokers. Non-smokers were also divided into three subset groups according to the duration of smoke exposure. Each group was stratified by gender prior to analysis.
Results
The median value of urine cotinine in the male current smokers was 1,221.93 ng/mL which was the highest among all groups. The difference between levels of urine cotinine for male and the female groups was statistically significant (p<0.01). In the female group, passive smoke exposure groups reported higher urine cotinine levels than non-exposure groups (p=0.01). The cutoff point for the discrimination of current smokers from non-smokers was 95.6 ng/mL in males and 96.8 ng/mL in females. The sensitivity and specificity were 95.2% and 97.1%, respectively, in males, 96.1% and 96.5% in females. However, the determination of urine cotinine level was not useful in distinguishing between passive smoke exposure groups and non-exposure groups.
Conclusion
Urine cotinine concentration is a useful biomarker for discriminating non-smokers from current smokers. However, careful interpretation is necessary for assessing passive smoke exposure by urine cotinine concentration.
doi:10.4046/trd.2012.73.4.210
PMCID: PMC3492421  PMID: 23166556
Urine; Cotinine; Smoking; Tabacco Smoke Pollution
19.  International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2012: A Patchwork of Networks for the Future 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(3):209-210.
This special September issue of Clinical Endoscopy will discuss various aspects of diagnostic and therapeutic advancement of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, explaining what is new in digestive endoscopy and why international network should be organized. We proposed an integrated model of international conference based on the putative occurrence of Digestive Endoscopy Networks. In International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2012, role of endoscopy in gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus, endoscopy beyond submucosa, endoscopic treatment for stricture and leakage in upper GI, how to estimate the invasion depth of early GI cancers, colonoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a look into the bowel beyond colon in IBD, management of complications in therapeutic colonoscopy, revival of endoscopic papllirary balloon dilation, evaluation and tissue acquisition for indeterminate biliopancreatic stricture, updates in the evaluation of pancreatic cystic lesions, issues for tailored endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), endoluminal stents, management of upper GI bleeding, endoscopic management of frustrating situations, small bowel exploration, colorectal ESD, valuable tips for frustrating situations in colonoscopy, choosing the right stents for endoscopic stenting of biliary strictures, advanced techniques for pancreaticobiliary visualization, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliopancreatic drainage, and how we can overcome the obstacles were deeply touched. We hope that IDEN 2012, as the very prestigious endoscopy networks, served as an opportunity to gain some clues for further understanding of endoscopic technologies and to enhance up-and-coming knowledge and their clinical implications from selected 25 peer reviewed articles and 112 invited lectures.
doi:10.5946/ce.2012.45.3.209
PMCID: PMC3429737  PMID: 22977803
IDEN; Network; Digestive endoscopy
20.  Endoscopic Ultrasound, Where Are We Now in 2012? 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(3):321-323.
Topics related with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) made up considerable portion among many invited lectures presented in International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2012 meeting. While the scientific programs were divided into the fields of upper gastrointestinal (UGI), lower gastrointestinal, and pancreato-biliary (PB) categories, UGI and PB parts mainly dealt with EUS related issues. EUS diagnosis in subepithelial lesions, estimation of the invasion depth of early gastrointestinal cancers with EUS, and usefulness of EUS in esophageal varices were discussed in UGI sessions. In the PB part, pancreatic cystic lesions, EUS-guided biliopancreatic drainage, EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and improvement of diagnostic yield in indeterminate biliary lesions by using intraductal ultrasound were discussed. Advanced techniques such as contrast-enhanced EUS, EUS elastography and forward-viewing echoendoscopy were also discussed. In this paper, I focused mainly on topics of UGI and briefly mentioned about advanced EUS techniques since more EUS related papers by other invited speakers were presented afterwards.
doi:10.5946/ce.2012.45.3.321
PMCID: PMC3429761  PMID: 22977827
Endosonography; Early gastrointestinal cancer; Subepithelial lesion; Technique
21.  Trends of CT Use in the Adult Emergency Department in a Tertiary Academic Hospital of Korea during 2001-2010 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2012;13(5):536-540.
Objective
We wanted to assess the trends of CT examinations that were conducted in an adult emergency department (ED).
Materials and Methods
We searched the medical database to identify adult patients (≥ 18 years) who had visited the ED and the number of CT examinations of the patients during the period from January 2001 to December 2010. We also analyzed the types of CT scans performed in terms of body parts, they were as follows; head CTs, facial bone CTs, neckl CTs, chest CTs, abdominal CTs, and miscellaneous CTs. Further, miscellaneous CTs were subdivided as CT angiography and others.
Results
A total of 113656 CT scans were examined for 409439 adult ED patients during a 10-year period, and the number of CT scans increased by 255% (from 4743 CTs in 2001 to 16856 CTs in 2010), while the adult ED patient volume increased by 34% during the same period. Although the head CTs proportionally occupied the most, the facial bone CTs had the largest rate of increase (3118%), followed by cervical CTs (1173%), chest CTs (455%), miscellaneous CTs (388%; 862% and 84% for CT angiography and others, respectively), abdominal CTs (315%) and head CTs (95%) per 1000 patients during the decade.
Conclusion
CT use in adult ED has increased at a rate that far exceeds the growth of ED patient volume, with facial bone CTs and cervical CTs having the largest increasing rate, followed by chest CTs, miscellaneous CTs, abdominal CTs and head CTs.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2012.13.5.536
PMCID: PMC3435849  PMID: 22977319
Computed tomography; Utilization; Adult; Emergency department
22.  Introduction; Value of Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(2):115-116.
Introduction of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) to medical practice has brought a huge change in diagnostic algorithm of many gastrointestinal diseases. Addition of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) upgraded diagnostic power of EUS. In this focused review series, value of EUS-FNA in the diagnosis of various diseases and tips for getting the best results with EUS-FNA are described by four invited authors including myself. First, Dr. Jeong Seop Moon discussed about EUS-FNA in submucosal lesion. He also touched on basic techniques and needles of EUS-FNA in his article. Next, I focused on additional value of EUS-FNA in the staging of hollow viscus cancer to optimize the treatment strategy. World's well-known endosonographer, Dr. Robert H. Hawes kindly presented his profound thoughts on EUS-FNA in pancreatic cystic lesions. Dr. Jayapal Ramesh and Dr. Shyam Varadarajulu shared their valuable tips for getting the best results when using EUS-FNA. Nobody doubts now EUS-FNA is an indispensable procedure in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Therefore, this focused review series will provide the readers with the concentrated knowledge of "What should we know about EUS-FNA."
doi:10.5946/ce.2012.45.2.115
PMCID: PMC3401612  PMID: 22866249
Endosonography; Fine-needle biopsy; Aspiration; Technique
23.  Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration in Hollow Viscus Cancer 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(2):124-127.
Accurate cancer staging is essential in patients with hollow viscus malignancy to decide therapeutic modalities. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is considered as the best modality for local staging of hollow viscus cancer. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a minimally invasive and effective sampling method. EUS-FNA should be applied when positive diagnosis of malignancy can possibly change the choice of therapeutic options. EUS in conjunction with EUS-FNA can optimize stage-directed therapy which is helpful in selecting minimally invasive treatment option including endoscopic treatment and avoiding unnecessary surgery in advanced cases.
doi:10.5946/ce.2012.45.2.124
PMCID: PMC3401614  PMID: 22866251
Endosonography; Fine needle biopsy; Staging; Neoplasms
24.  A Case of Gossypiboma Masquerading as a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor 
Clinical Endoscopy  2011;44(1):51-54.
Gossypiboma refers to a mass resulting from a retained gauze pad accidentally left within the body after surgery. Although the clinical features are diverse, it is often found incidentally as a mass having an internal cystic change and adhesion to adjacent organs. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) is helpful, yet the initial diagnosis can be misleading in cases with atypical findings. We report a case of gossypiboma in a 78-year-old woman that we suspected was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor according to abdominal CT and endoscopic ultrasound, yet was diagnosed as a gossypiboma postoperatively.
doi:10.5946/ce.2011.44.1.51
PMCID: PMC3363045  PMID: 22741113
Gossypiboma; Endoscopic ultrasonography; Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
25.  Differences between Cellular and Molecular Profiles of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Generated from Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts 
Cellular Reprogramming  2010;12(6):627-639.
Abstract
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a new alternative for the development of patient-specific stem cells, and the aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist between the cellular and molecular profiles of iPS cells, generated using lentiviral vectors, compared to ES cells. The lentiviral infection efficiency differed according to the method of cell culture (adherent cells: 0.085%; suspended cells: 0.785%). Six iPS cell lines exhibited typical ES cell morphology and marker expression, but varied in their in vitro/in vivo differentiation ability. Global gene transcription analysis revealed that core pluripotency genes were expressed at lower levels in iPS cell lines compared to D3-ES cells (Pou5f1: ×1.6∼2.2-fold, Sox2: ×2.58∼10.0-fold, Eras: ×1.08∼2.54-fold, Dppa5a: ×1.04∼1.41-fold), while other genes showed higher expression in iPS cells (Lin28: ×1.43∼2.33-fold; Dnmt3b: ×1.33∼2.64-fold). This pattern was repeated in a survey of specific functional groups of genes (surface markers, cell death, JAK–STAT and P13K–AKT signaling pathways, endothelial, cardiovascular, and neurogenesis genes). Among the iPS cell lines examined, only two showed similar characteristics to ES cells. These results demonstrated that, in addition to cellular characterization, the numerical evaluation of gene expression using DNA microarrays might help to identify the stem cell stability and pluripotency of iPS cells.
doi:10.1089/cell.2010.0013
PMCID: PMC2998986  PMID: 20958217

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