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1.  Biliary phytobezoar resulting in intestinal obstruction 
Phytobezoar is the most common type of bezoar. It is composed of indigestible vegetable matter and is usually found in the stomach. Biliary phytobezoar is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. The pathogenesis is not clear, and there have been only a few reports of biliary bezoars associated with sphincteric impairmentat the ampulla of Vater. Here, we present a report of biliary bezoar that resulted in jejunal obstruction. We were unable to identifythe bezoar in the extrahepatic bile duct until it obstructed the small bowel lumen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of small bowel obstruction resulting frommigration of a biliary bezoar.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i1.133
PMCID: PMC3542761  PMID: 23326176
Phytobezoar; Biliary; Intestinal obstruction; Choledochoduodenal; Fistula; Multidetector-row computed tomography
2.  Liver abscess developed after cadaveric liver transplantation due to ligation of an accessory right hepatic artery of the donor graft 
It is important that extrahepatic arteries are identified precisely at the time of graft procurement. We present a case where the accessory right hepatic artery of the liver was ligated leading to postoperative liver abscess formation in the liver graft. A forty-seven-year-old female patient diagnosed with liver cirrhosis underwent orthotopic cadaveric liver transplantation due to altered mentality. The donor graft showed a variant of the hepatic artery anatomy where an accessory right hepatic artery arose from the superior mesenteric artery. This artery was accidentally transected during procurement. Since the back bleeding test using perfusion fluid was good, the artery was ligated. Postoperative abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a 6 cm low attenuating lesion in the liver. The patient underwent conservative treatment. We believe that even small accessory arteries (1 to 2 mm) should be reconstructed whenever possible to avoid postoperative complications such as liver abscess.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.4.246
PMCID: PMC3467392  PMID: 23091798
Liver abscess; Liver transplantation; Postoperative complications; Hepatic artery
3.  Increasing effect of body weight perception on suicidal ideation among young Korean women: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 and 2005 
Objective:
To examine the prevalence of actual and perceived overweight and to compare the mediating effect of perceived overweight on the relationship between actual overweight and suicidal ideation among young Korean women between 2001 and 2005.
Methods:
Data were gathered from the 2001 and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys involving a nationally representative sample of young women (568 in 2001 and 385 in 2005) aged 20–29 years.
Results:
Over the 5-year period, the prevalence of actual overweight (body mass index ≥23 kg/m2) and perceived overweight increased by 10.5% and 22.8%, respectively. The discrepancy between actual and perceived body weights was much wider in 2005 than in 2001. After controlling for covariates (age, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and regular exercise), overweight women were more likely to think about suicide than their normal-weight counterparts in both periods. However, in both periods, the association between overweight and suicidal ideation became nonsignificant when perceived weight was considered. In both periods, a self-perception of overweight was associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, but the association was much stronger in 2005 than in 2001.
Conclusion:
This study suggests a need for educational programs or effective treatments to help young women who perceive themselves as overweight to reduce the potential risk of suicidal ideation in later life.
doi:10.2147/DMSOTT.S15456
PMCID: PMC3064415  PMID: 21448318
body mass index; perceived body weight; body weight; body image; suicidal ideation
4.  Early Initiation of Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and Sexual Intercourse Linked to Suicidal Ideation and Attempts: Findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2009;51(1):18-26.
Purpose
This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females.
Materials and Methods
Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses.
Results
Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior.
Conclusion
Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.1.18
PMCID: PMC2799971  PMID: 20046509
Alcohol drinking; cigarette smoking; sexual intercourse; suicidal ideation; attempted suicide; life experience
5.  Clinicopathological Analysis of Hepatocellular Adenoma According to New Bordeaux Classification: Report of Eight Korean Cases 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(5):411-417.
Background
Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a rare benign tumor of the liver. A subtype classification of HCA (hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α [HNF1α]-mutated, β-catenin-mutated HCA, inflammatory HCA, and unclassified HCA) has recently been established based on a single institutional review of a HCA series by the Bordeaux group.
Methods
We used histologic and immunohistochemical parameters to classify and evaluate eight cases from our institution. We evaluated the new classification method and analyzed correlations between our results and those of other reports.
Results
Seven of our eight cases showed histologic and immunohistochemical results consistent with previous reports. However, one case showed overlapping histologic features, as previously described by the Bordeaux group. Four cases showed glutamine synthetase immunohistochemical staining inconsistent with their classification, indicating that glutamine synthetase staining may not be diagnostic for β-catenin-mutated HCA. HNF1α-mutated HCA may be indicated by the absence of liver fatty acid binding protein expression. Detection of amyloid A may indicate inflammatory HCA. HCA with no mutation in the HNF1α or β-catenin genes and no inflammatory protein expression is categorized as unclassified HCA.
Conclusions
Although the new classification is now generally accepted, validation through follow-up studies is necessary.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.5.411
PMCID: PMC3830987  PMID: 24255628
Adenoma, liver cell; Subtype; Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha; Beta catenin; Serum amyloid A protein
6.  Colloid Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Biliary Tract with Metastatic Lymphadenopathy Mimicking Cystic Neoplasm: A Case Report 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2013;10(2):90-93.
The patient is a previously healthy 52-year-old woman who presented with dyspepsia for two months. Multiple imaging modalities including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bile duct dilatation with an obstructive lesion of the distal extrahepatic biliary duct (EHD) as well as two masses in the peripancreatic area. The peripancreatic masses appeared cystic with posterior acoustic enhancement on ultrasound, low density on CT imaging, and high signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI. The lesion in the distal EHD exhibited similar characteristics on CT and MRI. A Whipple procedure was performed and histological specimens showed malignant cells with large mucin pools that was consistent with a diagnosis of colloid carcinoma of the EHD with metastatic lymphadenopathies.
Colloid carcinoma, also called mucinous carcinoma, is classified as a histologic variant of adenocarcinoma. Because the colloid carcinoma of the biliary tree is exceedingly rare, the imaging characteristics and the clinical features of colloid carcinoma remain relatively unknown. We report a case of colloid carcinoma of the common bile duct and its accompanied metastatic lymphadenopathies with characteristic imaging findings reflecting abundant intratumoral mucin pools.
doi:10.5812/iranjradiol.7234
PMCID: PMC3767013  PMID: 24046786
Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic; Lymphatic Diseases; Ultrasonography
7.  Effect of HX108-CS supplementation on exercise capacity and lactate accumulation after high-intensity exercise 
Background
In the present study, we determined the effects of HX108-CS (mixed extract of Schisandra chinensis and Chaenomeles sinensis) supplementation on lactate accumulation and endurance capacity. Furthermore, we examined CK (creatine kinase), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) activity to determine whether the HX108-CS affected markers of skeletal muscle injury in vivo and in vitro.
Methods
Exercise capacity was measured by an exhaustive swimming test using ICR mice divided into four groups; one group received distilled water (DW) (Control group, n = 10), and the other groups received three different dosages of HX108-CS (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg, n = 10 per group) solution in water orally. Then, for the time-dependent measurements of blood lactate, CK, and LDH, Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into two groups; one received DW (Control group, n = 10), and the other group received HX108-CS (100 mg/kg, n = 10) solution in the same way as mice. Before the exercise test, the animals were given either DW or HX108-CS for 2 weeks. High-intensity treadmill exercise was performed for 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected and analyzed during and after exercise. For the in vitro experiment, C2C12 cells were treated with HX108-CS to examine its effect on lactate production, CK, and LDH activity.
Results
Blood lactate concentration was significantly lowered immediately after treadmill exercise in HX108-CS group; however, there were no significant differences in activities of CK and LDH between HX108-CS and control during treadmill exercise and recovery phase. Furthermore, treatment with 100 mg/kg of HX108-CS led to a significant increase in the time to exhaustion in swimming test, and concurrently blood lactate concentration was significantly decreased in 50 and 100 mg/kg treated group. Moreover, our results of in vitro experiment showed that HX108-CS suppressed lactate production, CK, and LDH activity in a dose-dependent manner.
Conclusions
These results suggest that supplementation with HX108-CS may enhance exercise capacity by lowering lactate accumulation. This may in part be related to an amelioration of skeletal muscle injury.
doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-21
PMCID: PMC3659049  PMID: 23587302
HX108-CS; Schisandra chinensis; Chaenomeles sinensis; Endurance capacity; Exercise capacity; Lactate accumulation
8.  Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma to the parotid gland: Case report and review of the literature 
INTRODUCTION
Hepatocellular carcinoma, the most frequent primary hepatic tumor, metastasizes in more than 50% of cases. However, parotid gland metastatic HCCs are very uncommon. We report a patient in whom the finding of a left parotid mass revealed metastatic HCC.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A thirty-six-year-old male presented with a round palpable left neck mass that persisted for 3 months. He had received right hemihepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Preoperative evaluation revealed a benign tumor of the parotid gland. We performed superficial parotidectomy. Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma of the parotid gland was diagnosed.
DISCUSSION
Although HCC metastases to the oral cavity have been reported, to date, only 4 cases HCC metastasis to the parotid gland have been reported. Although clinicians and cytopathologists alike both agree that salivary gland fine needle aspiration biopies (FNABs) are highly useful and safe diagnostic alternatives to biopsies and resections, we believe that in specific clinical situations, awareness of potential diagnostic pitfalls in salivary gland FNAB is a necessary part of the microscopic interpretations of these lesions.
CONCLUSION
Although rare, since HCC can metastasize to the parotid gland, high suspicion should be maintained in a patient presenting with a parotid mass with a history of HCC. In addition, since potential diagnostic pitfalls in salivary gland fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies exist, incisional or excisional biopsy may be necessary for definite diagnosis of metastatic HCC to the parotid gland.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.08.018
PMCID: PMC3537927  PMID: 23123420
HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; FNA, fine-needle aspiration; Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma; Parotid gland; Fine-needle aspiration
9.  Actionable Gene Expression-Based Patient Stratification for Molecular Targeted Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e64260.
Background
The effectiveness of molecular targeted agents is modest in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Efficacy of molecular targeted therapies has been better in cancer patients with high expression of actionable molecules defined as cognate target molecules. However, patient stratification based on the actionable molecules dictating the effectiveness of targeted drugs has remained understudied in HCC.
Experimental Design & Results
Paired tumor and non-tumoral tissues derived from a total of 130 HCC patients were studied. Real-time RT-PCR was used to analyze the mRNA expression of actionable molecules in the tissues. mRNA levels of EGFR, VEGFR2, PDGFRβ, FGFR1, and mTOR were up-regulated in tumors compared to non-tumors in 35.4, 42.3, 61.5, 24.6, and 50.0% of patients, respectively. Up-regulation of EGFR was observed at early stage and tended to gradually decrease toward late stages (BCLC stage A: 41.9%; B: 30.8%; C: 17.6%). Frequency of VEGFR2 expression in tumors at stage C was lower than that in the other stages (BCLC stage A: 45.9%; B: 41.0%; C: 29.4%). PDGFRβ and mTOR were observed to be up-regulated in more than 50% of tumors in all the stages whereas FGFR1 was up-regulated in only about 20% of HCC irrespective of stages. A cluster analysis of actionable gene expression revealed that HCC can be categorized into different subtypes that predict the effectiveness of molecular targeted agents and combination therapies in clinical trials. Analysis of in vitro sensitivity to sorafenib demonstrated that HCC cells with up-regulation of PDGFRβ and c-Raf mRNA are more susceptible to sorafenib treatment in a dose and time-dependent manner than cells with low expression of the genes.
Conclusions
mRNA expression analysis of actionable molecules could provide the rationale for new companion diagnostics-based therapeutic strategies in the treatment of HCC.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064260
PMCID: PMC3681850  PMID: 23785399
10.  Functional 3D Human Primary Hepatocyte Spheroids Made by Co-Culturing Hepatocytes from Partial Hepatectomy Specimens and Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e50723.
We have generated human hepatocyte spheroids with uniform size and shape by co-culturing 1∶1 mixtures of primary human hepatocytes (hHeps) from partial hepatectomy specimens and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in concave microwells. The hADSCs in spheroids could compensate for the low viability and improve the functional maintenance of hHeps. Co-cultured spheroids aggregated and formed compact spheroidal shapes more rapidly, and with a significantly higher viability than mono-cultured spheroids. The liver-specific functions of co-cultured spheroids were greater, although they contained half the number of hepatocytes as mono-cultured spheroids. Albumin secretion by co-cultured spheroids was 10% higher on day 7, whereas urea secretion was similar, compared with mono-cultured spheroids. A quantitative cytochrome P450 assay showed that the enzymatic activity of co-cultured spheroids cultured for 9 days was 28% higher than that of mono-cultured spheroids. These effects may be due to the transdifferentiation potential and paracrine healing effects of hADSCs on hHeps. These co-cultured spheroids may be useful for creating artificial three-dimensional hepatic tissue constructs and for cell therapy with limited numbers of human hepatocytes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050723
PMCID: PMC3517565  PMID: 23236387

Results 1-10 (10)