Objectives: The trefoil factor family (TFF) is composed of three thermostable, and protease-resistant proteins, named TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3, and plays a role in gastrointestinal mucosal defence and repair. Recently, TFFs have been found to be related to the development of various types of cancer. This study assessed the relationship between the expression of TFF1 and TFF3 and the clinicopathological parameters in gastric carcinoma (GC). Materials and Methods: The expression of TFF1 and TFF3 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 292 GCs and 20 normal gastric tissues. Results: All normal gastric tissues expressed TFF1, but 53.8% of GCs showed reduced TFF1 expression. However, TFF3 was not detected in normal gastric tissues and 44.2% of GCs showed a high level of expression. Highly expressed TFF3 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, lymphatic invasion, vein invasion, and advanced stage. The overall survival was shorter in patients with high expression of TFF3 than in those with low expression of TFF3 in 292 GCs and in 125 early GCs (EGCs). Moreover, in patients with EGCs, high expression of TFF3, associated with reduced expression of TFF1, was determined as an independent poor prognostic marker. Conclusions: Reduced expression of TFF1 and increased expression of TFF3 may play a role in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. Furthermore, high expression of TFF3 with reduced expression of TFF1 may be a marker of poor prognosis for patients with EGC.
TFF1; TFF3; gastric cancer
92 kDa matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is believed to play an important role in degrading the matrix and basement membrane, contributing to the invasion and metastasis of malignant solid tumors. However, little is known about its involvement in a malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of MMP-9 and to correlate its expression with clinicopathologic parameters in human malignant fibrous histiocytomas.
Materials and Methods
Archival tumor tissues from 20 patients with a malignant fibrous histiocytoma were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of MMP-9. Clinical information was obtained through the computerized retrospective database from the tumor registry.
Seventeen of 20 (85%) tumors showed a positive reaction for MMP-9. MMP-9 activity was inversely correlated with patients' survival time (p=.011). There was no significant correlation between the activated MMP-9 expression and all the other clinicopathologic variables.
Our data demonstrate that MMP-9 activation is likely to occur in human malignant fibrous histiocytomas. It is also noteworthy that the expression of MMP-9 may aid in predicting patients' poor prognosis.
MMP-9; Malignant histiocytic disorder
The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is known to play a critical role in various malignancies, but its clinicopathologic role in breast cancer is yet to be established.
Tissue microarray blocks from 334 cases of breast cancer were prepared. The expression of six Hh signaling proteins including sonic hedgehog (Shh), patched (Ptch), smoothened (Smo), and the glioma-associated oncogene (Gli)-1, Gli-2, and Gli-3 were analyzed immunohistochemically.
The expression of Hh signaling proteins was significantly correlated with some prognostic factors including the correlation of lymph node metastasis with the expression of Shh (p=0.001) and Ptch (p=0.064), the correlation of the stages with Shh and Gli-3 expression (p=0.007 and p=0.024, respectively), the correlation of the nuclear grade with the Smo (p=0.004) and Gli-3 (p=0.000), and the correlation of the histologic grade with the Ptch (p=0.016), Smo (p=0.007), and Gli-3 (p=0.000). The Shh, Ptch, Smo, Gli-1, and Gli-2 expression was significantly different between the phenotypes (p=0.000, p=0.001, p=0.004, p=0.039, and p=0.031, respectively). Gli-2 expression was correlated with a worse overall survival outcome (p=0.012).
Hh pathway activation is correlated with a more aggressive clinical behavior in breast carcinomas. The comparison of phenotypes suggested that the Hh pathway may be a useful therapeutic target for breast carcinoma. Patients with Gli-2 expression had a significantly lower overall survival rate and, therefore, it showed promise as a prognostic marker.
Hedgehog proteins; Gli-2 protein; Gli protein; Breast neoplasms
This study evaluated the accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in cases of follicular neoplasm (FN) on the basis of histologic diagnosis, and reviewed the cytologic findings of FN according to the FNAC.
Among the 66 cases diagnosed with thyroid FN by FNAC during the 7-year period from 2003 to 2009, 36 cases that had undergone thyroid surgery were available for review. Cytologic diagnosis was compared with the histologic diagnosis of each case.
Among the 36 cases with a cytologic diagnosis of thyroid FN, histologic diagnosis was as follows: 20 follicular adenomas (55.6%), 3 Hurthle cell adenomas (8.3%), 2 follicular carcinomas (5.6%), 8 nodular goiters (22.2%), 2 papillary carcinomas (5.6%), and 1 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (2.8%), resulting in a diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for thyroid FN of 69.5%.
This study shows that FNAC for thyroid FN is a useful primary screening method because when FN is diagnosed by FNAC, the rate of FN histologic diagnosis is relatively high, however, adequate sampling and experience is a prerequisite for this procedure.
Thyroid gland; Follicular neoplasm; Fine needle aspiration cytology
Objectives: Tumor hypoxia confers poor prognosis of a wide range of solid tumors due to increased malignancy, increased likelihood of metastasis and treatment resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of the expression of HIF-1α and HIF-1α-inducible proteins in gastric cancer and their impact on prognosis. Materials and Methods: The expression of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, CA-9, and iNOS proteins was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 193 gastric adenocarcinomas (GAs) and 20 normal gastric mucosa. Results: HIF-1α, GLUT-1, CA-9 and iNOS were expressed in 52.3%, 43.0%, 57.0%, and 43.0% of GAs, respectively, which are higher than the normal counterparts except for CA-9. HIF-1α expression was positively correlated with the expression of GLUT-1, CA-9 and iNOS. GLUT-1 expression was higher in the intestinal type (p = 0.012); however, iNOS expression was higher in the less-differentiated type and the diffuse type (p = 0.006, p = 0.032, respectively). The expression of HIF-1α and GLUT-1 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.009, p = 0.008, respectively), while the expression of GLUT-1 and iNOS was significantly correlated with the depth of invasion and advanced stage (p = 0.044, p = 0.004; p = 0.009, p = 0.008, respectively). Overall survival was shorter in patients with GLUT-1 expression than in those without GLUT-1 expression, which was statistically significant by univariate analysis (p = 0.042). On multivariate analysis, however, stage was determined as the only independent prognostic marker (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our data suggest that overexpression of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, and iNOS may play an important role in gastric cancer progression. GLUT-1 is a potential candidate for predicting patient survival.
Gastric cancer; hypoxia; HIF-1α; GLUT-1; CA-9; iNOS
Background. In gastric carcinogenesis, changes of DNA methylation appear to be an early molecular event, and the genome-wide methylation state is closely correlated with the level of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) methylation. In this study, we measured LINE-1 methylation level according to genetic instability and evaluated the effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on genetic instability in gastric epithelial dysplasia. Methods. Total 100 tissue samples of gastric epithelial dysplasia were analyzed. Seven loci that linked to tumor suppressor genes were used to identify significant structural chromosomal aberrations. Microsatellite status was investigated for two different microsatellite marker loci (BAT25 and BAT26). Also, we measured LINE-1 methylation level by combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA-LINE-1) method. Results. There were no significant differences of LINE-1 methylation level according to chromosomal/microsatellite instability and H. pylori state. In the dysplastic lesions with H. pylori infection, LINE-1 methylation level of MSI lesion was significantly lower than that of microsatellite stable (MSS) lesion (40.23 ± 4.47 versus 43.90 ± 4.81%, P < 0.01). Conclusions. In gastric epithelial dysplasia with H. pylori infection, MSI is correlated with reduced LINE-1 methylation level. Coexistence of H. pylori infection and MSI might be a driving force of gastric carcinogenesis.
This study was designed to identify risk factors for lymph node metastasis of early stage colorectal cancer, which was confirmed to a carcinoma that invaded the submucosa after radical resection.
In total, 55 patients revealing submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma on pathology who underwent curative radical resection at the Department of Surgery, St. Vincent’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea from January 2007 to September 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Tumor size, depth of submucosal invasion, histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, tumor budding, and microacinar structure were reviewed by a single pathologist. Student t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables were used for comparing the clinicopathological features between two groups (whether lymph node involvement existed or not). Continuous variables are expressed as the mean ± standard error while statistical significance is accepted at P < 0.05.
The mean age of 55 patients (34 males and 21 females) was 61.2 ± 9.6 years (range, 43–83). Histologically, eight (14.5%) patients had metastatic lymph node. In the univariate analysis, tumor budding (P = 0.047) was the only factor that was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. Also, the tumor budding had a sensitivity of 83.3%, a specificity of 60.5%, and a negative predictive value of 0.958 for lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive T1 colorectal cancer.
The tumor budding seems to have a high sensitivity (83.3%), acceptable specificity (60.5%), and a high negative predictive value (0.958). A close examination of pathologic finding including tumor budding should be performed in order to manage early CRC properly.
Lymph node metastasis; T1 colorectal cancer; Tumor budding
Gastric Hodgkin's lymphoma is extremely rare. We present a case of primary Hodgkin's lymphoma arising in the stomach of a 65-year-old woman. The patient complained of epigastric discomfort and reflux for one month. Endoscopic examination revealed a protruding lesion characterized by a smooth surface at the antrum. An abdominal computed tomography uncovered a 2.5 × 2.0 cm, exophytic submucosal mass. After the tentative preoperative diagnosis of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor, a gastric wedge resection was performed. Microscopic examination of the mass demonstrated a diffuse proliferation of large atypical lymphoid cells with mono- and binucleated pleomorphic nuclei and prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CD30, CD20, and CD79a, whereas they were negative for cytokeratin, carcinoembryonic antigen, CD3, CD15, epithelial membrane antigen, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1. Based on the morphological features and immunohistochemical results, in addition to the clinical findings, a diagnosis of primary gastric Hodgkin's lymphoma was established.
Stomach; Hodgkin's lymphoma; CD30 antigens
Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) comprises 75-85% of all lung cancers, and approximately 25% of all NSCLC patients develop brain metastasis. There are no reliable markers for predicting in which patients this metastasis will occur. DCUN1D1, also known as squamous cell carcinoma-related oncogene, is associated with tumor progression and poor outcomes in NSCLC. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of DCUN1D1 expression in cases of brain metastasis due to NSCLC.
Materials and Methods
Primary tumor samples from a total of 71 cases of NSCLC, either with (n=40) or without (n=31) brain metastasis, were evaluated for DCUN1D1 expression by immunohistochemistry analysis.
DCUN1D1 expression was detected in 16 patients (23%) and tended to correlate with T classification (15% of T1-2 tumors vs. 30% of T3-4 tumors, p=0.083). DCUN1D1 expression was significantly associated with tumor stage. It was observed in none of the patients with stage I disease, 10% of those with stage II disease, and 29% with stage III disease (p=0.009). In addition, 14 of 16 DCUN1D1-positive patients resulted in brain metastasis (p=0.01). The odds ratio of brain metastasis for patients with DCUN1D1 expression was 3.112 (p=0.009).
DCUN1D1 expression may play a role in tumor progression and development of brain metastasis in patients with NSCLC. Evaluation of DCUN1D1 expression may provide assistance in identifying those patients who are at higher risk for brain metastasis.
Non-small cell lung carcinoma; DCUN1D1 protein; Neoplasm metastasis
For the atypical cases of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of thyroid nodules, ultrasonographic findings are a primary guideline for the surgical treatment. However, they have the intrinsic risk of overtreatment, as well. In this study we examined whether the Bethesda system could provide a real effect on the diagnostic rate of atypical cytology, and thereby reduce the number of cases diagnosed as atypical from FNA cytology.
We reviewed 166 cases diagnosed as atypical by FNA cytology at this institute between the years 2005 to 2010. We classified these cases on the basis of ultrasonographic and cytological findings and compared them with the histological results.
Ultrasonographically, findings suspicious for malignancy and indeterminate were associated with 83.7% and 47.2% of malignancy rates, respectively. Cytopathologically, the malignancy rates varied according to the main cytological features and the highest malignancy rate was 77.3%. Based on the Bethesda system, 39.2% of the cases diagnosed as atypical could be grouped into the category of suspicious for malignancy and yielded a malignancy rate of 76.9%.
Although ultrasonography provides an excellent guideline for the surgical treatment of atypical cases, it also showed considerable risk of overtreatment. The Bethesda system did not offer definitive effects on the rate of atypical cytology, but this system seemed to provide stricter boundaries for the atypical cytology and to aid in reducing the rates thereof. This in turn may permit that more limited cases are allotted to ultrasonographic decision making.
Thyroid nodule; Cytology; Atypical; The Bethesda system; Ultrasonography
Gastric epithelial dysplasia is considered a precancerous lesion with a variable clinical course. There is disagreement, however, regarding histology-based diagnoses, which has led to confusion in choosing a therapeutic plan. New objective markers are needed to determine which lesions progress to true malignancy. We measured LINE-1 methylation levels, which have been reported to strongly correlate with the global methylation level in gastric epithelial dysplasia and intramucosal cancer.
A total of 145 tissue samples were analyzed by two histopathologists. All tissues were excised by therapeutic endoscopic mucosal resection and paired with adjacent normal tissue samples. A modified long interspersed nucleotide elements-combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA-LINE-1) method was used.
Gastric epithelial dysplasia and intramucosal cancer tissues had significantly lower levels of LINE-1 methylation than adjacent normal gastric tissues. High-grade dysplasia and intramucosal cancer were distinguishable from low-grade dysplasia based on LINE-1 methylation levels. Furthermore, the distinction could be determined with high sensitivity and specificity, as shown by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 0.88).
LINE-1 methylation levels may provide a diagnostic tool for identifying high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal cancer.
LINE-1 methylation; Gastric epithelial dysplasia; Intramucosal cancer
Buerger's disease, or thromboangiitis obliterans, is a nonatherosclerotic inflammatory disease affecting the small- and medium-sized arteries and veins of the extremities (arms, hands, legs, and feet). It is most common in the Orient, Southeast Asia, India, and the Middle East, and usually affects men aged between 20 and 40 years, although it is becoming more common in women. It is well established that most such patients smoke heavily and experience an improvement in symptoms following smoking cessation. Mesenteric involvement in Buerger's disease is extremely rare; however, we describe herein two cases of colon ischemia in patients who were previously diagnosed with lower-extremity Buerger's disease. In one case, the patient developed colonic obstruction, and surgical resection was performed. Histopathologic findings were compatible with the chronic stage of Buerger's disease. In the other case, angiography revealed abrupt occlusion of the inferior mesenteric artery with numerous collateral vessels, just like the corkscrew appearance found in the extremities. If patients with established Buerger's disease of the extremities complain of gastrointestinal symptoms, early interventional diagnosis should be performed to prevent intestinal obstruction and gangrene.
Thromboangiitis obliterans; Mesenteric involvement; Colon ischemia
The aim of this study was to determine the structural chromosomal aberrations, such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI), at multiple tumor suppressor gene loci in gastric epithelial neoplasia categorized by the revised Vienna classification.
All tissue samples were excised by endoscopic mucosal resection. Sixty category 3 (low-grade adenoma) tissue samples and 51 category 4 samples (high-grade adenoma and intramucosal carcinoma with adenoma) were examined at the 7 sets of microsatellite loci linked to the tumor suppressor gene locus.
For category 3 and 4 tissue samples, there were no differences in the frequencies of LOH-positive chromosomes or the extent of chromosomal loss. The Helicobacter-pylori (H. pylori)-positive rate was significantly higher in MSI-positive category 4 samples than in category 3 samples (p=0.04). The frequency of MSI positivity was significantly higher in category 4 samples than in category 3 samples (p=0.003).
H. pylori infection is associated with genetic instability of the premalignant lesion. MSI occurs in the early stages of gastric carcinogenesis and its occurrence increases during malignant transformation. Detection of MSI in premalignant gastric lesions may be a surveillant of risk of malignant transformation.
Genetic instability; Gastric epithelial neoplasia; Vienna classification
A 53-yr-old man presented with a two-day history of odynophagia and a foreign body sensation. Two days before admission, the patient began to experience odynophagia and a foreign body sensation in the chest after swallowing several extremely hot pieces of solid food (prawn) in haste. Endoscopy revealed a huge longitudinal ulcer, typical of friable hyperemic mucosa with necrotic debris along the full length of the esophagus in the posterolateral region. Here we present the clinical course of serial endoscopy of an acute thermal injury of the esophagus caused by solid food.
Acute Thermal Injury; Esophagus; Solid Food
Mesenteric fibromatosis (MF) is a rare benign mesenchymal lesion that can occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract, especially small bowel. Its biological behavior is intermediate between benign fibrous tissue proliferation and malignant fibrosarcoma. In previously reported cases of MF, we could find colonic obstruction or ureter obstruction, but simultaneous involvement of colon and ureter was not able to be seen. We described a patient that presented with colonic obstruction and hydroureteronephrosis due to MF at sigmoid colon which mimicked submucosal tumor such as gastrointestinal tumor. This case resulted in a positive positron emission tomography scan suggesting malignant neoplasm, but β-catenin positivity on immunohistochemical staining separated MF from gastrointestinal stromal tumor and sclerosing mesenteritis. The clinical course of the patient was improved after surgical resection.
Mesenteric fibromatosis; Colonic obstruction; Hydroureteronephrosis
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of phlegmonous gastritis, characterized by air in the wall of the stomach due to invasion by gas-forming microorganisms. The most commonly involved microorganisms are streptococci, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostrodium perfrigens and Staphylococcus aureus. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is another rare condition, which is most frequently occurs in the stomach. Because emphysematous gastritis associated with invasive gastric mucormycosis is an extremely rare clinical condition and both are life-threatening diseases, early precise diagnosis and early treatment should be done to avoid mortality. Herein we present an extremely rare case of emphysematous gastritis associated with invasive gastric mucormycosis. A 43-yr-old man, suffering from alcoholism and diabetes, has experienced diffuse abdominal pain for 4 days. Abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated gas within the stomach wall. A histologic examination of the total gastrectomy specimen showed several gas-filled bubbles in the wall, along with numerous fungal hyphae throughout the necrotic stomach wall. He died of multiorgan failure secondary to disseminated mucormycosis, despite the intensive medical therapy.
Gastritis; Stomach; Mucormycosis
Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) vary in their biologic behavior. Recurrence and tumor-related mortality may be attributable to molecular abnormalities in primary tumors. This study evaluated such immunophenotypes with regard to cell cycle regulation and proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis, to determine their significance for patient outcome. Core biopsies from 219 patients with NSCLC were assembled on tissue microarrays, and the expressions of p16, p21, p27, cyclin B1, cyclin E, Ki-67, caspase-3, survivin, bcl-2, VEGF, and endostatin were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Despite previously described prognostic relevance of some of the investigated molecules, many of those markers were not directly associated with recurrence or survival. However, there was a trend for p16 immunoreactivity to be associated with a good prognosis (57% vs. 42% in 5-yr survival) (p=0.071). bcl-2 expression was strongly correlated with a better outcome (65% vs. 45% in 5-yr survival) (p=0.029), and the hazard of death for bcl-2 positive patients was 0.42 times of that for bcl-2 negative patients (p=0.047). A multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards model confirmed that the lymph node status (p=0.043) and stage (p=0.003) were other independent prognostic factors. Our results suggest that p16 and bcl-2 provide prognostic information independent of the TNM stage in NSCLC.
Carcinoma, Bronchogenic; Cell Cycle; Apoptosis; Angiogenesis Factor; Prognosis
We report a surgical case of primary polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) of the minor salivary gland-type of the lung. A PLGA originating from the right upper lobar bronchial inlet was successfully treated by sleeve right upper lobectomy. PLGAs are thought to be indolent tumors that are preferentially localized to the palate, and they affect the minor salivary glands almost exclusively. Until now, two cases of distant metastases to the lung have been reported in the English literature. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of PLGA of minor salivary gland-type of the lung without evidence of a previous oropharyngeal primary tumor has been reported in the English literature. But the case was not a single lesion; it was bilateral tumors accompanied by tumors of the cervical lymph nodes. We report here the first case of a single primary PLGA of the minor salivary gland-type of the lung, which was successfully treated by sleeve bronchial resection of right upper lobe.
PLGA; Lung; Primary Tumor; Sleeve Lobectomy
Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis is expressed in several human cancers. Its expression is known to be associated with poor clinical outcome, but not widely studied in pancreatic cancer. We performed this study to determine the survivin expression in pancreatic cancer and its clinical significance as a prognostic factor.
We performed immunohistochemical staining for survivin, p53, and Bax in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded block from forty-nine pancreatic tissues. To determine the association with clinical course, we reviewed the patients' clinical record.
Of the 49 cases of pancreatic cancer, 46 cases (93.9%) were positive for survivin expression. There was no significant association between survivin expression and p53 or bax. For clinicopathological parameters, perineural invasion was more common in survivin positive and venous invasion was more common in survivin negative (p = 0.041 and 0.040, respectively). Responsiveness to chemotherapy appeared to be slightly better in patients with low survivin expression.
Survivin expression may be associated with venous or perineural invasion, indicating metastatic route, and seems to have a potential as a predictive marker for chemotherapy. Further study of large scale is required to determine the clinical significance of survivin expression in pancreatic cancer.
c-myc, bcl-2 and p53 are known to regulate apoptosis. There has been growing interest in analyzing their contribution to the pathogenesis and prognosis in a variety of human cancers. This study was undertaken to investigate the expression of these proteins in pulmonary adenocarcinomas and to determine their relationship with clinicopathologic parameters and survival.
Materials and Methods
Archival tumor tissues from 61 patients with adenocarcinoma of lung were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of c-myc, bcl-2 and p53 proteins. Clinical information was obtained through the computerized retrospect database from the tumor registry.
Of 61 patients, 32 were men and 29 women with the median age 63 years. 4 had stage I disease, 2 had stage II disease and 55 had stage III disease. The expression of c-myc protein was identified in 13% (8/61) tumors, bcl-2 protein was detected in 1.6% tumors (1/61) and p53 was detected in 77% (47/71) tumors. The association of the expression of c-myc, bcl-2 and p53 was not detected. The survival time was longer in patients expressing c-myc protein than in patients without the c-myc protein expression (p=.045). Neither bcl-2 nor p53 showed the correlation to clinicopathologic variables.
Our data suggest the involvement of p53 alteration in the pathogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. The c-myc expression in some tumors indicates that c-myc alone may not contribute critically to the development and/or the progression of these tumors. It, however, correlated to the survival time, suggesting the c-myc expression as a favorable prognostic factor possibly through the apoptosis pathway.
c-myc protein; bcl-2 protein; p53 protein; Lung neoplasm