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1.  Analysis of prognostic factors and outcomes of gastric cancer in younger patients: A case control study using propensity score methods 
AIM: To understand the clinicopathological and prognostic features of gastric cancer in younger and older patients.
METHODS: Between January 2002 and December 2008, 1667 patients underwent curative gastric surgery. For comparative purposes, the patients were divided into two groups: younger patients who were less than 40 years old (112 patients), and older patients who were 40 years old and older (1555 patients). In both groups, propensity scoring methods were used to select patients with similar disease statuses. A total of 224 matched cases, with 112 patients in each group, were included in the final analysis.
RESULTS: Compared to the older group, the younger group with gastric cancer had a significantly higher percentage of females (P = 0.007), poorly differentiated or signet ring cell carcinoma (P < 0.001), advanced T stage gastric cancer (P = 0.045), and advanced tumor-node-metastasis stage cancer (P = 0.036). The older group with gastric cancer had more comorbidities (P < 0.001). With the exception of the number of lymph node dissection (P < 0.001) and retrieved lymph node (P = 0.010), there were no statistically significant differences between the postoperative outcomes of the two groups. During the follow-up period, there were 19 recurrences in the younger group and 11 recurrences in the older group. The overall five-year survival rates in the younger and older groups were 84.3% and 89.6%, respectively (P = 0.172). There were no significant differences (P = 0.238) in the overall survival of patients with advanced T stage gastric cancer in the two groups, with five-year survival rates of 70.8% in the younger group and 79.5% in the older group. With regard to the age-adjusted survival rate, there was significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.225).
CONCLUSION: In spite of aggressive cancer patterns in the younger group with gastric cancer, the younger group did not have a worse prognosis than the older group in our study.
PMCID: PMC3964409  PMID: 24696617
Gastric cancer; Younger patients; Prognosis
2.  Pilot study of postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation for advanced gastric cancer: Adjuvant 5-FU/cisplatin and chemoradiation with capecitabine 
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of postoperative chemoradiation using FP chemotherapy and oral capecitabine during radiation for advanced gastric cancer following curative resection.
METHODS: Thirty-one patients who had underwent a potentially curative resection for Stage III and IV (M0) gastric cancer were enrolled. Therapy consists of one cycle of FP (continuous infusion of 5-FU 1000 mg/m2 on d 1 to 5 and cisplatin 60 mg/m2 on d 1) followed by 4500 cGy (180 cGy/d) with capecitabine (1650 mg/m2 daily throughout radiotherapy). Four wk after completion of the radiotherapy, patients received three additional cycles of FP every three wk. The median follow-up duration was 22.2 mo.
RESULTS: The 3-year disease free and overall survival in this study were 82.7% and 83.4%, respectively. Four patients (12.9%) showed relapse during follow-up. Eight patients did not complete all planned adjuvant therapy. Grade 3/4 toxicities included neutropenia in 50.2%, anemia in 12.9%, thrombocytopenia in 3.2% and nausea/vomiting in 3.2%. Neither grade 3/4 hand foot syndrome nor treatment related febrile neutropenia or death were observed.
CONCLUSION: These preliminary results suggest that this postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation regimen of FP before and after capecitabine and concurrent radiotherapy appears well tolerated and offers a comparable toxicity profile to the chemoradiation regimen utilized in INT-0116. This treatment modality allowed successful loco-regional control rate and 3-year overall survival.
PMCID: PMC4066094  PMID: 16489675
Gastric cancer; Postoperative; Adjuvant chemotherapy; Chemoradiation
3.  Comprehension of readmission after laparoscopy assisted distal gastrectomy: what are the causes? 
The aim of this study is to evaluate long-term outcomes regarding readmission for laparoscopy-assisted distal subtotal gastrectomy (LADG) compared to conventional open distal subtotal gastrectomy (CODG) for early gastric cancer (EGC).
Between January 2003 and December 2006, 223 and 106 patients underwent LADG and CODG, respectively, for EGC by one surgeon. The clinicopathologic characteristics, postoperative outcomes, postoperative complications, overall 5-year survival, recurrence, and readmission were retrospectively compared between the two groups.
Multiple readmission rate in LADG was significantly less than that in CODG (0.4% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.039), although the readmission rate, reoperation rate after discharge, and mean readmission days were not significantly different between the two groups. Readmission rates of the LADG and CODG groups were 12.6% and 14.2%, respectively. First flatus time and postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the LADG group. However, there was no significant difference in the complication rates between the two groups. Overall 5-year survival rates of the LADG and CODG group were 100% and 99.1% (P = 0.038), respectively.
Compared to the CODG group, the LADG group has several advantages in surgical short-term outcome and some benefit in terms of readmission in surgical long-term outcome for patients with EGC, even though the oncologic outcome of LADG is similar to that of CODG over 5 years.
PMCID: PMC4024929  PMID: 24851224
Laparoscopy; Gastrectomy; Gastric neoplasms; Patient readmission; Prognosis
4.  Is the rate of postoperative complications following laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy higher in elderly patients than in younger patients? 
With an increase in life expectancy, very elderly patients are presenting with gastric cancer more commonly than ever. The present study retrospectively analyzed the surgical outcomes of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy for gastric cancer in the young, elderly, and very elderly age groups.
The study group consisted of 1,055 patients who underwent laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy between February 2002 and December 2012. We divided these patients into three groups; group 1 (young age, <65 years), group 2 (elderly age, 65–74 years), and group 3 (very elderly age, ≥75 years).
There were statistical differences in the rates of postoperative complications among the three groups (P = 0.008). However, when assessed according to the severity of postoperative complications based on the Clavien-Dindo classification, there was no statistical difference among the three groups (P = 0.562).
Laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy for gastric cancer can be performed in very elderly patients. In analyzing studies of elderly patients with postoperative complications following the procedure, not only should the rate of postoperative complications be taken into consideration, but also the severity of any postoperative complications.
PMCID: PMC3990240  PMID: 24736010
Age; Gastrectomy; Laparoscopy; Postoperative complication
5.  Management of giant hepatic cysts in the laparoscopic era 
We sought to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts and surgical success, focusing on cyst recurrence.
From February 2004 to August 2011, 37 consecutive patients with symptomatic hepatic cysts were evaluated and treated at Dong-A University Hospital. Indications were simple cysts (n = 20), multiple cysts (n = 6), polycystic disease (n = 2), and cystadenoma (n = 9).
The median patient age was 64 years, with a mean lesion diameter of 11.4 cm. The coincidence between preoperative imaging and final pathologic diagnosis was 54% and half (n = 19) of the cysts were located in segments VII and VIII. Twenty-two patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification I and II, and nine had ASA classification III. Surgical treatment of hepatic cysts were open liver resection (n = 3), laparoscopic deroofing (n = 24), laparoscopic cyst excision (n = 4), laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (n = 2), hand assisted laparoscopic procedure (n = 2), and single port laparoscopic deroofing (n = 2). The mean fellow-up was 21 months, and six patients (16%) experienced radiographic-apparent recurrence. Reoperation due to recurrence was performed in two patients. Among the factors predicting recurrence, multivariate analysis revealed that interventional radiological procedures and pathologic diagnosis were statistically significant.
Laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts is a simple and effective method to relieve symptoms with minimal surgical trauma. Moreover, the recurrence is dependent on the type of pathology involved, and the sclerotherapy undertaken.
PMCID: PMC3764362  PMID: 24020020
Liver; Hepatic cyst; Laparoscopy
6.  Risk factors associated with delayed gastric emptying after subtotal gastrectomy with Billroth-I anastomosis using circular stapler for early gastric cancer patients 
Gastric surgery may potentiate delayed gastric emptying. Billroth I gastroduodenostomy using a circular stapler is the most preferable reconstruction method. The purpose of this study is to analyze the risk factors associated with delayed gastric emptying after radical subtotal gastrectomy with Billroth I anastomosis using a stapler for early gastric cancer.
Three hundred and seventy-eight patients who underwent circular stapled Billroth I gastroduodenostomy after subtotal gastrectomy due to early gastric cancer were analyzed retrospectively. One hundred and eighty-two patients had Billroth I anastomosis using a 25 mm diameter circular stapler, and 196 patients had anastomosis with a 28 or 29 mm diameter circular stapler. Clinicopathological features and postoperative outcomes were evaluated and compared between the two groups. Delayed gastric emptying was diagnosed by symptoms and simple abdomen X-ray with or without upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy.
Postoperative delayed gastric emptying was found in 12 (3.2%) of the 378 patients. Among all the variables, distal margin and circular stapler diameter were significantly different between the cases with delayed gastric emptying and no delayed gastric emptying. There were statistically significant differences in sex, body mass index, comorbidity, complication, and operation type according to circular stapler diameter. In both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, only the stapler diameter was found to be a significant factor affecting delayed gastric emptying (P = 0.040).
In this study, the circular stapler diameter was one of the most significant predictable factors of delayed gastric emptying for Billroth I gastroduodenostomy. The use of a 28 or 29 mm diameter circular stapler rather than a 25 mm diameter stapler in stapled gastroduodenostomy for early gastric cancer can reduce postoperative delayed gastric emptying associated with anastomosic stenosis or edema with relative safety.
PMCID: PMC3491229  PMID: 23166886
Gastric emptying; Gastrectomy; Billroth-I; Gastric neoplasms
7.  Long term survival results for gastric GIST: is laparoscopic surgery for large gastric GIST feasible? 
Recently, laparoscopic resection for relatively small sized gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has been widely accepted as minimally invasive surgery. However, no report on the long-term safety and efficacy of this surgery for large sized gastric GISTs has been published to date.
Between July 1998 and January 2011, 104 consecutive patients who underwent resection for gastric GISTs were enrolled in this retrospective study. We assessed the clinicopathological characteristics, postoperative outcomes, patient survival, and tumor recurrence.
Of the 104 patients with gastric GISTs who were included in the study, there were 47 males and 57 females whose mean age was 59.8 years. Sixty-four patients (61.5%) had symptoms associated with tumor. Ten patients included in the group 1, 49 in the group 2, 15 in the group 3a, 9 in the group 5, 14 in the group 6a, and 7 in the group 6b. There was one minor complication and no mortalities. Recurrence was noted in 5 patients, with a median follow-up period of 49.3 months (range, 8.4 to 164.4). The 5-year overall and disease free survival rates of 104 patients were 98.6% and 94.8%, respectively. When comparing large tumor (5–10 cm) between laparoscopic and open surgery, there were statistically differences in age, tumor size, tumor location, and length of hospitalization. There were no statistical differences in the 5-year survival rate between laparoscopic and open surgery for large tumor (5-10cm).
Laparoscopic surgery is feasible and effective as an oncologic treatment of gastric GISTs. Moreover, laparoscopic surgery can be an acceptable alternative to open methods for gastric GISTs of size bigger than 5 cm.
PMCID: PMC3517899  PMID: 23114111
Stomach; GIST; Laparoscopy; Survival
8.  Prognostic factors for gallbladder cancer in the laparoscopy era 
Hepatobiliary surgery has changed dramatically in recent decades with the advent of laparoscopic techniques. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare survival rates according to stages, adjusting for important prognostic factors.
A retrospective study of a 17-year period from January 1994 to April 2011 was carried out. The cases studied were divided into two time period cohorts, those treated in the first 9-years (n = 109) and those treated in the last 7-years (n = 109).
An operation with curative intent was performed on 218 patients. The 5-year survival rates according to the depth of invasion were 86% (T1), 56% (T2), 45% (T3), and 5% (T4). The number of cases of incidental gallbladder cancer found during 3,919 laparoscopic cholecystectomies was 96 (2.4%). Incidental gallbladder cancer revealed a better survival rate (P = 0.003). Iatrogenic bile spillage was found in 20 perforations of the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomies, 16 preoperative percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainages and 16 percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainages; only percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage patients showed a significantly lower survival rate than patients without iatrogenic bile spillage (P < 0.034). Chemoradiation appeared to improve overall survival (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis also revealed that time period, type of surgery, surgical margin, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node involvement, and chemoradiation therapy had significant effects.
This study found that the prognosis of gallbladder cancer is still determined by the stage at presentation due to the aggressive biology of this tumor. Early diagnosis, radical resection and appropriate adjuvant therapy can increase overall survival.
PMCID: PMC3467389  PMID: 23091795
Gallbladder cancer; Laparoscopy; Prognosis
9.  Comparative Study of Laparoscopy-Assisted versus Open Subtotal Gastrectomy for pT2 Gastric Cancer 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(5):952-959.
Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) is a widely accepted surgery for early gastric cancer. However, its use in advanced gastric cancer has rarely been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility and survival outcomes of LADG for pT2 gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods
Between January 2004 and December 2009, we evaluated 67 and 52 patients who underwent open distal gastrectomy (ODG) and LADG, respectively, with diagnosis of pT2 gastric cancer. The clinicopathological characteristics, postoperative outcomes, and survival were retrospectively compared between the two groups.
There were statistically significant differences in the proximal margin of the clinicopathological parameters. The operation time was significantly longer in LADG than in ODG (207.7 vs. 159.9 minutes). There were 6 (9.0%) and 5 (9.6%) complications in ODG and LADG, respectively. During follow-up periods, tumor recurrence occurred in 7 (10.4%) patients of the ODG and in 4 (7.7%) patients of the LADG group. The 5-year survival rate of ODG and LADG was 88.6% and 91.3% (p=0.613), respectively. In view of lymph node involvement, 5-year survival rates were 96.0% in ODG versus 97.0% in LADG for patients with negative nodal metastasis (p=0.968) and 80.9% in ODG versus 78.7% in LADG for those with positive nodal metastasis (p=0.868).
Although prospective study is necessary to compare LADG with open gastrectomy for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer, laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy might be considered as an alternative treatment for some pT2 gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC3423848  PMID: 22869478
Laparoscopy; pT2 gastric cancer; subtotal gastrectomy
10.  Comparative Study of Hand-Sutured versus Circular Stapled Anastomosis for Gastrojejunostomy in Laparoscopy Assisted Distal Gastrectomy 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2012;12(2):120-125.
Mechanical stapler is regarded as a good alternative to the hand sewing technique, when used in gastric reconstruction. The circular stapling method has been widely applied to gastrectomy (open orlaparoscopic), for gastric cancer. We illustrated and compared the hand-sutured method to the circular stapling method, for Billroth-II, in patients who underwent laparoscopy assisted distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods
Between April 2009 and May 2011, 60 patients who underwent laparoscopy assisted distal gastrectomy, with Billroth-II, were enrolled. Hand-sutured Billroth-II was performed in 40 patients (manual group) and circular stapler Billroth-II was performed in 20 patients (stapler group). Clinicopathological features and post-operative outcomes were evaluated and compared between the two groups.
Nosignificant differences were observed in clinicopathologic parameters and post-operative outcomes, except in the operation times. Operation times and anastomosis times were significantly shorter in the stapler group (P=0.004 and P<0.001).
Compared to the hand-sutured method, the circular stapling method can be applied safely and more efficiently, when performing Billroth-II anastomosis, after laparoscopy assisted distal gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC3392323  PMID: 22792525
Laparoscopy; Gastric cancer; Billroth-II; Staple
11.  Review of 100 cases of single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy 
Single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) is a new advanced technique in laparoscopic surgery. Many laparoscopic surgeons seek to gain skill in this new technique. However, little data has been accumulated and published formally yet. This article reports the achievement of 100 cases of SPLC with the hopes it will encourage laparoscopic surgery centers in the early adoption of SPLC.
A retrospective review of 100 prospectively selected cases of SPLC was carried out. All patients had received elective SPLC by a single surgeon in our center from May 2009 to December 2010. Our review suggests patients' character, perioperative data and postoperative outcomes.
Forty-two men and 58 women with an average age of 45.8 years had received SPLC. Their mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.85 kg/m2. The mean operating time took 76.75 minutes. However, operating time was decreased according to the increase of experience of SPLC cases. Twenty-one cases were converted to multi-port surgery. BMI, age, previous low abdominal surgical history did not seem to affect conversion to multi-port surgery. No cases were converted to open surgery. Mean duration of hospital stay was 2.18 days. Six patients had experienced complications from which they had recovered after conservative treatment.
SPLC is a safe and practicable technique. The operating time is moderate and can be reduced with the surgeon's experience. At first, strict criteria was indicated for SPLC, however, with surgical experience, the criteria and area of SPLC can be broadened. SPLC is occupying a greater domain of conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
PMCID: PMC3294112  PMID: 22403752
Single port surgery; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
12.  Long-Term Outcomes and Feasibility with Laparoscopy-Assisted Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2012;12(1):18-25.
Recently, laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) has been widely accepted modality for early gastric cancer in Korea. The indication of LAG may be extended in an experienced institution. In our institution, the first case of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) for gastric cancer was performed in May 1998. We retrospectively reviewed the long-term oncologic outcomes over 12 years to clarify the feasibility of LAG for gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods
The authors retrospectively analyzed 753 patients who underwent LAG for gastric cancer, from May 1998 to August 2010. We reviewed clinicopathological features, postoperative outcomes, mortality and morbidity, recurrence, and survival of LAG for gastric cancer.
During the time period, 3,039 operations for gastric cancer were performed. Among them, 753 cases were done by LAG (24.8%). There were 69 cases of total gastrectomy, 682 subtotal gastrectomies, and 2 proximal gastrectomies. According to TNM stage, 8 patients were in stage 0, 619 in stage I, 88 in stage II, and 38 in stage III. The operation-related complications occurred in 77 cases (10.2%). Median follow-up period was 56.2 months (range 0.7~165.6 months). Twenty-five patients (3.3%) developed recurrence, during the follow-up period. The overall 5-year and disease free survival rates were 97.1% and 96.3%, respectively.
The number of postoperative complications and survival rates of our series were comparable to the results from that of other reports. The authors consider LAG to be a feasible alternative for the treatment of early gastric cancer. However, rationale for laparoscopic surgery in advanced gastric cancer has yet to be determined.
PMCID: PMC3319795  PMID: 22500260
Laparoscopy; Gastric cancer; Survival
13.  Comparative Study of Complete and Partial Omentectomy in Radical Subtotal Gastrectomy for Early Gastric Cancer 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;52(6):961-966.
Curative surgery for patients with advanced or even early gastric cancer can be defined as resection of the stomach and dissection of the first and second level lymph nodes, including the greater omentum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long- term outcomes of partial omentectomy (PO) as compared with complete omentectomy (CO).
Materials and Methods
Seventeen consecutive open distal gastrectomies with POs were initially performed between February and July in 2006. The patients' clinicopathologic data and post-operative outcomes were retrospectively compared with 20 patients who underwent open distal gastrectomies with COs for early gastric cancer in 2005.
The operation time in PO group was significantly shorter than that in CO group (142.4 minutes vs. 165.0 minutes, p=0.018). The serum albumin concentration on the first post-operative day in PO group was significantly higher than CO group (3.8 g/dL vs. 3.5 g/dL, p=0.018). Three postoperative minor complications were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Median follow-up period between PO and CO was 38.1 and 37.7 months. All patients were alive without recurrence until December 30, 2009.
PO during open radical distal gastrectomy can be considered a more useful procedure than CO for treating early gastric cancer. To document the long-term technical and oncologic safety of this procedure, a large-scale prospective randomized trial will be needed.
PMCID: PMC3220242  PMID: 22028160
Partial omentectomy; gastric cancer; post-operative outcome; comparative study
14.  Laparoscopic splenectomy for sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;80(Suppl 1):S59-S62.
Primary splenic tumors are rare and mainly found incidentally on radiologic studies. Among them, sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen is a new entity defined as a benign pathologic lesion. Most SANTs have no clinical symptoms and are occasionally accompanied by other splenic diseases such as malignancies. So, the exact diagnosis of the nature of the splenic tumor is mandatory for further treatment. But, preoperative diagnosis is not easy since it is difficult to obtain the tissue from the spleen for pathological study. Recently, laparoscopic splenectomy has become the more standard procedure for the spleen for diagnosis and treatment. Here, we report a rare case of SANT diagnosed following laparoscopic splenectomy.
PMCID: PMC3205371  PMID: 22066086
Laparoscopic splenectomy; Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation
15.  Lessons learned from 100 initial cases of laparoscopic liver surgery 
Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is now widely accepted and is being increasingly performed. The present study describes our experience with LLR at a single center over an eight-year period.
This retrospective study enrolled 100 patients between October 2002 and February 2010. Forty-six benign lesions and 54 malignant lesions were included. The LLR performed included 58 pure laparoscopy procedures, 18 hand-assisted laparoscopy procedures and 24 hybrid technique procedures.
The mean age of the patients was 57 years; among these patients, 31 were over 65 years of age. The mean operation time was 220 minutes. The overall morbidity was 11% and the mortality was zero. Among the 20 patients with simple hepatic cysts, 50% unexpectedly recurred. Among the 41 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 21 patients (51%) underwent preoperative radiofrequency ablation therapy or transarterial chemoembolization. During parenchymal-transection, 11 received blood transfusion. The width of the resection margins was under 0.5 cm in 11 cases (27%); 0.5 to 1 cm in 22 cases (54%) and over 1 cm in eight cases (12%). There was no port site seeding, but argon beam coagulation-induced tumor dissemination was observed in two cases. The overall two-year survival rate was 75%.
This study suggests that the applications for LLR can be gradually expanded when assuring that the safety and curability of LLR are equivalent to that of open liver resection.
PMCID: PMC3204701  PMID: 22066057
Laparoscopic liver resection; Hepatic cyst; Hapatocellular carcinoma; Resection margin
16.  Traumatic Abdominal Wall Hernia (TAWH): A Case Study Highlighting Surgical Management 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(3):549-553.
We report a rare case of traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) caused by a traffic accident. A 47-year-old woman presented to the emergency room soon after a traffic accident. She complained of diffuse, dull abdominal pain and mild nausea. She had no history of prior abdominal surgery or hernia. We found a bulging mass on her right abdomen. Plain abdominal films demonstrated a protrusion of hollow viscus beyond the right paracolic fat plane. Computed tomography (CT) showed intestinal herniation through an abdominal wall defect into the subcutaneous space. She underwent an exploratory surgery, followed by a layer-by-layer interrupted closure of the wall defect using absorbable monofilament sutures without mesh and with no tension, despite the large size of the defect. Her postoperative course was uneventful.
PMCID: PMC2628097  PMID: 17594168
Traumatic abdominal wall hernia; primary closure

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