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1.  Internal Iliac Artery Embolization during an Endovascular Aneurysm Repair with Detachable Interlock Microcoils 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(5):613-621.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of detachable interlock microcoils for an embolization of the internal iliac artery during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR).
Materials and Methods
A retrospective review was conducted on 40 patients with aortic aneurysms, who had undergone an EVAR between January 2010 and March 2012. Among them, 16 patients were referred for embolization of the internal iliac artery for the prevention of type II endoleaks. Among 16 patients, 13 patients underwent embolization using detachable interlock microcoils during an EVAR. Computed tomographic angiographies and clinical examinations were performed during the follow-up period. Technical success, clinical outcome, and complications were reviewed.
Results
Internal iliac artery embolizations using detachable interlock microcoils were technically successful in all 13 patients, with no occurrence of procedure-related complications. Follow-up imaging was accomplished in the 13 cases. In all cases, type II endoleak was not observed with computed tomographic angiography during the median follow-up of 3 months (range, 1-27 months) and the median clinical follow-up of 12 months (range, 1-27 months). Two of 13 (15%) patients had symptoms of buttock pain, and one patient died due to underlying stomach cancer. No significant clinical symptoms such as bowel ischemia were observed.
Conclusion
Internal iliac artery embolization during an EVAR using detachable interlock microcoils to prevent type II endoleaks appears safe and effective, although this should be further proven in a larger population.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2014.15.5.613
PMCID: PMC4170162  PMID: 25246822
Detachable interlock microcoil; Endovascular aneurysm repair; Internal iliac artery embolization
2.  Repair of type I endoleak by chimney technique after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair 
Endovascular aneurysm repair is a minimally invasive, durable and effective alternative to open surgery for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). However, in patients who do not have an adequate sealing zone, open surgical repair is required, which may increase mortality and morbidity. An alternative treatment in patients with challenging anatomy is the so-called "chimney graft" technique. Here, we describe a case using the chimney graft technique for treatment of juxtarenal type I endoleak followed by a previous conventional stent graft insertion to the AAA with good results.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.5.274
PMCID: PMC4024936  PMID: 24851230
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endoluminal repair; Endoleaks; Chimney graft technique
3.  Survival outcome of patients with spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma treated surgically or by transarterial embolization 
AIM: To evaluate clinical outcomes of patients that underwent surgery, transarterial embolization (TAE), or supportive care for spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: A consecutive 54 patients who diagnosed as spontaneously ruptured HCC at our institution between 2003 and 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. HCC was diagnosed based on the diagnostic guidelines issued by the 2005 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. HCC rupture was defined as disruption of the peritumoral liver capsule with enhanced fluid collection in the perihepatic area adjacent to the HCC by dynamic liver computed tomography, and when abdominal paracentesis showed an ascitic red blood cell count of > 50000 mm3/mL in bloody fluid.
RESULTS: Of the 54 patients, 6 (11.1%) underwent surgery, 25 (46.3%) TAE, and 23 (42.6%) supportive care. The 2-, 4- and 6-mo cumulative survival rates at 2, 4 and 6 mo were significantly higher in the surgery (60%, 60% and 60%) or TAE (36%, 20% and 20%) groups than in the supportive care group (8.7%, 0% and 0%), respectively (each, P < 0.01), and tended to be higher in the surgical group than in the TAE group. Multivariate analysis showed that serum bilirubin (HR = 1.09, P < 0.01), creatinine (HR = 1.46, P = 0.04), and vasopressor requirement (HR = 2.37, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with post-treatment mortality, whereas surgery (HR = 0.41, P < 0.01), and TAE (HR = 0.13, P = 0.01) were inversely associated with post-treatment mortality.
CONCLUSION: Post-treatment survival after surgery or TAE was found to be better than after supportive care, and surgery tended to provide better survival benefit than TAE.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i28.4537
PMCID: PMC3725379  PMID: 23901230
Ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma; Surgery; Transarterial embolization
4.  Successful hybrid operation of an acute mobile thrombus in the abdominal aorta induced by chemotherapy 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;81(Suppl 1):S78-S81.
Acute mobile thrombus of the abdominal aorta after chemotherapy is a very unusual finding, which can be a potential source of arterial embolism. We report here on a case of an acute mobile aortic thrombus with renal infarction. We successfully treated the patient with hybrid operation-open surgical and endovascular approach. Our case shows that hybrid treatment using wire-directed balloon catheter thrombectomy is a feasible, minimally-invasive treatment for a mobile aortic thrombus.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.Suppl1.S78
PMCID: PMC3267073  PMID: 22319746
Abdominal; Angioplasty; Aorta; Thrombectomy; Thrombosis
5.  Does the bile duct angulation affect recurrence of choledocholithiasis? 
AIM: To investigate whether bile duct angulation and T-tube choledochostomy influence the recurrence of choledocholithiasis.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study inclu-ding 259 patients who underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy and cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis between 2000 and 2007. The imaginary line was drawn along the center of the bile duct and each internal angle was measured at the two angulation sites of the bile duct respectively. The values of both angles were added together. We then tested our hypothesis by examining whether T-tube choledochostomy was performed and stone recurrence occurred by reviewing each subject’s medical records.
RESULTS: The overall recurrence rate was 9.3% (24 of 259 patients). The mean value of sums of angles in the recurrence group was 268.3° ± 29.6°, while that in the non-recurrence group was 314.8° ± 19.9° (P < 0.05). Recurrence rate of the T-tube group was 15.9% (17 of 107), while that of the non T-tube group was 4.6% (7 of 152) (P < 0.05). Mean value of sums of angles after T-tube drainage was 262.5° ± 24.6° and that before T-tube drainage was 298.0° ± 23.9° in 22 patients (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The bile duct angulation and T-tube choledochostomy may be risk factors of recurrence of bile duct stones.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i36.4118
PMCID: PMC3203364  PMID: 22039327
Choledocholithiasis; Common bile duct; Cholecystectomy; Recurrence; Endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography
6.  Spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt managed by laparoscopic hepatic vein closure 
Journal of Minimal Access Surgery  2014;10(4):207-209.
Intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IPSS) is uncommon and usually follows trauma or iatrogenic injury, but spontaneous shunts may also occur, in patients without the evidence of chronic liver disease. Although interventional endovascular management of the shunts is the treatment of choice, a surgical approach can be used when the percutaneous approach fails. We report here a case of symptomatic spontaneous IPSS between the posteroinferior branch of right portal vein and the right inferior hepatic vein, which was successfully managed with laparoscopic closure of the hepatic vein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of laparoscopic management of spontaneous IPSS.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.141528
PMCID: PMC4204266  PMID: 25336823
Hepatic vein; intrahepatic; laparoscopy; portosystemic shunt; spontaneous
7.  Mechanical thrombectomy-assisted thrombolysis for acute symptomatic portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis 
Acute portal vein and mesenteric vein thrombosis (PVMVT) can cause acute mesenteric ischemia and be fatal with mortality rate of 37%-76%. Therefore, early diagnosis and prompt venous revascularization are warranted in patients with acute symptomatic PVMVT. Due to advances in catheter-directed treatment, endovascular treatment has been used for revascularization of affected vessels in PVMVT. We report two cases of symptomatic PVMVT treated successfully by transhepatic percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy-assisted thrombolysis.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.6.334
PMCID: PMC4062453  PMID: 24949327
Venous thrombosis; Endovascular procedures; Mesenteric veins; Portal vein; Ischemia
8.  Relining technique for continuous sac enlargement and modular disconnection secondary to endotension after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair 
Endotension is an unpredictable late complication of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). This case report will discuss the successful treatment of enlarged aneurysmal sac due to endotension using the relining technique. An 81-year-old male complained of nondecreasing huge aneurysm sac. He had undergone EVAR for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm 7 years prior and no endoleak was found through follow-up. Initially computed tomography-guided sac aspiration was tried, but in vain, Relining using the double barrel technique and tubular endograft for modular diconnection, which was unexpectedly found in the original endograft, were performed sucessfully. During follow-up after the relining procedure, the size of aneurysm sac continued to decrease in size. The relining technique is effective mothod for treating endotension.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.3.161
PMCID: PMC3994625  PMID: 24761425
Aortic aneurysm; Endovascular procedures; Endoleak; Complication
9.  pH-Sensitive Polymeric Micelle-based pH Probe for Detecting and Imaging Acidic Biological Environments 
Biomacromolecules  2012;13(9):2945-2951.
To overcome the limitations of monomeric pH probes for acidic tumor environments, this study designed a mixed micelle pH probe composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-b- poly(L-histidine) (PHis) and PEG-b-poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), which is well-known as an effective antitumor drug carrier. Unlike monomeric histidine and PHis derivatives, the mixed micelles can be structurally destabilized by changes in pH, leading to a better pH sensing system in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The acidic pH-induced transformation of the mixed micelles allowed pH detection and pH mapping of 0.2–0.3 pH unit differences by pH-induced “on/off”-like sensing of NMR and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The micellar pH probes sensed pH differences in non-biological phosphate buffer and biological buffers such as cell culture medium and rat whole blood. In addition, the pH-sensing ability of the mixed micelles was not compromised by loaded doxorubicin. In conclusion, PHis-based micelles could have potential as a tool to simultaneously treat and map the pH of solid tumors in vivo.
doi:10.1021/bm300985r
PMCID: PMC3438342  PMID: 22861824
pH imaging; poly(L-histidine); micelle pH probe; NMR; MRS
10.  Primary Osteosarcoma Arising from the Middle Turbinate in a Pediatric Patient 
Osteosarcomas usually occur as secondary tumors after radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Without a history of irradiation to the head and neck area, primary osteosarcoma of the turbinate is extremely rare. We report here a rare case of primary turbinate osteosarcoma presenting as a relatively small, well-circumscribed, turbinate mass. Its appearance mimicked a benign nasal mass like mucocele and polyp. We also reviewed the previously reported cases of tumor arising from turbinate.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2012.5.4.237
PMCID: PMC3506777  PMID: 23205231
Osteosarcoma; Turbinate; Primary
11.  Stent fractures after superficial femoral artery stenting 
Stent fracture is one of the major factors compromising implanted stent patency due to its consequences including in-stent restenosis, thrombosis, perforation, and migration. Stent fracture can occur from stress (extrinsic or intrinsic) and biomechanical forces at different implantation sites. We report on 2 cases of stent fractures and pertinent literature. One patient, a 75-year-old male, presented with recurrence of claudication 14 months after superficial femoral artery stenting; a femoral artery occlusion with stent fracture was found, and he underwent femoropopliteal bypass. The other patient, a 72-year-old male presented with recurrence of claudication; a stent fracture was found without femoral artery occlusion, and he was treated with additional femoral artery stenting to secure the fracture site.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.3.183
PMCID: PMC3433557  PMID: 22977767
Stents; Vascular patency; Femoral artery; Early intervention
12.  Successful treatment of type I endoleak of common iliac artery with balloon expandable stent (Palmaz XL stent) during endovascular aneurysm repair 
Type 1 endoleak of common iliac artery (type Ib endoleak) should be treated during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). An 86-year-old female was diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysm measuring 6.6 cm in diameter and right internal iliac artery aneurysm measuring 4.0 cm in diameter. She underwent EVAR after right internal iliac artery embolization. There was type Ib endoleak, which was repaired by balloon-expandable stent, Palmaz XL stent (Cordis). We report successful treatment of type Ib endoleak with Palmaz XL stent, which may be considered as an alternative option for type Ib endoleak after EVAR.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.1.59
PMCID: PMC3268146  PMID: 22324049
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endovascular procedure; Endoleak
13.  Ectopic Hidradenoma Papilliferum of the Breast: Ultrasound Finding 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2011;14(2):153-155.
Hidradenoma papilliferum (HP) is a benign neoplasm arising from mammary-like glands which typically involves the dermal layer of the female anogenital area. The prognosis for HP is good. Recurrence is unusual and is typically attributed to incomplete excision of the primary tumor. Malignant transformation is rare and HP of the breast has not yet been reported. Ectopic HP is usually solitary, small, and asymptomatic. It appears as a well-circumscribed, complex cystic mass in the dermis on ultrasound. We present a case of HP arising from the axillary tail of the breast.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2011.14.2.153
PMCID: PMC3148539  PMID: 21847412
Breast; Benign neoplasms; Hidradenoma
14.  Pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery mimicking tumorous condition 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;80(Suppl 1):S71-S74.
Diagnosing pseudoaneurysms of the popliteal artery is usually straightforward in physical examinations and imaging findings. However, when a pseudoaneurysm shows a soft tissue mass with adjacent osseous change, it can mimic a bone tumor or a soft tissue sarcoma. We present a case of a 65-year-old man who had a pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery showing soft tissue mass and insinuating into the intramedullary cavity of the tibia. This presented case emphasizes the importance of considering pseudoaneurysms in the differential diagnosis of an apparent soft tissue mass with pressure erosion in adjacent bone.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.Suppl1.S71
PMCID: PMC3205379  PMID: 22066090
Pseudoaneurysm; Popliteal artery; Tumor
15.  Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis with Conventional Aspiration Thrombectomy for Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(2):197-201.
Purpose
The purpose of this study is to evaluate treatment outcomes in patients with symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) who had undergone a catheter-directed thrombolysis with conventional aspiration thrombectomy for the treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis.
Materials and Methods
The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 74 patients (mean age 61 ± 15) that underwent a catheter-directed thrombolysis with conventional aspiration thrombectomy. A retrieval inferior vena cava (IVC) filter was placed to protect against a pulmonary embolism in 60 patients (81%). Stenting and balloon angioplasty were performed in 37 patients (50%) under the left common iliac vein compression.
Results
Sixty-seven patients (91%) showed a clinical improvement within 48 hours, but seven patients (9%) showed no improvement. Multi detector computerized tomographic venography (MDCT venography) at discharge showed no thrombus in 15 patients (20%) and partial thrombus in 52 (70%). Twenty-eight patients (38%) developed post-thrombotic syndrome at 3.0 ± 4.2 months postoperatively. Six patients (8%) were admitted due to DVT recurrence at a mean of 5.6 ± 7.4 months postoperatively. Sixty-nine patients underwent follow up MDCT venography at 5.7 ± 5.6 months. fifty (72%) of these showed no thrombus, 15 (22%) partial thrombus, and 4 (6%) showed obstruction. Twentyeight of 61 (46%) were asymptomatic, twentyeight (46%) had moderate improvement, and four (6%) were mildly improved by a telephone interview (81%) at 22.8 ± 10.7 months postoperatively.
Conclusion
Catheter-directed thrombolysis with conventional aspiration thrombectomy is an effective treatment for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis and produces satisfactory clinical results.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.2.197
PMCID: PMC2824863  PMID: 20191009
Thrombolysis; thrombectomy; deep vein thrombosis; catheter
16.  Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Caused by Encircling Soft Tissue 
Superior vena cava syndrome can occur from benign conditions that might not alter life expectancy. Here we present a case of a superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction caused by soft tissue encircling the SVC, which was strongly suspected of being an unusual focal type of fibrosing mediastinitis. A 39-year-old man with no prior medical history presented with a four-week history of facial plethora, headache and dilated veins of the neck with a dark purple color change on the anterior chest wall. Radiology examinations, including venography, and computed tomography with a 3-dimensional volume-rendering image of the chest, had revealed severe narrowing of the SVC due to tiny encircling soft tissue and collateral vessels. A total occlusion of the SVC occurred as a result of a thrombus that developed within 1 day after the diagnostic SVC angiogram. The patient underwent stent deployment three days after the administration of thrombolytic therapy.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2007.22.2.118
PMCID: PMC2687620  PMID: 17616029
Superior vena cava syndrome; Stent

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