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1.  Age and prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma: retrospective stratification into three groups 
Purpose
We investigated the prognosis according to age in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients.
Methods
We retrospectively evaluated 2,890 patients who underwent thyroidectomy due to PTC between May 2004 and Aug 2008. We divided patients into 3 groups: young (≤35 years old), middle (between 35 and 54 years old), and old (≥55 years old).
Results
Median age was 47.0 years old (range, 15 to 82 years). Within a follow-up period median of 50 months, there were 148 (5.1%) locoregional recurrences, 6 (0.2%) PTC-related deaths, and 18 (0.6%) PTC-unrelated deaths. Outcomes were more favorable in the young group, with no PTC-related death despite the frequent locoregional recurrence. In the old group compared to the middle, there was a higher proportion of male, and more aggressive types as T3 or N1b, higher mean tumor number, more multiplicity, and bilaterality. The old group of ≥55 years did not show a significant difference in PTC-related deaths than other age groups in Cox analysis (OR, 0.9; P = 0.677), but a significant cutoff age in PTC-related deaths at 62.5 years was determined in ROC analysis (area under curve = 0.912).
Conclusion
We showed that the ≤35 years group shows favorable prognosis despite the frequent locoregional recurrence and ≥62.5 years group shows a poor prognosis regardless of other factors such as male sex or tumor aggressiveness. Further multiinstitutional studies are needed to elucidate the prognosis according to patient's age.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.5.259
PMCID: PMC3491227  PMID: 23166884
Age; Prognosis; Papillary thyroid carcinoma
2.  Observational study of central metastases following thyroid lobectomy without a completion thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma 
Purpose
There are no guidelines for the optimal timing of the decision of when to perform completion thyroidectomy, and controversy exists regarding how the timing of completion thyroidectomy impacts survival patterns. We investigated the legitimacy of an observational strategy in central node metastasis after thyroid lobectomy for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
Methods
We retrospectively evaluated 522 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy. Of the 69 patients with central metastasis, 61 patients (88.4%) were included in an observational study under cautious evaluation with informed consent by the patients, and compared with an observation arm of 180 postlobectomy N0 (node negative proven) patients.
Results
Of the 522 patients, six (1.1%) thyroid, five (0.9%) central, and two (0.4%) lateral recurrences were observed. Lateral recurrences occurred in the immediate completion N0 and Nx groups but not in the N1a observation arms. There were two (3.3%) central recurrences without thyroid or lateral recurrence on the observation arm of N1a observation patients. But two (1.1%) thyroid and three (1.7%) central recurrences were on the observation arm of N0 patients. In Kaplan-Meier survival curves for central or lateral recurrences between observation arms for the N1a and N0 groups, no significant difference was found between the N1a and N0 observation arms (P = 0.365).
Conclusion
The timing of when to perform completion thyroidectomy in central metastases-proven patients after lobectomy for PTC should be based on the patient's risk category.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.4.196
PMCID: PMC3467385  PMID: 23091791
Observation; Lymphatic metastasis; Thyroid neoplasms; Thyroidectomy
4.  Is it possible to predict hypothyroidism after thyroid lobectomy through thyrotropin, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroglobulin, and anti-microsomal antibody? 
Purpose
We investigated the incidence and risk factors of hypothyroidism after thyroid lobectomy, and evaluated the possibility to predict hypothyroidism preoperatively with serologic markers, such as thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), anti-thyroglobulin (ATA), and anti-microsomal antibody (AMA).
Methods
We enrolled 123 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy due to benign conditions between May 2004 and April 2008. Only preoperative euthyroid patients were included. Patients were divided into two groups by postoperative thyroid function outcomes, into hypothyroid (n = 97) and euthyroid groups (n = 26), and analyzed specially for the preoperative levels of TSH, TG, ATA, and AMA.
Results
Twenty-six (21.1%) patients developed hypothyroidism following thyroid lobectomy within 35.7 months of follow-up. The proportion of post-lobectomy hypothyroidism was high in patients with high-normal preoperative TSH level, and the cut-off value was 2.0 mIU/L, with 67% sensitivity and 75% specificity. The quantitative titer of preoperative TG, ATA, and AMA was not significant, but the outcome of categorical analysis of two or more positivities on these three markers was significantly higher in hypothyroid patients than in euthyroid patients (28.6% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.024). The combined positivity of preoperative TSH and two or more positivities of TG, ATA, and AMA possess 100% positive predictive value and 81% negative predictive value.
Conclusion
The incidence of hypothyroidism following thyroid lobectomy was 21.1%. High-normal preoperative TSH and two or more positivities for TG, ATA, and AMA are good pre-operative predictive markers. Such high-risk patients need close TSH monitoring before the onset of clinical hypothyroidism.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.380
PMCID: PMC3243854  PMID: 22200038
Hypothyroidism; Thyrotropin; Thyroglobulin; Thyroid microsomal antibodies
5.  Primary papillary carcinoma originated from a branchial cleft cyst 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;81(Suppl 1):S12-S16.
Although branchial cleft cysts are common, papillary carcinomas arising from them are rare. Here we report a 41-year-old woman with papillary carcinoma originating from a right lateral branchial cleft cyst without any evidence of a papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland. The patient underwent right lateral neck dissection followed by total thyroidectomy. We then confirmed papillary carcinoma arising from the branchial cleft cyst through microscopic and immunohistochemical staining with thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid-associated transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and p63. It is the 10th case worldwide describing papillary carcinoma in a branchial cleft cyst with a review of the literature on the features of the disease and discussion of the role of immunohistochemical staining with TG, TTF -1 and p63. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that the surgeon must be cautioned of the possibility of primary papillary carcinoma in the branchial cleft cyst.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.Suppl1.S12
PMCID: PMC3267057  PMID: 22319730
Branchioma; Thyroid neoplasms; Papillary carcinoma
6.  Analysis of Infections Occurring in Breast Cancer Patients after Breast Conserving Surgery Using Mesh 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2011;14(4):328-332.
Purpose
Breast conserving surgery using mesh can effectively fill the defective space, but there is the risk of infection.
Methods
From June 2007 to August 2010, 243 patients who underwent breast conserving surgery with polyglactin 910 mesh insert for breast cancer at our institution were retrospectively studied.
Results
Infection occurred in 25 (10.3%) of 243 patients. When comparing the infection and non-infection groups in multivariate analysis, there was no significant difference in age, underlying disease, preoperative biopsy methods, mass location, axillary lymph node dissection, operative methods, neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy use, mass size and removed breast volume. The infection appeared more common only in patients with body mass index (BMI) greater than 25. Infection symptoms occurred, on average, 119.5 days after surgery, and the average duration of the required treatment was 34.4 days. Out of 25 patients with postoperative infection complications, 16 (64%) patients underwent incision and drainage with mesh removal, whereas the remaining 9 (36%) only required conservative treatment.
Conclusion
During breast conserving surgery, the risk of infection is increased in patients with high BMI, and should be taken into account when considering insertion of a polyglactin 910 mesh. Patient's age, underlying disease and perioperative treatment methods were not significant risk factors for developing mesh infection. Given that most infections seem to develop symptoms one month after surgery, a long enough observation period should be initiated. Early detection and appropriate conservative treatments may effectively address infections, thus reducing the need for more invasive therapies.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2011.14.4.328
PMCID: PMC3268931  PMID: 22323921
Breast neoplasms; Breast-conserving surgery; Infection; Polyglactin 910
7.  The Role of Lymphovascular Invasion as a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Lymph Node-Positive Operable Invasive Breast Cancer 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2011;14(3):198-203.
Purpose
Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is an important prognostic factor in patients with lymph node-negative patients with invasive breast cancer. However, the prognostic value of LVI it is unclear and controversial about its prognostic value in patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer patients. So, we report the an analysis of the prognostic significance of LVI in a large cohort study of patients with lymph node-positive patients with invasive breast cancer.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 967 patients with invasive breast cancer that had undergone surgical treatment at our hospital, from January 2004 to December 2007. Among these thempatients, 349 patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer patients are were included in this study. We evaluated clinical and pathological data in these patients, we compared with 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival between an LVI-present group and an LVI-absent group.
Results
The median follow-up was 48 months (range, 12-78 months), and the mean age of the patients was 48 years (range, 23-78 years). LVI was present in 192 patients (55%) of with tumors and was associated with age ≤40 years (p=0.009), high histologichistological grade (p=0.007), estrogen receptor status (p=0.001), tumor size ≥2 cm (p<0.001), and number of involved lymph nodes (p<0.001), but not with progesterone receptor status, HER2 status, p53 status, or tumor multiplicity. LVI was a significant independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (p<0.001) and overall survival (p=0.006). By multivariate analysis revealed that LVI (p=0.003), number of involved lymph nodes (≥4; p=0.005), and high histological grade (II and III; p=0.02) was were an independent significant predictors of disease-free survival and overall survival in the whole group of patients.
Conclusion
In this case, we demonstrated that LVI is a significant predictor of poor prognosis in patients with lymph node-positive patients with primary invasive breast cancer, LVI is a significant predictive predictor value of poor prognosis. So, LVI should be considered in the therapeutic strategy as a decision making tool in the adjuvant chemotherapy setting.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2011.14.3.198
PMCID: PMC3200515  PMID: 22031801
Breast neoplasms; Lymph node metastasis; Lymphovascular invasion; Prognostic factor
8.  Papillary Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Carcinoma with Synchronous Occult Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(4):609-611.
This is a case report on papillary thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) carcinoma along with synchronous occult papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. A 46-year-old woman visited our hospital because she had an anterior midline neck mass below her hyoid bone. Preoperative ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed signs of papillary TGDC carcinoma. We performed a Sistrunk operation and a total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination of the specimen revealed papillary carcinoma arising in the TGDC and papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland without extrathyroidal extension. Surgeons should be aware of TGDC carcinoma during surgical planning and postoperative treatment and should differentiate this carcinoma from an anterior midline neck mass.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.4.609
PMCID: PMC2880280  PMID: 20499433
Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma; synchronous; occult; thyroid microcarcinoma

Results 1-8 (8)