Consensus for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) related perforation management is lacking. We aimed to identify candidate patients for conservative management by examining treatment results and to introduce a simple, algorithm-based management guideline.
A retrospective review of 53 patients with ERCP-related perforation between 2000 and 2010 was conducted. Data on perforation site (duodenum lateral wall or jejunum, type I; para-Vaterian, type II), management method, complication, mortality, hospital stay, and hospital cost were reviewed. Comparative analysis was done according to the injury types and management methods.
The outcome was greater
in the conservative group than the operative group with shorter hospital stay (20.6 days vs. 29.8 days, P = 0.092), less cost (10.6 thousand United States Dollars [USD] vs. 19.9 thousand USD, P = 0.095), and lower morbidity rate (22.9% vs. 55.6%, P = 0.017). Eighty-one percent (17/21) of type I injuries were operatively managed and 96.9% (31/32) of type II injuries were conservatively managed. Between the types, type II showed better results over type I with shorter hospital stay (19.3 days vs. 30.6 days, P = 0.010), less cost (9.5 thousand USD vs. 20.1 thousand USD, P = 0.028), and lower complication rate (18.8% vs. 57.1%, P = 0.004). There was no difference in mortality.
Type II injuries were conservatively manageable and demonstrated better outcomes than type I injuries. The management algorithm suggests conservative management in type II injuries without severe peritonitis or unsolved problem requires immediate surgical correction, including operative management in type I injuries unless endoscopic intervention is possible. Conservative management offers socio-medical benefits. Conservative management is recommended in well-selected patients.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Intestinal perforation; Guideline; Algorithms
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of preoperative biliary drainage (BD) methods in periampullary cancer, and to suggest guidelines for selecting the appropriate preoperative BD method. Between October 2004 and August 2010, 211 patients underwent pancreatoduodenectomy after preoperative BD. Clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of the preoperative BD methods were compared based on the final drainage method used and on intention-to-treat analysis. There was no significant difference in drainage duration between percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and endoscopic BD groups (14.2 vs 16.6 days, respectively; P = 0.121) but daily diminution of serum bilirubin level was higher in the PTBD group (0.7 vs 0.6 mg/dL/day, respectively; P = 0.041). Based on intention-to-treat analysis, drainage duration was shorter (13.2 vs 16.5 days, respectively; P = 0.049), daily diminution of serum bilirubin level was higher (0.7 vs 0.6 mg/dL/day, respectively; P = 0.041). Medical care cost was lower (14.2 vs 15.7 × 103 USD, respectively; P = 0.040) in the PTBD group than in the endoscopic BD group. When selecting the preoperative BD method, practitioners should consider that PTBD is more cost-effective and safer than endoscopic BD.
Drainage; Biliary Cancer; Jaundice; Preoperative; Pancreatoduodenectomy
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of simple and extended cholecystectomy for mucosa (T1a) or muscularis (T1b) gallbladder (GB) cancer.
METHODS: Original studies on simple and extended cholecystectomy for T1a or T1b GB cancer were searched from MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Library, EMBase, and CancerLit using the search terms of GB, cancer/carcinoma/tumor/neoplasm.
RESULTS: Twenty-nine out of the 2312 potentially relevant publications met the eligibility criteria. Of the 1266 patients with GB cancer included in the publications, 706 (55.8%) and 560 (44.2%) had T1a and T1b GB cancer, respectively. Simple cholecystectomy for T1a and T1b GB cancer was performed in 590 (83.6%) and 375 (67.0%) patients, respectively (P < 0.01). In most series, the treatment of choice was simple cholecystectomy for T1a GB cancer patients with a 5-year survival rate of 100%. Lymph node metastasis was detected in 10.9% of the T1b GB cancer patients and in 1.8% of the T1a GB cancer patients, respectively (P < 0.01). Eight patients (1.1%) with T1a GB cancer and 52 patients (9.3%) with T1b GB cancer died of recurrent GB cancer (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Simple cholecystectomy represents the adequate treatment of T1a GB cancer. There is no definite evidence that extended cholecystectomy is advantageous over simple cholecystectomy for T1b GB cancer.
Gallbladder; Cancer; Cholecystectomy; Simple; Extended
It is difficult to differentiate benign and malignancy in polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLG) by solely depending on imaging studies. Therefore clinicopathologic features of benign and malignant polyps are compared in an attempt to identify the risk factors of malignant polypoid lesions. The medical records of 291 patients who were confirmed to have PLG through cholecystectomy were reviewed and analyzed for age, sex, symptom, associated gallstone, morphology of PLG, size of PLG, number of PLG, and preoperative tumor markers. Benign PLG was found in 256 patients (88.0%) and malignant PLG in 35 patients (12.0%). Compared with benign group, the malignant group were older (61.1 yr vs. 47.1 yr, P<0.001), more often accompanied with symptoms (62.9% vs. 28.9%, P<0.001). Malignant PLG tended to be sessile (60.0% vs. 10.5%, P<0.001), larger (28.0 mm vs. 8.6 mm, P<0.001) and single lesion (65.7% vs. 44.1%, P<0.016). Age over 60 yr (P=0.021, odds ratio [OR], 8.16), sessile morphology (P<0.001, OR, 7.70), and size over 10 mm (P=0.009, OR, 8.87) were identified as risk factors for malignant PLG. Careful decision making on therapeutic plans should be made with consideration of malignancy for patients over 60 yr, with sessile morphology of PLG, and with PLG size of over 10 mm.
Gallbladder; Polyps; Gallbladder Neoplasms; Risk Factors
The management guidelines for cystic lesions of the pancreas (CLPs) are not yet well established. This study was performed to document the long-term clinical outcome of CLPs and provide guidelines for the management and surveillance of CLPs.
In this retrospective cohort study, an additional follow-up was performed in 112 patients with CLPs enrolled from 1998 to 2004 during a previous study.
During follow-up for the median period of 72.3 months, the size of the CLPs increased in 18 patients (16.1%). Six of these patients experienced growth of their CLPs after 5 years of follow-up. Twenty-six patients underwent surgery during follow-up, and four malignant cysts were detected. The overall rate of malignant progression during follow-up was 3.6%. The presence of mural nodules or solid components was independently associated with the presence of malignant CLPs. Seven patients underwent surgery after 5 years of follow-up. The pathologic findings revealed malignancies in two patients. There was only one pancreas-related death during follow-up.
The majority of CLPs exhibit indolent behavior and are associated with a favorable prognosis. However, long-term surveillance for more than 5 years should be performed because of the potential for growth and malignant transformation in CLPs.
Pancreatic cyst; Natural history; Prognosis
The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of nodal micrometastasis detected by immunohistochemistry in patients that had undergone curative surgery for pancreatic cancer. Between 2005 and 2006, a total of 208 lymph nodes from 48 consecutive patients with pancreatic cancer that had undergone curative resection were immunostained with monoclonal antibody against pan-ck and CK-19. Micrometastasis was defined as metastasis missed by a routine H&E examination but detected during an immunohistochemical evaluation. Relations between immunohistochemical results and clinical and pathologic features and patient survival were examined. Nodal micrometastases were detected in 5 (29.4%) patients of 17 pN0 patients. Nodal micrometastasis was found to be related to tumor relapse (P = 0.043). Twelve patients without overt nodal metastasis and micrometastasis had better prognosis than 5 patients with only nodal micrometastasis (median survival; 35.9 vs 8.6 months, P < 0.001). The Cox proportional hazard model identified nodal micrometastasis as significant prognostic factors. Although the number of patients with micrometastasis was so small and further study would be needed, our study suggests that the lymph node micrometastasis could be the predictor of worse survival and might indicate aggressive tumor biology among patients undergoing curative resection for pancreas cancer.
Pancreas; Adenocarcinoma; Lymph Nodes; Micrometastasis; Prognosis
Prediction of malignancy or invasiveness of branch duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (Br-IPMN) is difficult, and proper treatment strategy has not been well established. The authors investigated the characteristics of Br-IPMN and explored its malignancy or invasiveness predicting factors to suggest a scoring formula for predicting pathologic results. From 1994 to 2008, 237 patients who were diagnosed as Br-IPMN at 11 tertiary referral centers in Korea were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' mean age was 63.1 ± 9.2 yr. One hundred ninty-eight (83.5%) patients had nonmalignant IPMN (81 adenoma, 117 borderline atypia), and 39 (16.5%) had malignant IPMN (13 carcinoma in situ, 26 invasive carcinoma). Cyst size and mural nodule were malignancy determining factors by multivariate analysis. Elevated CEA, cyst size and mural nodule were factors determining invasiveness by multivariate analysis. Using the regression coefficient for significant predictors on multivariate analysis, we constructed a malignancy-predicting scoring formula: 22.4 (mural nodule [0 or 1]) + 0.5 (cyst size [mm]). In invasive IPMN, the formula was expressed as invasiveness-predicting score = 36.6 (mural nodule [0 or 1]) + 32.2 (elevated serum CEA [0 or 1]) + 0.6 (cyst size [mm]). Here we present a scoring formula for prediction of malignancy or invasiveness of Br-IPMN which can be used to determine a proper treatment strategy.
Branch Duct Type Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (IPMN); Cyst Size; Mural Nodule; CEA; Malignancy; Invasive Carcinoma
Koreans eat rice, which is usually served in a rice bowl. We investigated the effect of a meal plan using small rice bowls on the total energy intake (TEI) and the marcronutrient intake in Korean men with type 2 diabetes.
A total of 62 men with type 2 diabetes were divided by body mass index (BMI) (normal weight [NW], BMI<23 kg/m2; overweight [OW], 23≤BMI<25 kg/m2; obese [OB], BMI≥25 kg/m2) and proportions of carbohydrate intake to TEI (PCI) (low carbohydrate intake [LC], <55%; recommended carbohydrate intake [RC], ≥55% and ≤60%; high carbohydrate intake [HC], >60%). The 3-day dietary records were analyzed for TEI and proportions of macronutrients, before and 2 weeks after a small-sized (300 mL) rice bowl based education was given.
There were no significant differences in the age and BMI within the sub-groups by BMI and PCI groups. In baseline, the ratio of TEI to recommended total energy intake (RTR) of OW and OB were higher than that of NW. The PCI of HC was higher than that of LC and alcohol intake of HC was lower than that of LC. After education, the reduction of RTREI in OB was higher than that in OW and NW. The reduction of PCI in HC was higher than that of LC.
A small rice bowl based meal plan was effective for the reduction of energy intake and control of marcronutrient intake in Korean obese men with type 2 diabetes consuming a high carbohydrate diet.
Carbohydrate-restrict; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Diabetic diet; Men
Because of the late clinical presentation of biliary tract cancer (BTC), only 10% of patients are eligible for curative surgery. Even among those patients who have undergone curative surgery, most patients develop recurrent cancer. This study is to determine the clinical role of 18F-FDG PET/CT during post-operative surveillance of suspected recurrent BTC based on symptoms, laboratory findings and contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) findings.
We consecutively enrolled 50 patients with BTC who underwent curative surgery. An 18F-FDG PET/CT was obtained for assessment of recurrence based on clinical suspicion during post-operative surveillance. The final confirmation of recurrence was determined pathologically or clinically. When a pathologic confirmation was impossible or inconclusive, a clinical confirmation was used by radiologic correlation with subsequent follow-up ceCT at a minimum of 3-month intervals. Diagnostic efficacy was evaluated by comparing the results of ceCT and 18F-FDG PET/CT with the final diagnosis.
Among the 50 patients, 34(68%) were confirmed to have a recurrence. PET/CT showed higher sensitivity (88% vs. 76%, p = 0.16) and accuracy (82% vs. 66%, p = 0.11) for recurrence compared to ceCT, even though the difference was not significant. The positive (86% vs. 74%, p = 0.72) and negative predictive values for recurrence (73% vs. 47%, p = 0.55) were not significantly different between PET/CT and ceCT. However, an additional PET/CT on ceCT significantly improved the sensitivity than did a ceCT alone (94% [32/34] for PET/CT on ceCT vs. 76% [26/34] for ceCT alone, p = 0.03) without increasing the specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value.
18F-FDG PET/CT alone is not more sensitive or specific than ceCT in the detection of recurrent BTC after curative surgery. These results do not reach statistical significance, probably due to the low number of patients. However, an additional 18F-FDG PET/CT on ceCT significantly improves the sensitivity of detecting recurrences.
18F-FDG PET/CT; biliary tract cancer; surveillance; recurrence
There is an urgent need to develop novel markers of pancreatic cancer to facilitate early diagnosis. Pancreatic carcinoma is characterized by marked stroma formation with a high number of infiltrating tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that originate from circulating mononuclear cells (MNCs). We hypothesized that differential analysis of protein expression and phosphorylation in circulating MNCs from healthy nude mice and nude mice bearing orthotopic human pancreatic cancer would identify a surrogate marker of pancreatic cancer. These differences were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by Western blot analysis using antibody against phosphorylated tyrosine proteins (pY). Protein and phosphorylated protein spots of interest were identified by mass spectrometry and validated by Western blot analysis as candidate markers for pancreatic cancer. We found that the expression and phosphorylation of Src family proteins were significantly higher in circulating MNCs from mice bearing pancreatic cancer than in circulating MNCs from healthy mice. TAMs in mice with pancreatic tumors also had higher Src family protein expression and phosphorylation than resident macrophages in the pancreas of healthy mice. The expression and phosphorylation of Src family proteins were correlated with tumor weight; however, increased Src expression and phosphorylation also occurred in MNCs from mice with chronic pancreatitis. This is the first report to explore novel pancreatic tumor markers in circulating MNCs. Although the specificity of the marker for pancreatic cancer was low, it could be used to monitor the disease or to select high-risk patients with chronic pancreatitis.
This study investigated the effect of coffee intake and exercise on the antioxidative activity and plasma cholesterol profile of physically trained rats while they were exercising. Forty eight rats were under either the control diet with water (C) or control diet with coffee (CF) and at the same time they were given physical training for 4 weeks. In terms of physical training, the rats were exercised on a treadmill for 30 minutes everyday. At the end of 4 weeks, animals in each dietary group were subdivided into 3 groups: before-exercise (BE); during-exercise (DE); after-exercise (AE). Animals in the DE group were exercised on a treadmill for one hour, immediately before being sacrificed. Animals in the AE group were allowed to take a rest for one hour after exercise. TG levels were significantly high in coffee intake group than in control group. Also TG level of AE group was significantly higher than that of BE group. Exercise and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in total cholesterol (P = 0.0004, 0.0170). The AE of coffee intake group showed highest total cholesterol levels. HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in coffee intake group than in control group. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in SOD (P = 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.0001). The AE and BE of coffee intake group showed higher SOD levels than the other four groups. Catalase activities were significantly higher in coffee intake group than control group. No significant main effect was found in GSH/GSSG. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in MDA levels (P = 0.0464, 0.0016, and 0.0353). The DE and AE of coffee intake group and the DE of control group showed higher MDA levels than the BE of control group. Therefore, coffee intake can promote activities of antioxidant enzyme but it also increases MDA and decreases HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats.
Freeze dried instant coffee; antioxidant enzymes; MDA; cholesterol; physical training
Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma is an extremely rare tumor and few cases have been reported to date.
The authors report a case of gangliocytic paraganglioma verified by post-op pathology after pancreaticoduodenectomy for a tumor in the ampulla of Vater. The 56-year-old male patient concerned visited our emergency room with melena that started one week prior to hospitalization. The patient was diagnosed to have a tumor in the ampulla of Vater with bleeding on its surface. However post-op, he was diagnosed as having gangliocytic paraganglioma by immunohistochemistry.
This tumor has precise clinical implications, and if continuous follow up is conducted after careful diagnosis and surgical treatment, invasive major operations, such as, radical pancreaticoduodenectomy can be avoided.
The clinical usefulness of organ-preserving pancreatectomy is not well established due to technical difficulty and ambiguity of functional merit. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy of organ-preserving pancreatectomy such as duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas (DPRHP), pancreatic head resection with segmental duodenectomy (PHRSD), central pancreatectomy (CP) and spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (SPDP). Between 1995 and 2007, the DPRHP were performed in 14 patients, the PHRSD in 16 patients, the CP in 13 patients, and the SPDP in 45 patients for preoperatively diagnosed benign lesions or tumors with low-grade malignant potential. The clinical outcomes including surgical details, postoperative complications and long-term functional outcomes were compared between organ-preserving pancreatectomy and conventional pancreatectomy group. Major postoperative complications constituted the following: bile duct stricture (7.1% [1/14]) in DPRHP, delayed gastric emptying (31.2% [5/16]) in PHRSD, pancreatic fistula (21.4% [3/14]) in CP. There were no significant differences in postoperative complications and long-term functional outcomes between two groups. Organ-preserving pancreatectomy is associated with tolerable postoperative complications, and good long-term outcome comparing to conventional pancreatectomy. Organ-preserving pancreatectomy could be alternative treatment for benign or low-grade malignant potential lesion of the pancreas or ampullary/parapapillary duodenum.
Pancreatectomy; Organ-Preserving; Low-Grade Malignant
There is currently no standard adjuvant therapy for patients with curatively resected extrahepatic biliary tract cancer (EHBTC). The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features and outcomes between patients undergoing adjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) alone and those undergoing CCRT followed by adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection.
We included 120 patients with EHBTC who underwent radical resection and then received adjuvant CCRT with or without further adjuvant chemotherapy between 2000 and 2006 at Seoul National University Hospital.
Out of 120 patients, 30 received CCRT alone, and 90 received CCRT followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. Three-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates for CCRT alone and CCRT followed by adjuvant chemotherapy were 26.6% and 45.2% (p = 0.04), respectively, and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 30.8% and 62.6% (p < 0.01), respectively. CCRT followed by adjuvant chemotherapy showed longer survival than did CCRT alone, especially in R1 resection (microscopically positive margins) or negative lymph node.
Adjuvant CCRT followed by adjuvant chemotherapy prolonged DFS and OS, compared with CCRT alone in patients with curatively resected EHBTC. Adjuvant chemotherapy deserves to consider after adjuvant CCRT. In the future, a randomized prospective study will be needed, with the objective of investigating the role of adjuvant chemotherapy.
The spleen may be preserved during distal pancreatectomy (DP) for benign disease. The aim of this study was to compare the perioperative and postoperative courses of patients with conventional DP and spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (SPDP) for benign lesions or tumors with low-grade malignant potential occurred at the body or tail of the pancreas. A retrospective analysis was performed for the hospital records of all the patients undergoing DP and SPDP between January 1995 and April 2006. One-hundred forty-three patients underwent DP and 37 patients underwent SPDP. There were no significant differences in age, sex, indications of operation, estimated blood loss, operative time, and postoperative hospital stay between the two groups. Pancreatic fistula occurred in 21 (13.3%) patients following DP and in 3 (8.1%) following SPDP without a significant difference (p=0.081). Portal vein thrombosis occurred in 4 patients after DP. Splenic infarction occurred in one patient after SPDP. Overwhelming postosplenectomy infection was observed in one patient after DP. SPDP can be achieved with no increase in complication rate, operative time, or length of postoperative hospitalization as compared to conventional DP. Additionally, it has the advantage of reducing the risk of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection and postoperative venous thrombosis.
Pancreatectomy; Spleen; Organ Preservation