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1.  Relining technique for continuous sac enlargement and modular disconnection secondary to endotension after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair 
Endotension is an unpredictable late complication of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). This case report will discuss the successful treatment of enlarged aneurysmal sac due to endotension using the relining technique. An 81-year-old male complained of nondecreasing huge aneurysm sac. He had undergone EVAR for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm 7 years prior and no endoleak was found through follow-up. Initially computed tomography-guided sac aspiration was tried, but in vain, Relining using the double barrel technique and tubular endograft for modular diconnection, which was unexpectedly found in the original endograft, were performed sucessfully. During follow-up after the relining procedure, the size of aneurysm sac continued to decrease in size. The relining technique is effective mothod for treating endotension.
PMCID: PMC3994625  PMID: 24761425
Aortic aneurysm; Endovascular procedures; Endoleak; Complication
2.  Successful treatment of type I endoleak of common iliac artery with balloon expandable stent (Palmaz XL stent) during endovascular aneurysm repair 
Type 1 endoleak of common iliac artery (type Ib endoleak) should be treated during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). An 86-year-old female was diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysm measuring 6.6 cm in diameter and right internal iliac artery aneurysm measuring 4.0 cm in diameter. She underwent EVAR after right internal iliac artery embolization. There was type Ib endoleak, which was repaired by balloon-expandable stent, Palmaz XL stent (Cordis). We report successful treatment of type Ib endoleak with Palmaz XL stent, which may be considered as an alternative option for type Ib endoleak after EVAR.
PMCID: PMC3268146  PMID: 22324049
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endovascular procedure; Endoleak
3.  Risk factors affecting pancreatic fistulas after pancreaticoduodenectomy 
AIM: To analyze the risk factors of pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 172 consecutive patients who had undergone pancreatico-duodenectomy at Inha University Hospital between April 1996 and March 2006. We analyzed the pancreatic fistula rate according to the clinical characteristics, the pathologic and laboratory findings, and the anastomotic methods.
RESULTS: The incidence of developing pancreatic fistulas in patients older than 60 years of age was 21.7% (25/115), while the incidence was 8.8% (5/57) for younger patients; the difference was significant (P = 0.03). Patients with a dilated pancreatic duct had a lower rate of post-operative pancreatic fistulas than patients with a non-dilated duct (P = 0.001). Other factors, including clinical features, anastomotic methods, and pathologic diagnosis, did not show any statistical difference.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that pancreatic fistulas are related to age and a dilated pancreatic duct. The surgeon must take these risk factors into consideration when performing a pancre-aticoduodenectomy.
PMCID: PMC2773861  PMID: 19058333
Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Pancreatic fistula; Pancreatic leakage
4.  Effect of preoperative biliary drainage on surgical results after pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with distal common bile duct cancer: Focused on the rate of decrease in serum bilirubin 
AIM: To examine if the rate of decrease in serum bilirubin after preoperative biliary drainagecan be used as a predicting factor for surgical complications and postoperative recovery after pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with distal common bile duct cancer.
METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in 49 consecutive patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for distal common bile duct cancer. Potential risk factors were compared between the complicated and uncomplicated groups. Also, the rates of decrease in serum bilirubin were compared pre- and postoperatively.
RESULTS: Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) was performed in 40 patients (81.6%). Postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were 46.9% (23/49) and 6.1% (3/49), respectively. The presence or absence of PBD was not different between the complicated and uncomplicated groups. In patients with PBD, neither the absolute level nor the rate of decrease in serum bilirubin was significantly different. Patients with rapid decrease preoperatively showed faster decrease during the first postoperative week (5.5 ± 4.4 μmol/L vs -1.7 ± 9.9 μmol/L, P = 0.004).
CONCLUSION: PBD does not affect the surgical outcome of pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with distal common bile duct cancer. There is a certain group of patients with a compromised hepatic excretory function, which is represented by the slow rate of decrease in serum bilirubin after PBD.
PMCID: PMC2689415  PMID: 18286694
Distal bile duct cancer; Drainage; Bilirubin; Rate
5.  Spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt managed by laparoscopic hepatic vein closure 
Journal of Minimal Access Surgery  2014;10(4):207-209.
Intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IPSS) is uncommon and usually follows trauma or iatrogenic injury, but spontaneous shunts may also occur, in patients without the evidence of chronic liver disease. Although interventional endovascular management of the shunts is the treatment of choice, a surgical approach can be used when the percutaneous approach fails. We report here a case of symptomatic spontaneous IPSS between the posteroinferior branch of right portal vein and the right inferior hepatic vein, which was successfully managed with laparoscopic closure of the hepatic vein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of laparoscopic management of spontaneous IPSS.
PMCID: PMC4204266  PMID: 25336823
Hepatic vein; intrahepatic; laparoscopy; portosystemic shunt; spontaneous
6.  Internal Iliac Artery Embolization during an Endovascular Aneurysm Repair with Detachable Interlock Microcoils 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(5):613-621.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of detachable interlock microcoils for an embolization of the internal iliac artery during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR).
Materials and Methods
A retrospective review was conducted on 40 patients with aortic aneurysms, who had undergone an EVAR between January 2010 and March 2012. Among them, 16 patients were referred for embolization of the internal iliac artery for the prevention of type II endoleaks. Among 16 patients, 13 patients underwent embolization using detachable interlock microcoils during an EVAR. Computed tomographic angiographies and clinical examinations were performed during the follow-up period. Technical success, clinical outcome, and complications were reviewed.
Internal iliac artery embolizations using detachable interlock microcoils were technically successful in all 13 patients, with no occurrence of procedure-related complications. Follow-up imaging was accomplished in the 13 cases. In all cases, type II endoleak was not observed with computed tomographic angiography during the median follow-up of 3 months (range, 1-27 months) and the median clinical follow-up of 12 months (range, 1-27 months). Two of 13 (15%) patients had symptoms of buttock pain, and one patient died due to underlying stomach cancer. No significant clinical symptoms such as bowel ischemia were observed.
Internal iliac artery embolization during an EVAR using detachable interlock microcoils to prevent type II endoleaks appears safe and effective, although this should be further proven in a larger population.
PMCID: PMC4170162  PMID: 25246822
Detachable interlock microcoil; Endovascular aneurysm repair; Internal iliac artery embolization
7.  Mechanical thrombectomy-assisted thrombolysis for acute symptomatic portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis 
Acute portal vein and mesenteric vein thrombosis (PVMVT) can cause acute mesenteric ischemia and be fatal with mortality rate of 37%-76%. Therefore, early diagnosis and prompt venous revascularization are warranted in patients with acute symptomatic PVMVT. Due to advances in catheter-directed treatment, endovascular treatment has been used for revascularization of affected vessels in PVMVT. We report two cases of symptomatic PVMVT treated successfully by transhepatic percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy-assisted thrombolysis.
PMCID: PMC4062453  PMID: 24949327
Venous thrombosis; Endovascular procedures; Mesenteric veins; Portal vein; Ischemia
8.  Repair of type I endoleak by chimney technique after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair 
Endovascular aneurysm repair is a minimally invasive, durable and effective alternative to open surgery for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). However, in patients who do not have an adequate sealing zone, open surgical repair is required, which may increase mortality and morbidity. An alternative treatment in patients with challenging anatomy is the so-called "chimney graft" technique. Here, we describe a case using the chimney graft technique for treatment of juxtarenal type I endoleak followed by a previous conventional stent graft insertion to the AAA with good results.
PMCID: PMC4024936  PMID: 24851230
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endoluminal repair; Endoleaks; Chimney graft technique
9.  Stent fractures after superficial femoral artery stenting 
Stent fracture is one of the major factors compromising implanted stent patency due to its consequences including in-stent restenosis, thrombosis, perforation, and migration. Stent fracture can occur from stress (extrinsic or intrinsic) and biomechanical forces at different implantation sites. We report on 2 cases of stent fractures and pertinent literature. One patient, a 75-year-old male, presented with recurrence of claudication 14 months after superficial femoral artery stenting; a femoral artery occlusion with stent fracture was found, and he underwent femoropopliteal bypass. The other patient, a 72-year-old male presented with recurrence of claudication; a stent fracture was found without femoral artery occlusion, and he was treated with additional femoral artery stenting to secure the fracture site.
PMCID: PMC3433557  PMID: 22977767
Stents; Vascular patency; Femoral artery; Early intervention
10.  Clinical significance of clusterin expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma 
Clusterin is known to be expressed in many human neoplasms, and is believed to participate in the regeneration, migration, and anti-apoptosis of tumor cells. However, few reports have addressed the relationship between the manifestation of clusterin and clinicopathologic parameters in pancreas cancer patients. In the present study, the authors investigated the expression of clusterin and its clinical significance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Immunohistochemical staining was performed for clusterin in tumor tissues obtained from patients who received pancreatic resection with radical intent, and the associations of clusterin expression with various clinicopathologic parameters were analyzed in addition to the relation between its expression and survival.
Immunoreactivity for clusterin was observed in 17 of the 52 (33%) pancreatic adenocarcinomas examined. In addition, clusterin positivity was found to be associated with preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen level, perineural invasion, and, most strongly, lymph node metastasis. The survival analysis identified tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis as the only significant prognostic factors.
Although not an independent prognostic factor, clusterin immunoreactivity can be used in conjunction with lymph node metastasis to predict survival in cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3436747  PMID: 22799602
Pancreas; Adenocarcinoma; Clusterin; Survival
11.  Successful hybrid operation of an acute mobile thrombus in the abdominal aorta induced by chemotherapy 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;81(Suppl 1):S78-S81.
Acute mobile thrombus of the abdominal aorta after chemotherapy is a very unusual finding, which can be a potential source of arterial embolism. We report here on a case of an acute mobile aortic thrombus with renal infarction. We successfully treated the patient with hybrid operation-open surgical and endovascular approach. Our case shows that hybrid treatment using wire-directed balloon catheter thrombectomy is a feasible, minimally-invasive treatment for a mobile aortic thrombus.
PMCID: PMC3267073  PMID: 22319746
Abdominal; Angioplasty; Aorta; Thrombectomy; Thrombosis
12.  Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis with Conventional Aspiration Thrombectomy for Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(2):197-201.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate treatment outcomes in patients with symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) who had undergone a catheter-directed thrombolysis with conventional aspiration thrombectomy for the treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis.
Materials and Methods
The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 74 patients (mean age 61 ± 15) that underwent a catheter-directed thrombolysis with conventional aspiration thrombectomy. A retrieval inferior vena cava (IVC) filter was placed to protect against a pulmonary embolism in 60 patients (81%). Stenting and balloon angioplasty were performed in 37 patients (50%) under the left common iliac vein compression.
Sixty-seven patients (91%) showed a clinical improvement within 48 hours, but seven patients (9%) showed no improvement. Multi detector computerized tomographic venography (MDCT venography) at discharge showed no thrombus in 15 patients (20%) and partial thrombus in 52 (70%). Twenty-eight patients (38%) developed post-thrombotic syndrome at 3.0 ± 4.2 months postoperatively. Six patients (8%) were admitted due to DVT recurrence at a mean of 5.6 ± 7.4 months postoperatively. Sixty-nine patients underwent follow up MDCT venography at 5.7 ± 5.6 months. fifty (72%) of these showed no thrombus, 15 (22%) partial thrombus, and 4 (6%) showed obstruction. Twentyeight of 61 (46%) were asymptomatic, twentyeight (46%) had moderate improvement, and four (6%) were mildly improved by a telephone interview (81%) at 22.8 ± 10.7 months postoperatively.
Catheter-directed thrombolysis with conventional aspiration thrombectomy is an effective treatment for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis and produces satisfactory clinical results.
PMCID: PMC2824863  PMID: 20191009
Thrombolysis; thrombectomy; deep vein thrombosis; catheter
13.  Gasless Endoscopic Thyroidectomy via an Anterior Chest Wall Approach Using a Flap-Lifting System 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(3):480-487.
Endoscopic thyroidectomy (ET) requires a proper working space for adequate visualization of anatomical structures and proper instrument manipulation. The purpose of this prospective study was to estimate the feasibility and safety of ET using an anterior chest wall approach without gas insufflation.
Materials and Methods
The working space was created under a direct and endoscopic view through a 3-cm incision on the anterior chest wall. A retracting device was then inserted to establish the working space, and subsequent procedures were performed endoscopically. All data were reviewed using a prospective database.
We performed 30 ETs in patients with benign thyroid tumors from December 2003 to December 2005. The procedures were completed successfully in 29 patients (mean operative time: 160.6 min; range: 90-345 min). One patient with ET was converted to open thyroidectomy secondary to substernal extension of the tumor. None of the patients developed permanent postoperative hypocalcemia or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Three patients exhibited some degree of transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy.
These data suggest that gasless ET using an anterior chest wall approach is safe and feasible in selected patients for treating benign thyroid tumors. This technique may offer good operative working space when performed by surgeons with relatively low-volume ET practices.
PMCID: PMC2628087  PMID: 17594157
Thyroidectomy; endoscopes; thyroid neoplasms

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