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1.  Outcome of total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis 
Purpose
We evaluated the risk factors for late complications and functional outcome after total proctocolectomy (TPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC).
Methods
Pre- and postoperative clinical status and follow-up data were obtained for 55 patients who underwent TPC with IPAA between 1999 and 2010. The median follow-up duration was 4.17 years. Late complications were defined as those that appeared at least one month after surgery. For a functional assessment, telephone interviews were conducted using the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Twenty-eight patients completed the interview.
Results
Late complications were found in 20 cases (36.3%), comprising pouchitis (n = 8), bowel obstruction (n = 5), ileitis (n = 3), pouch associated fistula (n = 2), and intra-abdominal infection (n = 2). The preoperative serum albumin level for patients with late complications was lower than for patients without (2.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.9 ± 0.7, P = 0.04). Functional outcomes were not significantly associated with clinical characteristics, follow-up duration, operation indication, or late complications.
Conclusion
This study demonstrated that a low preoperative albumin level could be a risk factor for late complications of TPC with IPAA. Preoperative nutritional support, especially albumin, could reduce late complications. Functional outcomes are not related to late complications.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.3.135
PMCID: PMC3433549  PMID: 22977759
Ulcerative colitis; Proctocolectomy; Complications
2.  Predicting tumor response after preoperative chemoradiation using clinical parameters in rectal cancer 
AIM: To evaluate the clinical parameters and identify a better method of predicting pathological complete response (pCR).
METHODS: We enrolled 249 patients from a database of 544 consecutive rectal cancer patients who underwent surgical resection after preoperative chemoradiation therapy (PCRT). A retrospective review of morphological characteristics was then performed to collect data regarding rectal examination findings. A scoring model to predict pCR was then created. To validate the ability of the scoring model to predict complete regression.
RESULTS: Seventy patients (12.9%) achieved a pCR. A multivariate analysis found that pre-CRT movability (P = 0.024), post-CRT size (P = 0.018), post-CRT morphology (P = 0.023), and gross change (P = 0.009) were independent predictors of pCR. The accuracy of the scoring model was 76.8% for predicting pCR with the threshold set at 4.5. In the validation set, the accuracy was 86.7%.
CONCLUSION: Gross changes and morphological findings are important predictors of pathological response. Accordingly, PCRT response is best predicted by a combination of clinical, laboratory and metabolic information.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i48.5310
PMCID: PMC3247696  PMID: 22219601
Rectal cancer; Preoperative chemoradiotherapy; Downstaging; Tumor regression; Validation
3.  Pancreatic serous cystadenocarcinoma with invasive growth into the colon and spleen 
Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are almost always benign lesions. However, there are some case reports of malignant serous neoplasms of the pancreas. It is very difficult to distinguish malignant and benign tumors. Indeed, only clinicopathologic findings of locoregional invasion and metastasis represent a malignancy. We report a serous cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas that was initially considered to be colon cancer. Post-operatively, the tumor was confirmed to be a malignant serous cystic tumor of the pancreas. One year later, the patient remains disease-free.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.3.221
PMCID: PMC3204548  PMID: 22066125
Pancreas; Cystadenocarcinoma; Colon; Spleen
4.  Immunohistochemical Detection of p53 Expression in Patients with Preoperative Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer: Association with Prognosis 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;56(1):82-88.
Purpose
The expression of p53 in patients with rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiationand and its potential prognostic significance were evaluated.
Materials and Methods
p53 expression was examined using immunohistochemistry in pathologic specimens from 210 rectal cancer patients with preoperative chemoradiotherapy and radical surgery. All patients were classified into two groups according to the p53 expression: low p53 (<50% nuclear staining) and high p53 (≥50%) groups.
Results
p53 expression was significantly associated with tumor location from the anal verge (p=0.036). In univariate analysis, p53 expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p=0.118) or local recurrence-free survival (p=0.089). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor distance from the anal verge (p=0.006), ypN category (p=0.011), and perineural invasion (p=0.048) were independent predictors of disease-free survival; tumor distance from the anal verge was the only independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival. When the p53 groups were subdivided according to ypTNM category, disease-free survival differed significantly in patients with ypN+ disease (p=0.027) only.
Conclusion
Expression of p53 in pathologic specimens as measured by immunohistochemical methods may have a significant prognostic impact on survival in patients with ypN+ rectal cancer with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. However, it was not an independent predictor of recurrence or survival.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2015.56.1.82
PMCID: PMC4276781  PMID: 25510750
p53; rectal cancer; immunohistochemistry
5.  A Case of Cochlear Implantation Targeting Preserved Cerebral Cortex in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury 
Korean Journal of Audiology  2014;18(3):148-150.
Temporal bone fracture and blunt head trauma was once considered as contraindication for the surgery. Increasing numbers of successful cochlear implantation are being reported. However, the outcome of cochlear implantation in severe damaged brain is unclear. A multichannel cochlear implant was successfully implanted in a 33-year-old man who had both sensorineural deafness, left hemiplegia due to bilateral transverse temporal bone fractures and severe right brain damage after a traffic accident.
doi:10.7874/kja.2014.18.3.148
PMCID: PMC4280759  PMID: 25558411
Cochlear implantation; Skull fracture; Brain injury; Deafness
6.  hMLH1 promoter methylation and BRAF mutations in high-frequency microsatellite instability colorectal cancers not fulfilling the revised Bethesda guidelines 
Purpose
Sporadic colorectal cancers with high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H) are related to hypermethylation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes and a higher frequency of BRAF mutations than Lynch syndrome. We estimated the feasibility of hereditary colorectal cancer based on hMLH1 methylation and BRAF mutations.
Methods
Between May 2005 and June 2011, we enrolled all 33 analyzed patients with MSI-H cancer (male:female, 23:10; mean age, 65.5 ± 9.4 years) from a prospectively maintained database that didn't match Bethesda guidelines and who had results of hMLH1 methylation and BRAF mutations.
Results
Among the 33 patients, hMLH1 promoter methylation was observed in 36.4% (n = 12), and was not significantly related with clinicopathologic variables, including MLH1 expression. BRAF mutations were observed in 33.3% of the patients (n = 11). Four of 11 and five of 22 patients with MSI-H colon cancers were BRAF mutation (+)/hMLH1 promoter methylation (-) or BRAF mutation (-)/hMLH1 promoter methylation (+). Of the 33 patients, 21.2% were BRAF mutation (+)/hMLH1 promoter methylation (+), indicating sporadic cancers. Seventeen patients (51.5%) were BRAF mutation (-)/hMLH1 promoter methylation (-), and suggested Lynch syndrome.
Conclusion
Patients with MSI-H colorectal cancers not fulfilling the Bethesda guidelines possibly have hereditary colorectal cancers. Adding tests of hMLH1 promoter methylation and BRAF mutations can be useful to distinguish them from sporadic colorectal cancers.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.87.3.123
PMCID: PMC4170578  PMID: 25247165
Colorectal neoplasms; hMLH1; BRAF; Hereditary colorectal cancer
7.  Osteoma of the Promontory Mimicking a Congenital Cholesteatoma 
Korean Journal of Audiology  2014;18(1):38-40.
Osteoma of the temporal bone most commonly occurs in the external ear. Osteomas in the middle ear are not common, and only 25 relevant cases (18 papers) have been reported in the English literature. With only 5 cases reported to date, osteoma of the promontory in the middle ear is rare. This study reports a case of asymptomatic osteoma of the promontory in the middle ear mimicking a congenital cholesteatoma in a 4-year-old girl.
doi:10.7874/kja.2014.18.1.38
PMCID: PMC4003735  PMID: 24782950
Osteoma; Middle ear; Promontory
8.  Characteristic Phenotypes in Korean Crohn's Disease Patients Who Underwent Intestinal Surgery for the Treatment 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(4):575-579.
There are no previous large scale studies which have evaluated the phenotypes and clinical characteristics of Korean Crohn's disease patients who underwent intestinal resection. The purpose of this multicenter retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of Korean Crohn's disease patients who underwent intestinal resection during the study period. A total of 686 patients were enrolled in this study. The study period was over a 20-yr period (1990-2009). The patients were divided into the first-10-yr group and the second-10-yr group. The phenotypes and clinical characteristics were compared between the groups. The most common site of the disease was the ileal area (37.8%) and stricturing behavior was observed in 38.3% patients. The most common type of surgery was segmental resection of the small bowel (30.6%). These phenotypes showed a similar pattern in both the first and second study period groups and did not show any significant differences between the groups. The number of registered patients increased continuously. The phenotypes of Korean Crohn's disease patients who underwent intestinal resection are different compared with previously reported clinical characteristics of general Crohn's disease patients.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.4.575
PMCID: PMC3617311  PMID: 23579265
Crohn's Disease; Phenotypes; Intestinal Surgery
9.  Oncologic Outcomes of Stage IIIA Colon Cancer for Different Chemotherapeutic Regimens 
Purpose
Adjuvant chemotherapy is currently recommended for Stage IIIA colon cancers. This study aimed to elucidate the oncologic outcomes of Stage IIIA colon cancer according to the chemotherapeutic regimen based on a retrospective review.
Methods
From 1995 to 2008, Stage IIIA colon cancer patients were identified from a prospectively maintained database at a single institution. Exclusion criteria were as follows: rectal cancer, another malignancy other than colon cancer, no adjuvant chemotherapy and unknown chemotherapeutic regimen. One hundred thirty-one patients were enrolled in the study, and the clinicopathologic and the oncologic characteristics were analyzed. The number of males was 72, and the number of females was 59; the mean age was 59.5 years (range, 25 to 76 years), and the median follow-up period was 33 months (range, 2 to 127 months).
Results
Of the 131 patients, fluorouracil/leucovorin (FL)/capecitabine chemotherapy was performed in 109 patients, and FOLFOX chemotherapy was performed in 22 patients. When the patients who received FL/capecitabine chemotherapy and the patients who received FOLFOX chemotherapy were compared, there was no significant difference in the clinicopathologic factors between the two groups. The 5-year overall survival and the 5-year disease-free survival were 97.2% and 94.5% in the FL/capecitabine patient group and 95.5% and 90.9% in the FOLFOX patient group, respectively, and no statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups.
Conclusion
Stage IIIA colon cancer showed good oncologic outcomes, and the chemotherapeutic regimen did not seem to affect the oncologic outcome.
doi:10.3393/jksc.2012.28.5.259
PMCID: PMC3499427  PMID: 23185706
Stage IIIA; Colon neoplasm; Chemotherapeutic agent; Prognosis
10.  Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2012;30(3):117-123.
Purpose
Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery.
Results
The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control.
Conclusion
Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.
doi:10.3857/roj.2012.30.3.117
PMCID: PMC3496845  PMID: 23170290
Anemia; Rectal cancer; Neoadjuvant therapy; Concurrent chemoradiotherapy
11.  Risk Factors for Repeat Abdominal Surgery in Korean Patients with Crohn's Disease: A Multi-Center Study of a Korean Inflammatory Bowel Disease Study Group 
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to assess the risk factors for repeated abdominal surgery in Crohn's disease (CD) patients after the first abdominal surgery. Prior studies have tried to identify the risk factors for postoperative recurrence in CD patients, but the results of the studies have been inconsistent. Furthermore, few data on the risk factors for repeated abdominal surgery are available.
Methods
Clinical data on CD patients who underwent abdominal surgery from January 2000 to December 2009 were collected from seventeen university hospitals and one colorectal clinic. Data from a total of 708 patients were analyzed to find the risk factors for repeated abdominal surgery in CD patients. The mean follow-up period was 72 months.
Results
The risk of repeated abdominal surgery was 3 times higher in young patients (below 16 years old) than in older patients (odds ratio [OR], 3.056; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.021 to 9.150); P = 0.046). Stricturing behavior at diagnosis was also a risk factor for repeated abdominal surgery (OR, 2.438; 95% CI, 1.144 to 5.196; P = 0.021). Among operative indications, only intra-abdominal abscess was associated with repeated abdominal surgery (OR, 2.393; 95% CI, 1.098 to 5.216; P = 0.028). Concerning type of operation, an ileostomy might be a risk factor for repeated abdominal surgery (OR, 11.437; 95% CI, 1.451 to 90.124; P = 0.021). Emergency surgery (OR, 4.994; 95% CI, 2.123 to 11.745; P < 0.001) and delayed diagnosis after surgery (OR, 2.339; 95% CI, 1.147 to 4.771; P = 0.019) also increased the risk of repeated abdominal surgery.
Conclusion
Young age (below 16 years), stricturing behavior, intra-abdominal abscess, emergency surgery, and delayed diagnosis after surgery were identified as possible risk factors for repeated abdominal surgery in CD patients.
doi:10.3393/jksc.2012.28.4.188
PMCID: PMC3440487  PMID: 22993704
Crohn's disease; Recurrence; Surgery
12.  Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery for the Treatment of Well-Differentiated Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumors 
Purpose
Recently, an increase in well-differentiated rectal neuroendocrine tumors (WRNETs) has been noted. We aimed to evaluate transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for the treatment of WRNETs.
Methods
Between December 1995 and August 2009, 109 patients with WRNETs underwent TEM. TEM was performed for patients with tumors sizes of up to 20 mm and without a lymphadenopathy. These patients had been referred from other clinics after having been diagnosed with WRNETs by using a colonoscopic biopsy; they had undergone a failed endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and exhibited an involved resection margin and remaining tumor after ESD or EMR, regardless of the distance from the anal verge. This study included 38 patients that had more than three years of follow-up.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 51.3 ± 11.9 years, the mean tumor size was 8.0 ± 3.9 mm, and no morbidity occurred. Thirty-five patients were asymptomatic. TEM was performed after a colonoscopic resection in 13 cases because of a positive resection margin, a residual tumor or a non-lifting lesion. Complete resections were performed in 37 patients; one patient with a positive margin was considered surgically complete. In one patient, liver metastasis and a recurrent mesorectal node occurred after five and 10 years, respectively.
Conclusion
TEM might provide an accessible and effective treatment either as an initial or as an adjunct after a colonoscopic resection for a WRNET.
doi:10.3393/jksc.2012.28.4.201
PMCID: PMC3440489  PMID: 22993706
Well-differentiated rectal neuroendocrine tumors; Transanal endoscopic microsurgery; Colonoscopic resection; Treatment
13.  Large tubular colonic duplication in an adult treated with a small midline incision 
Tubular colonic duplication presenting in adults is rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 29-year-old lady presenting with a long history of chronic constipation, abdominal mass and repeated episodes of abdominal pain. The abdominal-pelvic computed tomography scan showed segmental bowel wall thickening thought to be small bowel, and dilatation with stasis of intraluminal content. The provisional diagnosis was small bowel duplication. She was scheduled for single port laparoscopic resection. However, a T-shaped tubular colonic duplication at sigmoid colon was found intraoperatively. Resection of the large T-shaped tubular colonic duplication containing multiple impacted large fecaloma and primary anastomosis was performed. There was no perioperative complication. We report, herein, the case of a T-shaped tubular colonic duplication at sigmoid colon in an adult who was successfully treated through mini-laparotomy assisted by single port laparoscopic surgery.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.3.190
PMCID: PMC3294114  PMID: 22403754
Colonic duplication; Congenital abnormalities; Adult; Laparoscopy
14.  Routine chest computed tomography as a preoperative work-up for primary colorectal cancer: is there any benefit in short-term outcome? 
Purpose
The aim of this study was to assess the role of pre-operative chest computed tomography (CT) compared with abdominopelvic CT (AP-CT) and chest radiography (CXR) for detecting pulmonary metastasis in patients with primary colorectal cancer (CRC).
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the data of 619 patients with primary CRC who simultaneously received a preoperative chest CT (chest CT group), AP-CT with hilar extension, and CXR (CXR group).
Results
In the chest CT group, there were 297 (48.0%) normal, 198 (32%) benign, 96 (15.5%) indeterminate, 26 (4.2%) metastasis, and two lung cancers. Eighteen patients (2.9%) in the CXR group who had no pulmonary metastasis were diagnosed with pulmonary metastasis on a chest CT. The sensitivity and accuracy were 83.9% and 99.0% in the chest CT group, respectively, and 29.0% and 91.5% in the CXR group, respectively (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0003).
Conclusion
Chest CT appears to improve the accuracy of pre-operative staging in patients with CRC and is useful for the early detection of pulmonary metastasis as a baseline study for abnormal lung nodules.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.5.327
PMCID: PMC3204704  PMID: 22066056
Colorectal neoplasm; Metastases; Computed tomography; Chest X-ray
15.  Treatment Outcomes of Anorectal Melanoma 
Purpose
An anorectal melanoma (AM) is a very rare tumor. However, sufficient data supporting effective surgical options for the disease do not exist. This retrospective review aimed to analyze treatment outcomes for an AM.
Methods
From June 1999 to December 2008, we retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected consecutive series of 19 patients who had undergone a surgical resection for an AM at a single institute. Surgical method and clinicopathological factors were analyzed.
Results
The median age was 61.4 years (range, 46 to79 years). Main symptoms were an anal mass, hematochezia, perianal pain, tenesmus, fecal incontinence, and bowel habit change. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 7.8 months (range, 1 to 36 months). S-100 and HMB-45 were positive in all patients, even in non-melanin pigmentation. There were 12 abdominoperineal resections (APRs) and 7 wide local excisions (WEs). The APR showed longer overall survival when compared with the WE (64.1 months vs. 10.9 months, P < 0.001). No patients who underwent a WE survived more than 13 months.
Conclusion
A high index of suspicion is necessary to establish the diagnosis for an AM in patients with anal symptoms, and S-100 and HMB-45 can be useful markers for an AM. Even with the small number of cases and the short follow-up, our data suggest that an APR for an AM may provide longer survival than a WE.
doi:10.3393/jksc.2011.27.1.27
PMCID: PMC3053498  PMID: 21431094
Anorectal melanoma; Wide excision; Abdominoperineal resection; Immunohistochemical markers
16.  Oxaliplatin-Induced Chronic Peripheral Neurotoxicity: A Prospective Analysis in Patients with Colorectal Cancer 
Purpose
Oxaliplatin-induced chronic peripheral neurotoxicity (OXCPN) manifests as a loss of sensation and dysesthesia in the distal extremities, which may impair daily activities and increase in incidence with the amount of oxaliplatin delivered. The variation in the reported incidence and severity of OXCPN may be a consequence of differences in the baseline characteristics of patients.
Materials and Methods
This was a prospective study (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00977717) in which OXCPN was recorded for all consecutive colon cancer patients treated at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) with oxaliplatin-based combination chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was the incidence of severe OXCPN (grade 2 lasting for >7 days, or grade 3). The association of severe OXCPN and pretreatment parameters was evaluated using a multivariate regression model.
Results
Between Jan 2008 and Feb 2010, 100 patients treated with adjuvant folinic acid/fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) and 266 patients treated with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) or FOLFOX for advanced disease were registered into our study. The median cumulative dose of oxaliplatin was 796 mg/m2 (range, 85 to 1,583 mg/m2). Severe OXCPN was observed in 126 (34%) patients. Overall, 43 patients discontinued chemotherapy due to toxicity: 23 without severe OXCPN and 20 with severe OXCPN. In univariate analysis, severe OXCPN was frequently observed in patients with age ≥55 years (p<0.01), stage II or III (p<0.01), adjuvant setting (p=0.01), FOLFOX (p<0.01), performance status of 0 (p=0.02), and those with no prior chemotherapy (p<0.01). In a multivariate regression model, the number of chemotherapy cycles and the cumulative oxaliplatin dose were not associated with the development of severe OXCPN.
Conclusion
We failed to find a significant association between patient characteristics at baseline and the development of severe OXCPN after oxaliplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Pharmacogenomic profiling using genome-wide association study in these patients is underway.
doi:10.4143/crt.2010.42.4.185
PMCID: PMC3021736  PMID: 21253319
Colorectal neoplasms; Oxaliplatin; Neurotoxicity
17.  Oncologic Outcome after Cessation or Dose Reduction of Capecitabine in Patients with Colon Cancer 
Purpose
Oral capecitabine has been used as adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer patients since the 1990s. Patient-initiated cessation or reduced use of capecitabine occurs widely for various reasons, yet the consequences of these actions are unclear. The present study sought to clarify treatment outcomes in such patients.
Methods
The study included 173 patients who had been diagnosed with stage II or III colon cancer according to the pathologic report after radical surgery at Samsung Medical Center from May 2005 to June 2007 and who had received capecitabine as adjuvant therapy. The patients were divided into groups according to whether the dose was reduced (I, dose maintenance; II, dose reduction) or stopped (A, cycle completion; B, cycle cessation). Recurrence and disease-free survival rates between the two groups each were analyzed.
Results
Of the 173 patients, 128 (74.6%) experienced complications, most frequently hand-foot syndrome (n = 114). Reduction (n = 35) or cessation (n = 18) of medication was most commonly due to complications. Concerning reduced dosage, both groups displayed no statistically significant differences in recurrence rate and 3-year disease-free survival rate. Concerning discontinued medication use, the cycle completion group showed an improved recurrence rate (P = 0.048) and 3-year disease-free survival rate (P = 0.028).
Conclusion
The results demonstrate that maintaining compliance with capecitabine as an adjuvant treatment for colon cancer to preventing complications positively affects patient prognosis.
doi:10.3393/jksc.2010.26.4.287
PMCID: PMC2998011  PMID: 21152231
Colon cancer; Capecitabine; Dose; Cycle; Disease-free survival
18.  Intra-operative Measurement of Surgical Lengths of the Rectum and the Peritoneal Reflection in Korean 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(6):999-1004.
The lengths of the surgical rectum and peritoneal reflection were important factors in treatment modality of rectal tumor. To evaluate the surgical length of rectum, we measured the length of the peritoneal reflections, sacral promontory and termination of the taenia coli from the anal verge by rigid sigmoidoscope in 23 male and 23 females during operation. The mean lengths of the sacral promontory were 16.5± 2.2 cm and 16.1±2.2 cm in the males and females, respectively. As for the peritoneal reflection, the results were anterior (8.8±2.2 cm, 8.1±1.7 cm), lateral (10.8±2.7 cm, 11.4±1.9 cm) and posterior (13.8±2.5 cm, 14.0±1.9 cm), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between male and female. And only height had a correlation with the length of sacral promontory both in male and female (p=0.015 and p=0.018, respectively). For all the estimated lengths, the length of the sacral promontory had a correlation with the lengths of the anterior (p<0.001 and p=0.001) and posterior (p<0.001 and p<0.001) peritoneal reflections in males and females, respectively. We suggest that the intra-operative lengths of the rectum and peritoneal reflection will be useful information for treatment modality of rectal tumor clinically in Korean.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.6.999
PMCID: PMC2610666  PMID: 19119443
Rectum; Sacral Promontory; Peritoneal Reflection
19.  Anal Canal Carcinoma: Experience from a Single Korean Institution 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(5):827-832.
Purpose
The clinical features, treatment modality approaches in clinical practice, and prognostic factors for anal canal carcinoma patients were retrospectively analyzed.
Materials and Methods
Between October 1994 and December 2005, 50 patients with anal canal cancer were treated at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
Results
After a median follow up of 37.8 months (range, 6.6 - 136.1 months), the 5-year and 10-year survival rates for the 38 patients with early and locally advanced squamous and cloacogenic carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma and cloacogenic carcinoma) were 74.8% and 66.5%, respectively. The 5-year survival and disease-free survival rates (DFS) of the 31 patients who received chemoradiation therapy (CRT) were 83.6% and 74.3%, respectively. The overall and DFS could not be determined for the adenocarcinoma group due to the small number of cases (n = 8). Univariate analysis showed that tumor size (p = 0.04) and inguinal node status (p = 0.04) significantly influenced patient survival in patients with squamous cell and cloacogenic carcinomas. Furthermore, univariate analysis also showed that, inguinal node status influenced patient survival in the adenocarcinoma group. Multivariate analysis showed that inguinal node metastasis is a single independent prognostic variable for survival (p = 0.04) in patients with squamous cell and cloacogenic carcinomas.
Conclusion
Combined CRT has been adopted as standard treatment with outcomes that are comparable to those reported in randomized clinical trials. Due to the rarity and complexity of anal canal carcinoma, interdepartmental cooperation is required for disease treatment. Thus, proper treatment of patients should incorporate a team-approach and should be available to as many patients as possible.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2007.48.5.827
PMCID: PMC2628150  PMID: 17963341
Anal canal cancer; neoplasm; chemotherapy; radiotherapy
20.  An Experimental Animal Model of Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Pigs 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(3):427-432.
The objective of this study was to develop an experimental animal model of fulminant hepatic failure to test the efficacy of the bioartificial liver system. The portal vein and the hepatic artery were clamped intermittently and then the hepatic artery was ligated (ligation group, n=5). Pigs whose hepatic arteries were not ligated after clamping were assigned to the non-ligation group (n=5). The biochemical changes in blood, histologic alterations of the liver and neurologic examination for pigs were checked up. All animals died within 17 hr in the ligation group. On the other hand, all animals survived more than 7 days in the non-ligation group. In the ligation group, the levels of ammonia, lactic acid and creatinine showed a progressively increasing pattern. Prothrombin time was also prolonged gradually. Cytoplasmic condensation and nuclear pyknosis of hepatocytes were detected histologically at autopsy. Neurologic findings such as decreased pain sensation, tachypnea and no light reflex of pupils were observed. The findings shown in the ligation group are similar to the clinical features of fulminant hepatic failure in human and this animal model is reproducible. Therefore, this can be a suitable animal model to evaluate the efficacy of the bioartificial liver system for treating fulminant hepatic failure.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.3.427
PMCID: PMC2782198  PMID: 15953864
Models, Animal; Liver Failure, Acute; Hepatic Artery; Hepatic Encephalopathy

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