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1.  Survival outcome of patients with spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma treated surgically or by transarterial embolization 
AIM: To evaluate clinical outcomes of patients that underwent surgery, transarterial embolization (TAE), or supportive care for spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: A consecutive 54 patients who diagnosed as spontaneously ruptured HCC at our institution between 2003 and 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. HCC was diagnosed based on the diagnostic guidelines issued by the 2005 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. HCC rupture was defined as disruption of the peritumoral liver capsule with enhanced fluid collection in the perihepatic area adjacent to the HCC by dynamic liver computed tomography, and when abdominal paracentesis showed an ascitic red blood cell count of > 50000 mm3/mL in bloody fluid.
RESULTS: Of the 54 patients, 6 (11.1%) underwent surgery, 25 (46.3%) TAE, and 23 (42.6%) supportive care. The 2-, 4- and 6-mo cumulative survival rates at 2, 4 and 6 mo were significantly higher in the surgery (60%, 60% and 60%) or TAE (36%, 20% and 20%) groups than in the supportive care group (8.7%, 0% and 0%), respectively (each, P < 0.01), and tended to be higher in the surgical group than in the TAE group. Multivariate analysis showed that serum bilirubin (HR = 1.09, P < 0.01), creatinine (HR = 1.46, P = 0.04), and vasopressor requirement (HR = 2.37, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with post-treatment mortality, whereas surgery (HR = 0.41, P < 0.01), and TAE (HR = 0.13, P = 0.01) were inversely associated with post-treatment mortality.
CONCLUSION: Post-treatment survival after surgery or TAE was found to be better than after supportive care, and surgery tended to provide better survival benefit than TAE.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i28.4537
PMCID: PMC3725379  PMID: 23901230
Ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma; Surgery; Transarterial embolization
2.  Spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt managed by laparoscopic hepatic vein closure 
Journal of Minimal Access Surgery  2014;10(4):207-209.
Intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IPSS) is uncommon and usually follows trauma or iatrogenic injury, but spontaneous shunts may also occur, in patients without the evidence of chronic liver disease. Although interventional endovascular management of the shunts is the treatment of choice, a surgical approach can be used when the percutaneous approach fails. We report here a case of symptomatic spontaneous IPSS between the posteroinferior branch of right portal vein and the right inferior hepatic vein, which was successfully managed with laparoscopic closure of the hepatic vein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of laparoscopic management of spontaneous IPSS.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.141528
PMCID: PMC4204266  PMID: 25336823
Hepatic vein; intrahepatic; laparoscopy; portosystemic shunt; spontaneous
3.  Internal Iliac Artery Embolization during an Endovascular Aneurysm Repair with Detachable Interlock Microcoils 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(5):613-621.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of detachable interlock microcoils for an embolization of the internal iliac artery during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR).
Materials and Methods
A retrospective review was conducted on 40 patients with aortic aneurysms, who had undergone an EVAR between January 2010 and March 2012. Among them, 16 patients were referred for embolization of the internal iliac artery for the prevention of type II endoleaks. Among 16 patients, 13 patients underwent embolization using detachable interlock microcoils during an EVAR. Computed tomographic angiographies and clinical examinations were performed during the follow-up period. Technical success, clinical outcome, and complications were reviewed.
Results
Internal iliac artery embolizations using detachable interlock microcoils were technically successful in all 13 patients, with no occurrence of procedure-related complications. Follow-up imaging was accomplished in the 13 cases. In all cases, type II endoleak was not observed with computed tomographic angiography during the median follow-up of 3 months (range, 1-27 months) and the median clinical follow-up of 12 months (range, 1-27 months). Two of 13 (15%) patients had symptoms of buttock pain, and one patient died due to underlying stomach cancer. No significant clinical symptoms such as bowel ischemia were observed.
Conclusion
Internal iliac artery embolization during an EVAR using detachable interlock microcoils to prevent type II endoleaks appears safe and effective, although this should be further proven in a larger population.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2014.15.5.613
PMCID: PMC4170162  PMID: 25246822
Detachable interlock microcoil; Endovascular aneurysm repair; Internal iliac artery embolization
4.  Spontaneous liver rupture in a patient with peliosis hepatis: A case report 
Peliosis hepatis is a rare pathological entity and may cause fatal hepatic hemorrhage and liver failure. Here, we present a young male patient with aplastic anemia, who had received long-term treatment with oxymetholone. The patient suffered from sudden onset of intra-abdominal hemorrhage with profuse hemoperitoneum. The patient was treated successfully with a right hemihepatectomy and is in good health after 13 postoperative months. We suggest that peliosis hepatis be considered in patients with hepatic parenchymal hematoma, especially in patients under prolonged synthetic anabolic steroid medication. The possibility of a potentially life-threatening complication of massive intra-abdominal bleeding should also be considered.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.5493
PMCID: PMC2778108  PMID: 19916182
Peliosis hepatis; Spontaneous rupture; Liver
5.  Mechanical thrombectomy-assisted thrombolysis for acute symptomatic portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis 
Acute portal vein and mesenteric vein thrombosis (PVMVT) can cause acute mesenteric ischemia and be fatal with mortality rate of 37%-76%. Therefore, early diagnosis and prompt venous revascularization are warranted in patients with acute symptomatic PVMVT. Due to advances in catheter-directed treatment, endovascular treatment has been used for revascularization of affected vessels in PVMVT. We report two cases of symptomatic PVMVT treated successfully by transhepatic percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy-assisted thrombolysis.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.6.334
PMCID: PMC4062453  PMID: 24949327
Venous thrombosis; Endovascular procedures; Mesenteric veins; Portal vein; Ischemia
6.  Repair of type I endoleak by chimney technique after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair 
Endovascular aneurysm repair is a minimally invasive, durable and effective alternative to open surgery for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). However, in patients who do not have an adequate sealing zone, open surgical repair is required, which may increase mortality and morbidity. An alternative treatment in patients with challenging anatomy is the so-called "chimney graft" technique. Here, we describe a case using the chimney graft technique for treatment of juxtarenal type I endoleak followed by a previous conventional stent graft insertion to the AAA with good results.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.5.274
PMCID: PMC4024936  PMID: 24851230
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endoluminal repair; Endoleaks; Chimney graft technique
7.  Relining technique for continuous sac enlargement and modular disconnection secondary to endotension after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair 
Endotension is an unpredictable late complication of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). This case report will discuss the successful treatment of enlarged aneurysmal sac due to endotension using the relining technique. An 81-year-old male complained of nondecreasing huge aneurysm sac. He had undergone EVAR for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm 7 years prior and no endoleak was found through follow-up. Initially computed tomography-guided sac aspiration was tried, but in vain, Relining using the double barrel technique and tubular endograft for modular diconnection, which was unexpectedly found in the original endograft, were performed sucessfully. During follow-up after the relining procedure, the size of aneurysm sac continued to decrease in size. The relining technique is effective mothod for treating endotension.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.3.161
PMCID: PMC3994625  PMID: 24761425
Aortic aneurysm; Endovascular procedures; Endoleak; Complication
8.  Brain Stem Hypoplasia Associated with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2013;14(6):960-962.
Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2013.14.6.960
PMCID: PMC3835645  PMID: 24265573
Cri-du-Chat syndrome; Genetic disorder; Brain stem hypoplasia; Brain MRI
9.  Primary Osteosarcoma Arising from the Middle Turbinate in a Pediatric Patient 
Osteosarcomas usually occur as secondary tumors after radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Without a history of irradiation to the head and neck area, primary osteosarcoma of the turbinate is extremely rare. We report here a rare case of primary turbinate osteosarcoma presenting as a relatively small, well-circumscribed, turbinate mass. Its appearance mimicked a benign nasal mass like mucocele and polyp. We also reviewed the previously reported cases of tumor arising from turbinate.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2012.5.4.237
PMCID: PMC3506777  PMID: 23205231
Osteosarcoma; Turbinate; Primary
10.  Stent fractures after superficial femoral artery stenting 
Stent fracture is one of the major factors compromising implanted stent patency due to its consequences including in-stent restenosis, thrombosis, perforation, and migration. Stent fracture can occur from stress (extrinsic or intrinsic) and biomechanical forces at different implantation sites. We report on 2 cases of stent fractures and pertinent literature. One patient, a 75-year-old male, presented with recurrence of claudication 14 months after superficial femoral artery stenting; a femoral artery occlusion with stent fracture was found, and he underwent femoropopliteal bypass. The other patient, a 72-year-old male presented with recurrence of claudication; a stent fracture was found without femoral artery occlusion, and he was treated with additional femoral artery stenting to secure the fracture site.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.3.183
PMCID: PMC3433557  PMID: 22977767
Stents; Vascular patency; Femoral artery; Early intervention
11.  Successful treatment of type I endoleak of common iliac artery with balloon expandable stent (Palmaz XL stent) during endovascular aneurysm repair 
Type 1 endoleak of common iliac artery (type Ib endoleak) should be treated during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). An 86-year-old female was diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysm measuring 6.6 cm in diameter and right internal iliac artery aneurysm measuring 4.0 cm in diameter. She underwent EVAR after right internal iliac artery embolization. There was type Ib endoleak, which was repaired by balloon-expandable stent, Palmaz XL stent (Cordis). We report successful treatment of type Ib endoleak with Palmaz XL stent, which may be considered as an alternative option for type Ib endoleak after EVAR.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.1.59
PMCID: PMC3268146  PMID: 22324049
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endovascular procedure; Endoleak
12.  Successful hybrid operation of an acute mobile thrombus in the abdominal aorta induced by chemotherapy 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;81(Suppl 1):S78-S81.
Acute mobile thrombus of the abdominal aorta after chemotherapy is a very unusual finding, which can be a potential source of arterial embolism. We report here on a case of an acute mobile aortic thrombus with renal infarction. We successfully treated the patient with hybrid operation-open surgical and endovascular approach. Our case shows that hybrid treatment using wire-directed balloon catheter thrombectomy is a feasible, minimally-invasive treatment for a mobile aortic thrombus.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.Suppl1.S78
PMCID: PMC3267073  PMID: 22319746
Abdominal; Angioplasty; Aorta; Thrombectomy; Thrombosis
13.  Pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery mimicking tumorous condition 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;80(Suppl 1):S71-S74.
Diagnosing pseudoaneurysms of the popliteal artery is usually straightforward in physical examinations and imaging findings. However, when a pseudoaneurysm shows a soft tissue mass with adjacent osseous change, it can mimic a bone tumor or a soft tissue sarcoma. We present a case of a 65-year-old man who had a pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery showing soft tissue mass and insinuating into the intramedullary cavity of the tibia. This presented case emphasizes the importance of considering pseudoaneurysms in the differential diagnosis of an apparent soft tissue mass with pressure erosion in adjacent bone.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.Suppl1.S71
PMCID: PMC3205379  PMID: 22066090
Pseudoaneurysm; Popliteal artery; Tumor
14.  Determination of Diameter and Angulation of the Normal Common Bile Duct using Multidetector Computed Tomography 
Gut and Liver  2009;3(4):306-310.
Background/Aims
Common bile duct stones are associated with the extent of dilation of the common bile duct as well as its angulation. Multidetector computed tomography (MD CT) has a good resolution for the definition of the anatomical features of the common bile duct.
Methods
The multiplanar reformation images of 398 patients that underwent multidetector CT for the diagnosis of disorders not related to the bile duct were examined. The diameter and angulation were categorized by gender and age.
Results
The average diameter and angulation of the common bile duct was 6.7 mm and 132.6°. There was a statistically significant correlation between age and the common bile duct diameter. The Pearson correlation analysis for age and diameter resulted in a value of 0.415 (p<0.001). And the common bile duct (CBD) diameter in people older than 51 years of age showed a significant difference compared to the subjects younger than 50 years of age (p<0.01). However, the degree of angulation has no correlation with age.
Conclusions
We suggest that CBD diameters in patients more than 50 years of age can be more than 7 mm and be within normal limits.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2009.3.4.306
PMCID: PMC2852735  PMID: 20431765
Computed tomography; Common bile duct; Angle; Diameter
15.  In-vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Adnexal Lesions 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2002;3(2):105-112.
Objective
To explore the in-vivo 1H- MR spectral features of adnexal lesions and to characterize the spectral patterns of various pathologic entities.
Materials and Methods
Thirty-one patients with surgically and histopathologically confirmed adnexal lesions underwent short echo-time STEAM (stimulated echo acquisition method) 1H- MR spectroscopy, and the results obtained were analysed.
Results
The methylene present in fatty acid chains gave rise to a lipid peak of 1.3 ppm in the 1H- MR spectra of most malignant tumors and benign teratomas. This same peak was not observed, however, in the spectra of benign ovarian epithelial tumors: in a number of these, a peak of 5.2 ppm, due to the presence of the olefine group (-CH=CH-) was noted. The ratios of lipid peak at 1.3 ppm to water peak (lipid/water ratios) varied between disease groups, and in some benign teratomas was characteristically high.
Conclusion
An intense lipid peak at 1.3 ppm is observed in malignant ovarian tumors but not in benign epithelial tumors. 1H- MRS may therefore be helpful in the differential diagnosis of adnexal lesions.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2002.3.2.105
PMCID: PMC2713833  PMID: 12087200
Magnetic resonance (MR), spectroscopy; Ovary, MR; Ovary, neoplasms
16.  The Efficacy of Metallic Stent Placement in the Treatment of Colorectal Obstruction 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2002;3(2):79-86.
Objective
To evaluate the efficacy of newly designed covered and non-covered coated colorectal stents for colonic decompression.
Materials and Methods
Twenty-six patients, (15 palliative cases and 11 preoperative) underwent treatment for the relief of colorectal obstruction using metallic stents positioned under fluoroscopic guidance. In 24 of the 26, primary colorectal carcinoma was diagnosed, and in the remaining two, recurrent colorectal carcinoma. Twenty-one patients were randomly selected to receive either a type A or type B stent; for the remaining five, type C was used. Type A, an uncovered nitinol wire stent, was lightly coated to ensure structural integrity. Type B (flare type) and C (shoulder type) stents were polyurethane covered and their diameter was 24 and 26mm, respectively. The rates of technical success, clinical success, and complications were analyzed using the chi-square test, and to analyse the mean period of patency, the Kaplan-Meier method was used.
Results
Thirty of 31 attempted placements in 26 patients were successful, with a technical success rate of 96.8% (30/31) and a clinical success rate of 80.0% (24/30). After clinically successful stent placement, bowel decompression occurred within 1-4 (mean, 1.58 ± 0.9) days. Five of six clinical failures involved stent migration and one stent did not expand after successful placement. In the preoperative group, 11 stents, one of which migrated, were placed in ten patients, in all of whom bowel preparation was successful. In the palliative group, 19 stents were placed in 15 patients. The mean period of patency was 96.25 ± 105.12 days: 146.25 ± 112.93 for type-A, 78.82 ± 112.26 for type-B, and 94.25 ± 84.21 for type-C. Complications associated with this procedure were migration (n=6, 20%), pain (n=4, 13.3%), minor bleeding (n=5, 16.7%), incomplete expansion (n=1, 3.3%), and tumor ingrowth (n=1, 3.3%). The migration rate was significantly higher in the type-B group than in other groups (p=0.038).
Conclusion
Newly designed covered and non-covered metallic stents of a larger diameter are effective for the treatment of colorectal obstruction. The migration rate of covered stents with flaring is higher than that of other types. For evaluation of the ideal stent configuration for the relief of colorectal obstruction, a clinical study involving a larger patient group is warranted.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2002.3.2.79
PMCID: PMC2713840  PMID: 12087197
Colon, interventional procedure; Colon, neoplasm; Colon, stenosis or obstruction; Stents and prostheses

Results 1-16 (16)