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1.  Comparison of Epidemiology, Emergency Care, and Outcomes of Acute Ischemic Stroke between Young Adults and Elderly in Korean Population: A Multicenter Observational Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(7):985-991.
Stroke in young adults has been known to show a lower incidence and a better prognosis. Only a few studies have examined the epidemiology and outcomes of ischemic stroke in young adults and compared them with the elderly in Korean population. All consecutive patients with ischemic stroke visiting 29 participating emergency departments were enrolled from November 2007 to October 2009. Patients with less than 15 yr of age and unknown information on age and confirmed diagnosis were excluded. We categorized the patients into young adults (15 to 45 yr) and elderly (46 yr and older) groups. Of 39,156 enrolled all stroke patients, 25,818 with ischemic stroke were included and analyzed (young adult; n=1,431, 5.5%). Young adult patients showed lower prevalence of most chronic diseases but significantly higher prevalence in exercise, current smoking, and alcohol consumption. Hospital mortality was significantly lower in young adults than elderly (1.1% vs. 3.1%, P<0.001). Higher number of patients in elderly group (68.1%) showed worsening change of modified Rankin Scale than young adults (65.2%). Young adults ischemic stroke showed favorable hospital outcomes than the elderly in Korean population.
Graphical Abstract
PMCID: PMC4101788  PMID: 25045232
Stroke; Age Distribution; Epidemiology; Outcome Assessment
2.  Malignant thyroid bed mass after total thyroidectomy 
Ultrasonographic (US) criteria on malignant thyroid bed mass have been suggested, including taller than wide shape, loss of echogenic hilum, abnormal vascularity, and microcalcification. The relationship between fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology findings and US findings on thyroid bed mass is unknown. We have retrospectively assessed the malignant thyroid bed mass after total thyroidectomy due to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
We retrospectively evaluated 2,048 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy due to PTC. FNA was performed in 97 patients on the thyroid bed under US surveillance. The 97 suspicious thyroid bed masses were divided into two groups: metastatic thyroid bed group (n = 34) and nonmetastatic group (n = 63). The groups were evaluated according to various clinical, serologic, and US findings.
Within a median 47.0 months of follow-up, the proportion of malignant thyroid bed mass was high in large tumor size (1.37 cm vs. 1.03 cm), isthmic position (10.3% vs. 3.9%), and previous N1a (55.9% vs. 34.9%). US findings revealed that the presence of microcalcification or macrocalcification (47.1% vs. 19.0%) and thyroid bed mass height (5.4 mm vs. 3.9 mm) were the only discriminable criteria for central compartment recurrence. But, degree of echogenicity, loss of hilum, and irregularity of margin failed to discriminate malignant thyroid bed mass.
US findings on malignant thyroid bed mass were different from previously reported general criteria on lateral metastatic nodes. Additional FNA cytology should be performed on patients, even low-risk patients, who present the above findings.
PMCID: PMC3764368  PMID: 24020017
Ultrasonography; Fine-needle biopsy; Thyroidectomy; Papillary thyroid cancer
3.  Epidemiology and Outcomes in Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Report from the NEDIS-Based Cardiac Arrest Registry in Korea 
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a significant issue affecting national health policies. The National Emergency Department Information System for Cardiac Arrest (NEDIS-CA) consortium managed a prospective registry of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) at the emergency department (ED) level. We analyzed the NEDIS-CA data from 29 participating hospitals from January 2008 to July 2009. The primary outcomes were incidence of OHCA and final survival outcomes at discharge. Factors influencing survival outcomes were assessed as secondary outcomes. The implementation of advanced emergency management (drugs, endotracheal intubation) and post-cardiac arrest care (therapeutic hypothermia, coronary intervention) was also investigated. A total of 4,156 resuscitation-attempted OHCAs were included, of which 401 (9.6%) patients survived to discharge and 79 (1.9%) were discharged with good neurologic outcomes. During the study period, there were 1,662,470 ED visits in participant hospitals; therefore, the estimated number of resuscitation-attempted CAs was 1 per 400 ED visits (0.25%). Factors improving survival outcomes included younger age, witnessed collapse, onset in a public place, a shockable rhythm in the pre-hospital setting, and applied advanced resuscitation care. We found that active advanced multidisciplinary resuscitation efforts influenced improvement in the survival rate. Resuscitation by public witnesses improved the short-term outcomes (return of spontaneous circulation, survival admission) but did not increase the survival to discharge rate. Strategies are required to reinforce the chain of survival and high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Korea.
Graphical Abstract
PMCID: PMC4278034  PMID: 25552889
Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Resuscitation; Outcome; Cardiac Rhythms; Emergency Department
4.  Tumorigenesis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Is Not BRAF-Dependent in Patients with Acromegaly 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e110241.
Several studies have reported a high frequency of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in patients with acromegaly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly and to investigate the frequency of the BRAFV600E mutation in PTC patients with and without acromegaly.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients with acromegaly. Thyroid ultrasonography (US) and US-guided fine needle aspiration were performed on nodules with sonographic features of malignancy. We selected 16 patients with non-acromegalic PTC as a control group. The BRAFV600E mutation was analyzed in paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of PTC by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and tumor specimens from patients with PTC were stained immunohistochemically with an antibody against insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor β (IGF-1Rβ).
Thyroid cancer was found in 15 (25.0%) patients. No differences in age, sex, initial growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 percentage of the upper limit of normal values or treatment modalities were observed between patients with and without PTC. Acromegaly was active in 12 of 15 patients at the time of PTC diagnosis; uncontrolled acromegaly had a significantly higher frequency in the PTC group (60%) than in the non-PTC group (28.9%) (p = 0.030). The BRAFV600E mutation was present in only 9.1% (1/11) of PTC patients with acromegaly, although 62.5% (10/16) of control patients with PTC had the mutation (p = 0.007). IGF-1Rβ immunostaining showed moderate-to-strong staining in all malignant PTC cells in patients with and without acromegaly. Significantly less staining for IGF-1Rβ was observed in normal adjacent thyroid tissues of PTC patients with acromegaly compared with those without (p = 0.014).
The prevalence of PTC in acromegalic patients was high (25%). An uncontrolled hyperactive GH-IGF-1 axis may play a dominant role in the development of PTC rather than the BRAFV600E mutation in patients with acromegaly.
PMCID: PMC4201528  PMID: 25329702
5.  Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Thyroid Gland: A Brief Case Report 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2014;48(4):319-322.
PMCID: PMC4160598  PMID: 25214867
6.  Atypia of undetermined significance on thyroid fine needle aspiration: surgical outcome and risk factors for malignancy 
This study was performed to analyze the surgical pathology results of the "atypia of undetermined significance" (AUS) category from thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) and to describe the characteristics to distinguish a malignant from a benign nodule.
A retrospective analysis was done on 116 patients who underwent thyroid surgery from December 2008 to December 2012, following a diagnosis of AUS from preoperative thyroid FNA. We investigated the age, gender, size and site of the nodules, ultrasonographic criteria, cytological features, the number of atypia results after repeated FNAs, surgical method, and final pathologic results.
Sixty-five out of 116 patients underwent total thyroidectomy and the rest had partial thyroidectomy. The final pathologic results were 41 malignancies (35.3%) and 75 benign diseases (64.7%). AUS was divided into group 1: 'cannot rule out malignancy' or group 2: 'cannot rule out follicular neoplasm'. After surgery, group 1 revealed papillary thyroid cancer in most cases and group 2 revealed follicular adenoma in most cases. Age over 40 years, ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy, more than 2 results of atypia from repeated FNAs and nodules less than 2 centimeters were risk factors for malignancy on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy was a significant risk factor for malignancy.
For proper evaluation of the risk for malignancy in thyroid AUS patients, the ultrasonographic criteria should be considered along with other clinicopathological findings such as age, nodule size, number of atypia, cytologic features.
PMCID: PMC3994624  PMID: 24761418
Atypia of undetermined significance; Fine needle aspiration; Thyroid neoplasms
7.  Subcutaneous Panniculitis-Like T-Cell Lymphoma of the Breast 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2013;14(3):391-394.
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a rare subtype of cutaneous lymphoma. There have been a few case reports describing the radiologic imaging findings of SPTCL. We report a case of SPTCL, rarely presented with a breast mass. Here, we review her clinical history and radiologic (mammography and ultrasound) findings.
PMCID: PMC3655289  PMID: 23690702
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma; Breast; Mammography; Ultrasound
8.  Age and prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma: retrospective stratification into three groups 
We investigated the prognosis according to age in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients.
We retrospectively evaluated 2,890 patients who underwent thyroidectomy due to PTC between May 2004 and Aug 2008. We divided patients into 3 groups: young (≤35 years old), middle (between 35 and 54 years old), and old (≥55 years old).
Median age was 47.0 years old (range, 15 to 82 years). Within a follow-up period median of 50 months, there were 148 (5.1%) locoregional recurrences, 6 (0.2%) PTC-related deaths, and 18 (0.6%) PTC-unrelated deaths. Outcomes were more favorable in the young group, with no PTC-related death despite the frequent locoregional recurrence. In the old group compared to the middle, there was a higher proportion of male, and more aggressive types as T3 or N1b, higher mean tumor number, more multiplicity, and bilaterality. The old group of ≥55 years did not show a significant difference in PTC-related deaths than other age groups in Cox analysis (OR, 0.9; P = 0.677), but a significant cutoff age in PTC-related deaths at 62.5 years was determined in ROC analysis (area under curve = 0.912).
We showed that the ≤35 years group shows favorable prognosis despite the frequent locoregional recurrence and ≥62.5 years group shows a poor prognosis regardless of other factors such as male sex or tumor aggressiveness. Further multiinstitutional studies are needed to elucidate the prognosis according to patient's age.
PMCID: PMC3491227  PMID: 23166884
Age; Prognosis; Papillary thyroid carcinoma
9.  Observational study of central metastases following thyroid lobectomy without a completion thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma 
There are no guidelines for the optimal timing of the decision of when to perform completion thyroidectomy, and controversy exists regarding how the timing of completion thyroidectomy impacts survival patterns. We investigated the legitimacy of an observational strategy in central node metastasis after thyroid lobectomy for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
We retrospectively evaluated 522 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy. Of the 69 patients with central metastasis, 61 patients (88.4%) were included in an observational study under cautious evaluation with informed consent by the patients, and compared with an observation arm of 180 postlobectomy N0 (node negative proven) patients.
Of the 522 patients, six (1.1%) thyroid, five (0.9%) central, and two (0.4%) lateral recurrences were observed. Lateral recurrences occurred in the immediate completion N0 and Nx groups but not in the N1a observation arms. There were two (3.3%) central recurrences without thyroid or lateral recurrence on the observation arm of N1a observation patients. But two (1.1%) thyroid and three (1.7%) central recurrences were on the observation arm of N0 patients. In Kaplan-Meier survival curves for central or lateral recurrences between observation arms for the N1a and N0 groups, no significant difference was found between the N1a and N0 observation arms (P = 0.365).
The timing of when to perform completion thyroidectomy in central metastases-proven patients after lobectomy for PTC should be based on the patient's risk category.
PMCID: PMC3467385  PMID: 23091791
Observation; Lymphatic metastasis; Thyroid neoplasms; Thyroidectomy
11.  Is it possible to predict hypothyroidism after thyroid lobectomy through thyrotropin, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroglobulin, and anti-microsomal antibody? 
We investigated the incidence and risk factors of hypothyroidism after thyroid lobectomy, and evaluated the possibility to predict hypothyroidism preoperatively with serologic markers, such as thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), anti-thyroglobulin (ATA), and anti-microsomal antibody (AMA).
We enrolled 123 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy due to benign conditions between May 2004 and April 2008. Only preoperative euthyroid patients were included. Patients were divided into two groups by postoperative thyroid function outcomes, into hypothyroid (n = 97) and euthyroid groups (n = 26), and analyzed specially for the preoperative levels of TSH, TG, ATA, and AMA.
Twenty-six (21.1%) patients developed hypothyroidism following thyroid lobectomy within 35.7 months of follow-up. The proportion of post-lobectomy hypothyroidism was high in patients with high-normal preoperative TSH level, and the cut-off value was 2.0 mIU/L, with 67% sensitivity and 75% specificity. The quantitative titer of preoperative TG, ATA, and AMA was not significant, but the outcome of categorical analysis of two or more positivities on these three markers was significantly higher in hypothyroid patients than in euthyroid patients (28.6% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.024). The combined positivity of preoperative TSH and two or more positivities of TG, ATA, and AMA possess 100% positive predictive value and 81% negative predictive value.
The incidence of hypothyroidism following thyroid lobectomy was 21.1%. High-normal preoperative TSH and two or more positivities for TG, ATA, and AMA are good pre-operative predictive markers. Such high-risk patients need close TSH monitoring before the onset of clinical hypothyroidism.
PMCID: PMC3243854  PMID: 22200038
Hypothyroidism; Thyrotropin; Thyroglobulin; Thyroid microsomal antibodies
12.  Primary papillary carcinoma originated from a branchial cleft cyst 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;81(Suppl 1):S12-S16.
Although branchial cleft cysts are common, papillary carcinomas arising from them are rare. Here we report a 41-year-old woman with papillary carcinoma originating from a right lateral branchial cleft cyst without any evidence of a papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland. The patient underwent right lateral neck dissection followed by total thyroidectomy. We then confirmed papillary carcinoma arising from the branchial cleft cyst through microscopic and immunohistochemical staining with thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid-associated transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and p63. It is the 10th case worldwide describing papillary carcinoma in a branchial cleft cyst with a review of the literature on the features of the disease and discussion of the role of immunohistochemical staining with TG, TTF -1 and p63. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that the surgeon must be cautioned of the possibility of primary papillary carcinoma in the branchial cleft cyst.
PMCID: PMC3267057  PMID: 22319730
Branchioma; Thyroid neoplasms; Papillary carcinoma
13.  Analysis of Infections Occurring in Breast Cancer Patients after Breast Conserving Surgery Using Mesh 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2011;14(4):328-332.
Breast conserving surgery using mesh can effectively fill the defective space, but there is the risk of infection.
From June 2007 to August 2010, 243 patients who underwent breast conserving surgery with polyglactin 910 mesh insert for breast cancer at our institution were retrospectively studied.
Infection occurred in 25 (10.3%) of 243 patients. When comparing the infection and non-infection groups in multivariate analysis, there was no significant difference in age, underlying disease, preoperative biopsy methods, mass location, axillary lymph node dissection, operative methods, neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy use, mass size and removed breast volume. The infection appeared more common only in patients with body mass index (BMI) greater than 25. Infection symptoms occurred, on average, 119.5 days after surgery, and the average duration of the required treatment was 34.4 days. Out of 25 patients with postoperative infection complications, 16 (64%) patients underwent incision and drainage with mesh removal, whereas the remaining 9 (36%) only required conservative treatment.
During breast conserving surgery, the risk of infection is increased in patients with high BMI, and should be taken into account when considering insertion of a polyglactin 910 mesh. Patient's age, underlying disease and perioperative treatment methods were not significant risk factors for developing mesh infection. Given that most infections seem to develop symptoms one month after surgery, a long enough observation period should be initiated. Early detection and appropriate conservative treatments may effectively address infections, thus reducing the need for more invasive therapies.
PMCID: PMC3268931  PMID: 22323921
Breast neoplasms; Breast-conserving surgery; Infection; Polyglactin 910
14.  Thyroid gland metastasis arising from primary liver cholangiocarcinoma: The first case report involving surgical operation 
A primary cancer causing thyroid metastasis is extremely rare. In western countries, the most common primary tumors causing thyroid metastases include kidney, lung, breast, and gastrointestinal cancers. In contrast, breast is the most common primary site, followed by kidney, colon, and lung cancers in Korea. To the best of our knowledge, surgically confirmed thyroid metastasis from cholangiocarcinoma has not been reported. Herein, we report the first case of thyroid metastasis secondary to cholangiocarcinoma on which surgery was performed.
Presentation of case
A 55-year-old man was diagnosed with hepatic malignancy in December 2008. He subsequently received 2 cycles of transarterial chemoembolization and 4 cycles of radio-frequency ablation between 2008 and 2010. At follow-up in January 2011, brain metastasis was identified in the right parietal area secondary to cholangiocarcinoma. In April 2011, the patient was found to have palpable masses on the left thyroid and lateral neck. The patient subsequently underwent total thyroidectomy followed by left radical neck dissection. Intraoperatively, an ill-defined mass measuring 6.0 cm was found infiltrating the subcutaneous tissue into the prevertebral fascia. Microscopic and immunohistochemical findings confirmed that the thyroid masses and lymph nodes were metastatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Positive immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, and AFP and negative results for TG, TTF-1, and cytokeratin 20 can be definitely helpful in arriving at a correct diagnosis.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report on surgically resected thyroid and lateral neck metastases secondary to cholangiocarcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3267264  PMID: 22288052
Neoplasm metastasis; Thyroid metastasis; Cholangiocarcinoma
15.  The Role of Lymphovascular Invasion as a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Lymph Node-Positive Operable Invasive Breast Cancer 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2011;14(3):198-203.
Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is an important prognostic factor in patients with lymph node-negative patients with invasive breast cancer. However, the prognostic value of LVI it is unclear and controversial about its prognostic value in patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer patients. So, we report the an analysis of the prognostic significance of LVI in a large cohort study of patients with lymph node-positive patients with invasive breast cancer.
We retrospectively reviewed 967 patients with invasive breast cancer that had undergone surgical treatment at our hospital, from January 2004 to December 2007. Among these thempatients, 349 patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer patients are were included in this study. We evaluated clinical and pathological data in these patients, we compared with 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival between an LVI-present group and an LVI-absent group.
The median follow-up was 48 months (range, 12-78 months), and the mean age of the patients was 48 years (range, 23-78 years). LVI was present in 192 patients (55%) of with tumors and was associated with age ≤40 years (p=0.009), high histologichistological grade (p=0.007), estrogen receptor status (p=0.001), tumor size ≥2 cm (p<0.001), and number of involved lymph nodes (p<0.001), but not with progesterone receptor status, HER2 status, p53 status, or tumor multiplicity. LVI was a significant independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (p<0.001) and overall survival (p=0.006). By multivariate analysis revealed that LVI (p=0.003), number of involved lymph nodes (≥4; p=0.005), and high histological grade (II and III; p=0.02) was were an independent significant predictors of disease-free survival and overall survival in the whole group of patients.
In this case, we demonstrated that LVI is a significant predictor of poor prognosis in patients with lymph node-positive patients with primary invasive breast cancer, LVI is a significant predictive predictor value of poor prognosis. So, LVI should be considered in the therapeutic strategy as a decision making tool in the adjuvant chemotherapy setting.
PMCID: PMC3200515  PMID: 22031801
Breast neoplasms; Lymph node metastasis; Lymphovascular invasion; Prognostic factor
16.  Hormonal responses upon return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest: a retrospective cohort study 
Critical Care  2011;15(1):R53.
Cardiac arrest is often fatal and can be extremely stressful to patients, even if spontaneous rhythm is returned. The purpose of this study was to analyze the hormonal response after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).
This is a retrospective review of the chart and laboratory findings in a single medical facility. The patients admitted to the intensive care unit after successful resuscitation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were retrospectively identified and evaluated. Patients with hormonal diseases, patients who received cortisol treatment, those experiencing trauma, and pregnant women were excluded. Serum cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH (vasopressin)) were analyzed and a corticotropin-stimulation test was performed. Mortality at one week and one month after admission, and neurologic outcome (cerebral performance category (CPC)) one month after admission were evaluated.
A total of 117 patients, including 84 males (71.8%), were evaluated in this study. One week and one month after admission, 87 (74.4%) and 65 patients (55.6%) survived, respectively. Relative adrenal insufficiency, and higher plasma ACTH and ADH levels were associated with shock-related mortality (P = 0.046, 0.005, and 0.037, respectively), and ACTH and ADH levels were also associated with late mortality (P = 0.002 and 0.004, respectively). Patients with relative adrenal insufficiency, ACTH ≧5 pg/mL, and ADH ≧30 pg/mL, had a two-fold increased risk of a poor outcome (shock-related mortality): (odds ratio (OR), 2.601 and 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.015 to 6.664; OR, 2.759 and 95% CI, 1.060 to 7.185; OR, 2.576 and 95% CI, 1.051 to 6.313, respectively). Thirty-five patients (29.9%) had a good CPC (1 to 2), and 82 patients (70.1%) had a bad CPC (3 to 5). Age ≧50 years and an ADH ≧30 pg/mL were associated with a bad CPC (OR, 4.564 and 95% CI, 1.794 to 11.612; OR, 6.568 and 95% CI, 1.918 to 22.483, respectively).
The patients with relative adrenal insufficiency and higher blood levels of ACTH and ADH upon ROSC after cardiac arrest had a poor outcome. The effectiveness of administration of cortisol and ADH to patients upon ROSC after cardiac arrest is uncertain and additional studies are needed.
PMCID: PMC3221984  PMID: 21299901

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