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1.  Simultaneous intrahepatic and subgaleal hemorrhage in antiphospholipid syndrome following anticoagulation therapy 
Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant. Interindividual differences in drug response, a narrow therapeutic range and the risk of bleeding render warfarin difficult to use clinically. An 18-year-old woman with antiphospholipid syndrome received long-term warfarin therapy for a recurrent deep vein thrombosis. Six years later, she developed right flank pain. We diagnosed intrahepatic and subgaleal hemorrhages secondary to anticoagulation therapy. After stopping oral anticoagulation, a follow-up computed tomography showed improvement in the hemorrhage. After restarting warfarin because of a recurrent thrombosis, the intrahepatic hemorrhage recurred. We decided to start clopidogrel and hydroxychloroquine instead of warfarin. The patient has not developed further recurrent thrombotic or bleeding episodes. Intrahepatic hemorrhage is a very rare complication of warfarin, and our patient experienced intrahepatic and subgaleal hemorrhage although she did not have any risk factors for bleeding or instability of the international normalized ratio control.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i38.6494
PMCID: PMC3798414  PMID: 24151371
Warfarin; Liver; Subgaleal; Hemorrhage; Antiphospholipid syndrome
2.  Gastric ischemia after epinephrine injection in a patient with liver cirrhosis 
Endoscopic epinephrine injection is relatively easy, quick and inexpensive. Furthermore, it has a low rate of complications, and it is widely used for the management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. There have been several case reports of gastric ischemia after endoscopic injection therapy. Inadvertent intra-arterial injection may result in either spasm or thrombosis, leading to subsequent tissue ischemia or necrosis, although the stomach has a rich vascular supply and the vascular reserve of the intramural anastomosis. In addition to endoscopic injection therapy, smoking, hypertension and atherosclerosis are risk factors of gastric ischemia. We report a case of gastric ischemia after submucosal epinephrine injection in a 51-year-old woman with hypertension and liver cirrhosis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i3.411
PMCID: PMC3554828  PMID: 23372366
Hematemesis; Epinephrine; Gastric ischemia; Liver cirrhosis; Hypertension
3.  Efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma 
AIM: To investigate the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) using floxuridine (FUDR) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) confined to the liver.
METHODS: Thirty-four patients who had advanced HCC with unresectability or unsuccessful previous therapy in the absence of extrahepatic metastasis were treated with intra-arterial FUDR chemotherapy at our hospital between March 2005 and May 2008. Among the 34 patients, 9 patients were classified as Child class C, and 18 patients had portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). One course of chemotherapy consisted of continuous infusion of FUDR (0.3 mg/kg during day 1-14) and dexamethasone (10 mg on day 1, 4, 7 and 11), and this treatment was repeated every 28 d.
RESULTS: Two patients (5.9%) displayed a complete response, and 12 patients (35.3%) had a partial response. The tumor control rate was 61.8%. The median overall survival times were 15.3 mo, 12.4 mo and 4.3 mo for the patients who were classified as Child class A, Child class B and Child class C, respectively (P = 0.0392). The progression-free survival was 12.9 mo, 7.7 mo and 2.6 mo for the patients who were classified as Child class A, Child class B and Child class C, respectively (P = 0.0443). The cumulative survival differed significantly according to the Child-Pugh classification and the presence of PVTT. In addition to hepatic reserve capacity and PVTT, the extent of HCC was an independent factor in determining a poor prognosis. The most common adverse reactions to HAIC were mucositis, diarrhea and peptic ulcer disease, but most of these complications were improved by medical treatment and/or a delay of HAIC.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that intra-arterial FUDR chemotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for advanced HCC that is recalcitrant to other therapeutic modalities, even in patients with advanced cirrhosis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i26.3426
PMCID: PMC3396196  PMID: 22807613
Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy; Floxuridine; Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma; Child-Pugh classification; Portal vein tumor thrombus
4.  Splenic infarction associated with sorafenib use in a hepatocellular carcinoma patient 
Sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to improve survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As the clinical use of sorafenib increases, many adverse effects have been reported, such as hand-foot skin reaction, diarrhea, anorexia, asthenia, alopecia, weight loss, hypertension and arterial thromboembolism. However, there are no prior reports of splenic infarction as an adverse effect of sorafenib. Here, a case of splenic infarction in a patient with HCC who was treated with sorafenib is reported. The patient had no other predisposing factors to explain the splenic infarction except for the administration of sorafenib. The splenic infarction improved after sorafenib was discontinued; however, the HCC progressed.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i2.267
PMCID: PMC3020384  PMID: 21246003
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Sorafenib; Tyrosine kinase inhibitor; Adverse effects; Splenic infarction
5.  Management of giant hepatic cysts in the laparoscopic era 
Purpose
We sought to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts and surgical success, focusing on cyst recurrence.
Methods
From February 2004 to August 2011, 37 consecutive patients with symptomatic hepatic cysts were evaluated and treated at Dong-A University Hospital. Indications were simple cysts (n = 20), multiple cysts (n = 6), polycystic disease (n = 2), and cystadenoma (n = 9).
Results
The median patient age was 64 years, with a mean lesion diameter of 11.4 cm. The coincidence between preoperative imaging and final pathologic diagnosis was 54% and half (n = 19) of the cysts were located in segments VII and VIII. Twenty-two patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification I and II, and nine had ASA classification III. Surgical treatment of hepatic cysts were open liver resection (n = 3), laparoscopic deroofing (n = 24), laparoscopic cyst excision (n = 4), laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (n = 2), hand assisted laparoscopic procedure (n = 2), and single port laparoscopic deroofing (n = 2). The mean fellow-up was 21 months, and six patients (16%) experienced radiographic-apparent recurrence. Reoperation due to recurrence was performed in two patients. Among the factors predicting recurrence, multivariate analysis revealed that interventional radiological procedures and pathologic diagnosis were statistically significant.
Conclusion
Laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts is a simple and effective method to relieve symptoms with minimal surgical trauma. Moreover, the recurrence is dependent on the type of pathology involved, and the sclerotherapy undertaken.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.116
PMCID: PMC3764362  PMID: 24020020
Liver; Hepatic cyst; Laparoscopy
6.  Efficacy and safety of entecavir plus carnitine complex (GODEX®) compared to entecavir monotherapy in patient with ALT elevated chronic hepatitis B: randomized, multicenter open-label trials. The GOAL study 
Clinical and molecular hepatology  2013;19(2):165-172.
Background/Aims
Carnitine and vitamin complex (Godex®) is widely used in patients with chronic liver disease who show elevated liver enzyme in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to identify the efficacy and safety of carnitine from entecavir combination therapy in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevated Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) patients.
Methods
130 treatment-naïve patients with CHB were enrolled from 13 sites. The patients were randomly selected to the entecavir and the complex of entecavir and carnitine. The primary endpoint of the study is ALT normalization level after 12 months.
Results
Among the 130 patients, 119 patients completed the study treatment. The ALT normalization at 3 months was 58.9% for the monotherapy and 95.2% for the combination therapy (P<0.0001). ALT normalization rate at 12 months was 85.7% for the monotherapy and 100% for the combination group (P=0.0019). The rate of less than HBV DNA 300 copies/mL at 12 months was not statistically significant (P=0.5318) 75.9% for the monotherapy, 70.7% for the combination and it was. Quantification of HBsAg level was not different from the monotherapy to combination at 12 months. Changes of ELISPOT value to evaluate the INF-γ secretion by HBsAg showed the increasing trend of combination therapy compare to mono-treatment.
Conclusions
ALT normalization rate was higher in carnitine complex combination group than entecavir group in CHB. Combination group was faster than entecavir mono-treatment group on ALT normalization rate. HBV DNA normalization rate and the serum HBV-DNA level were not changed by carnitine complex treatment.
doi:10.3350/cmh.2013.19.2.165
PMCID: PMC3701849  PMID: 23837141
Hepatitis B; Carnitine; Entecavir
7.  Prognostic factors for gallbladder cancer in the laparoscopy era 
Purpose
Hepatobiliary surgery has changed dramatically in recent decades with the advent of laparoscopic techniques. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare survival rates according to stages, adjusting for important prognostic factors.
Methods
A retrospective study of a 17-year period from January 1994 to April 2011 was carried out. The cases studied were divided into two time period cohorts, those treated in the first 9-years (n = 109) and those treated in the last 7-years (n = 109).
Results
An operation with curative intent was performed on 218 patients. The 5-year survival rates according to the depth of invasion were 86% (T1), 56% (T2), 45% (T3), and 5% (T4). The number of cases of incidental gallbladder cancer found during 3,919 laparoscopic cholecystectomies was 96 (2.4%). Incidental gallbladder cancer revealed a better survival rate (P = 0.003). Iatrogenic bile spillage was found in 20 perforations of the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomies, 16 preoperative percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainages and 16 percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainages; only percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage patients showed a significantly lower survival rate than patients without iatrogenic bile spillage (P < 0.034). Chemoradiation appeared to improve overall survival (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis also revealed that time period, type of surgery, surgical margin, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node involvement, and chemoradiation therapy had significant effects.
Conclusion
This study found that the prognosis of gallbladder cancer is still determined by the stage at presentation due to the aggressive biology of this tumor. Early diagnosis, radical resection and appropriate adjuvant therapy can increase overall survival.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.4.227
PMCID: PMC3467389  PMID: 23091795
Gallbladder cancer; Laparoscopy; Prognosis
8.  Review of 100 cases of single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy 
Purpose
Single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) is a new advanced technique in laparoscopic surgery. Many laparoscopic surgeons seek to gain skill in this new technique. However, little data has been accumulated and published formally yet. This article reports the achievement of 100 cases of SPLC with the hopes it will encourage laparoscopic surgery centers in the early adoption of SPLC.
Methods
A retrospective review of 100 prospectively selected cases of SPLC was carried out. All patients had received elective SPLC by a single surgeon in our center from May 2009 to December 2010. Our review suggests patients' character, perioperative data and postoperative outcomes.
Results
Forty-two men and 58 women with an average age of 45.8 years had received SPLC. Their mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.85 kg/m2. The mean operating time took 76.75 minutes. However, operating time was decreased according to the increase of experience of SPLC cases. Twenty-one cases were converted to multi-port surgery. BMI, age, previous low abdominal surgical history did not seem to affect conversion to multi-port surgery. No cases were converted to open surgery. Mean duration of hospital stay was 2.18 days. Six patients had experienced complications from which they had recovered after conservative treatment.
Conclusion
SPLC is a safe and practicable technique. The operating time is moderate and can be reduced with the surgeon's experience. At first, strict criteria was indicated for SPLC, however, with surgical experience, the criteria and area of SPLC can be broadened. SPLC is occupying a greater domain of conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.3.179
PMCID: PMC3294112  PMID: 22403752
Single port surgery; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
9.  Delayed Viral Clearance of Chronic Hepatitis C in Patients after Treatment Failure 
Gut and Liver  2011;5(1):110-114.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection usually progresses to chronic hepatitis, with rare cases of spontaneous viral eradication. We present herein four cases involving patients that were initially declared to have failed to respond to treatments, based on the presence of HCV RNA that was still detectable after completion of the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C with genotype 2. However, the HCV RNA became undetectable, with a delayed response, after discontinuation of therapy. Two of the four patients were diagnosed as treatment failures after extended treatment, and the other two received no further treatment after the standard treatment. All four patients maintained a sustained virological response during the periodic follow-up after delayed viral clearance.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2011.5.1.110
PMCID: PMC3065086  PMID: 21461084
Delayed viral clearance; Chronic hepatitis C; Sustained virological response
10.  Discrete Hypoechoic Ring in Hepatic Cavernous Hemangioma Resembling a Malignant Tumor: Correlation with Histologic Features 
Gut and Liver  2009;3(3):226-230.
Differential diagnoses of hepatic nodules include hepatocellular carcinoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatic adenoma, regenerative nodule, focal fatty changes, and hemangioma. However, differentiation of these nodules can often be difficult. Hemangiomas are frequently encountered during ultrasonogram incidentally and can be diagnosed easily because they have an almost distinctive sonographic appearance: a homogeneous hyperechogenicity and discrete posterior acoustic enhancement. They also sometimes have atypical findings, for example an internal echogenicity including hypoechogenicity, heterogeneous echogenicity, hyperechoic rim, central hypoechogenicity due to various changes (e.g., internal hemorrhage, necrosis, thrombosis, myxomatous change, and fibrosis), and (rarely) calcification. We report herein the case of an atypical hemangioma presenting with a hypoechoic peripheral ring, mimicking a hepatic malignancy. To our knowledge, there have been no other reports demonstrating a cavernous hemangioma with a discrete hypoechoic ring and without a pseudocapsule.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2009.3.3.226
PMCID: PMC2852708  PMID: 20431752
Hemangioma; Hypoechoic ring; Hepatic malignancy; Ultrasonography
11.  Thymosin Alpha-1 in Combination with Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Who have Failed to Prior Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Treatment 
Gut and Liver  2007;1(1):87-89.
Combination therapy with inteferon-alpha and ribavirin is an approved therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, even with the use of pegylated interferon, response rates are still poor in many difficult-to-treat groups, especially with genotype 1 and high viral loads. Retreatment of these patients remains challenging. Newer combinations are being investigated to optimize chances of attaining a sustained response in these groups. Thymosin alpha 1 is a polypeptide with immunomodulatory properties that has been suggested to increase response rates in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Herein, we describe two cases of retreatment patients with chronic hepatitis C who have failed prior pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy. They received triple combination therapies of thymosin alpha 1, pegylated interferon and ribavirin and achieved sustained virological responses. These cases support that thymosin-alpha 1 may increase the efficacy of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in the treatment of non-responders to previous combination therapy.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2007.1.1.87
PMCID: PMC2871658  PMID: 20485665
Chronic hepatitis C; Nonrespondents; Peginterferon alpha-2a; Ribavirin; Thymosin alpha 1 Introduction
12.  Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Associated with Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody levels in a Pregnant Woman Taking Propylthiouracil 
Propylthiouracil (PTU) is known to be a potential cause of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positive small vessel vasculitis, resulting in glomerulonephritis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH). Herein, we describe a 25-year-old pregnant woman who developed a perinulcear ANCA (p-ANCA) and myeloperoxidase ANCA (MPO-ANCA) positive DAH during PTU therapy. The patient improved after corticosteroid therapy and discontinuation of the PTU. Methimazole was prescribed in spite of the risk of recurrence of DAH because of the pregnancy. The patient is currently free from pulmonary problems. Our case shows that the alternative agent, methimazole, can be used to treat hyperthyroidism in a pregnant patient with PTU associated DAH.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2006.21.4.240
PMCID: PMC3891029  PMID: 17249506
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; Propylthiouracil

Results 1-12 (12)