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author:("Alış, halal")
1.  Two Etiological Reasons of Constipation: Anterior Rectocele and Internal Mucosal Intussusception 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2014;77(Suppl 3):868-871.
Chronic constipation is a common problem in the general population. Rome III criteria can be used for the diagnosis of chronic constipation. The aim of this study is to emphasize the importance of anterior rectocele and mucosal intussusception as two etiological factors for chronic constipation. One hundred patients were included in this study after excluding other causes of the constipation by medical history, physical examination, and laboratory and radiological studies in 108 total patients who were admitted consecutively to the outpatient clinic of the general surgery department of Dr. Sadi Konuk Bakirkoy Education and Research Hospital with the complaint of constipation between June 2009 and January 2010. It was found that 75 % of these patients had anterior rectocele and 66 % of them had internal intussusception which cause chronic constsipation. Anterior rectocele and internal rectal mucosal intussusception must be kept in mind as two significant reasons for chronic functional constipation.
doi:10.1007/s12262-014-1042-5
PMCID: PMC4775698  PMID: 27011472
Chronic constipation; Rectocele; Intussusception
2.  Robotic versus conventional laparoscopic colorectal operations: a-single center experience 
Objective:
Robotic surgery was first introduced in 2000 especially to overcome the limitations of low rectum cancer surgery. There is still no consensus regarding the standard method for colorectal surgery. The aim of this study was to compare robotic surgery with laparoscopic colorectal surgery.
Material and Methods:
This is a retrospective study. Data of patients with a diagnosis of colon or rectal cancer were analyzed for robotic colorectal surgery and laparoscopic colorectal surgery.
Results:
The cost of robotic surgery group was statistically higher than the laparoscopic surgery group (p=0.032). The average operation duration was 178 minutes in the laparoscopic surgery group and 228 minutes in the robotic surgery group, and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.044). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding other parameters.
Discussion:
Disadvantages of robotic surgery seem to be its higher cost and longer operation duration as compared to laparoscopic surgery. We claim that an increase in the number of cases and experience may shorten the operation time while the increase in commercial interest may decrease the cost disadvantage of robotic surgery.
doi:10.5152/UCD.2015.3003
PMCID: PMC4942169  PMID: 27436931
Robotic surgery; colorectal surgery; laparoscopy
3.  Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis as a late complication of peritoneal dialysis 
Annals of Medicine and Surgery  2015;4(3):205-207.
Introduction
Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction which is characterized by fibrotic encapsulation of the bowel. Although its pathogenesis is still not clear, many etiological factors have been stated.
Presentation of case
In this report, we present a 26-year old woman with peritoneal dialysis related EPS. Because of the unresolving intestinal obstructive symptoms, she underwent surgical intervention in which the thick dense whitish membranous sac was excised from the surrounding intestine along with adhesiolysis. She recovered uneventfully. She is symptom-free on the eight months of follow-up.
Discussion
EPS should be born in mind as a complication of the long term peritoneal dialysis in patients with progressive obstructive ileus and recurrent peritonitis. Its treatment either medically or surgically varies depending on the stage of this entity.
Conclusion
Early identification of EPS is important in order to achieve better prognosis.
Highlights
•We presented the patient experienced surgery because of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS).•EPS should be born in mind as a complication of the long term peritoneal dialysis.•Diagnosis is primarily based on clinical finding, then generally confirmed by CT.•Early identification of EPS is important in order to achieve better prognosis.
doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2015.03.006
PMCID: PMC4486463  PMID: 26150908
Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis; Peritoneal sclerosis; Abdominal cocoon
4.  Giant juvenile fibroadenoma 
Juvenile fibroadenoma is a common cause of breast masses seen in adolescents and young women. Giant juvenile fibroadenomas are usually single and unilateral. The etiology is thought to be due to increased levels of estrogen during adolescence, although it is not yet fully understood. Treatment options range from simple excision to sub-cutaneous mastectomy according to the size of the lesion. This article aimed to present a case that was diagnosed with “giant juvenile fibroadenoma”.
doi:10.5152/UCD.2014.2574
PMCID: PMC4485822  PMID: 26170749
Giant juvenile fibroadenoma; fibroadenoma; breast
5.  The importance of defecography in the assessment of the etiology of chronic constipation: An analysis of 630 patients 
Objective:
Chronic constipation is an entity with a high prevalence in the community. In our study, we analyzed the importance of defecography in the assessment of the etiology of chronic constipation.
Material and Methods:
Patients who were admitted to our hospital outpatient general surgery clinic with complaints of constipation between July 2010 and January 2014, and who had their demographic data and defecography results recorded were included in the study. The demographic data of patients who underwent defecography and their results were recorded along with patient gender and age.
Results:
The defecography was abnormal in 573 patients (90.9%) while it was normal in 57 patients (9.1%).
Conclusion:
Defecography is the current standard method of examination in etiological investigations for constipation, and it should be performed in each patient with a diagnosis of chronic constipation.
doi:10.5152/UCD.2014.2763
PMCID: PMC4379802  PMID: 25931925
Chronic constipation; defecography; rectocele
6.  The adaptation process of a teaching and research hospital to changing trends in modern breast surgery 
Objective:
Minimally invasive surgery is increasingly gaining importance in breast surgery parallel to other surgical branches. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a method that has radically changed the approach to breast surgery in the last decade of the 20th century. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the adaptation process to these alterations in breast surgery at our clinic.
Material and Methods:
Patients who underwent surgery with a diagnosis of breast cancer in our clinic between April 2010 and November 2013 were retrospectively evaluated in terms of demographic characteristics, the number of operations and type of surgical methods applied according to years, SLNB performance rate, and results of frozen section and histopathological analysis. The first year of SLNB practice was accepted as part of the learning curve, and 24 patients who were operated during that period underwent routine axillary dissection.
Results:
The median age of 198 patients who were included in the study was 55 years (25–89). It was detected that the number of cases who underwent surgery for breast cancer increased in years, that the SLNB application rate increased from 37% to 66% between 2010 and 2013 (p=0.01), and SLNB staining rates increased from 70% to 94% (p=0.03). When only results from the last four years were evaluated, the mean staining rate in patients with SLNB (n=105) was 88% (n=92), with positive histopathology in 32% of these cases (n=30). Despite a decreasing trend over the years, a metastatic axillary lymph node was detected in paraffin block evaluation in spite of negative frozen section examination of SLNB in five cases, and 5 patients (5%) out of 97 patients who underwent breast conserving surgery required re-excision. The histopathological diagnosis was invasive ductal carcinoma in 84% (n=167) of patients.
Conclusion:
It was observed that during the four-year period of adaptation, the application rate of breast conserving surgery and SLNB reached accepted standards, and that both the technical problems encountered in SLNB and the requirement for re-excision after breast conserving surgery significantly decreased with increasing case volume and experience.
doi:10.5152/UCD.2014.2670
PMCID: PMC4415543  PMID: 25931942
Breast-conserving surgery; sentinel lymph node biopsy; lymph node dissection; mastectomy
7.  The growing role of laparoscopic repair in patients with early diagnosed peptic ulcer perforation 
Objective:
Laparoscopy is gaining more importance in emergency abdominal surgery. Peptic ulcer perforation (PUP) constitutes a significant portion of surgical emergencies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods and results of patients who underwent surgery due to PUP in our department.
Material and Methods:
Patients who were admitted to the hospital in the early period and received Graham-patch (GP) repair due to PUP from January 2009 to January 2013 were divided into two groups as laparoscopic (group L) or open (group O) surgery. Demographic data of the patients, duration of the operation, conversion to open surgery, length of hospital stay, secondary interventions, re-admissions, morbidity and mortality rates were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with conversion to open surgery were included in Group O.
Results:
Two hundred and nineteen patients were included in the study, 148 of which were in Group O (including the 47 patients with conversion), and 71 in group L. In patients with early admission, the rate of laparoscopically completed GP was 19.6% in the first year of the study, whereas this rate was 61.8% in the fourth year (p<0.001). The rate of conversion to open surgery was 50% in 2009, and 24.4% in 2012 (p=0.028). Length of hospital stay was shorter in group L (p=0.35). The complication rate was 4.2% in patients who had laparoscopic procedures, and was 6.1% in patients who underwent open surgery (p=0.57). Seventy-three percent (n=11) of re-hospitalized patients in the perioperative period (n=15) were treated conservatively. When costs related to secondary interventions and re-hospitalization were included, there was no significant difference between laparoscopic and open surgery groups in terms of cost (p=0.06).
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic surgery for PUP is a reliable method and has been used increasingly over the years in our department. The operative time is longer, the length of hospital stay is shorter, the complication rates are less than open surgery, and the conversion rate is significantly reduced. Laparoscopic GP is feasible in early-admitted patients with PUP, due to the above-mentioned advantages. We believe the rate of conversion to open surgery decreases with increasing experience in laparoscopy.
doi:10.5152/UCD.2014.2640
PMCID: PMC4379850  PMID: 25931911
Laparoscopy; peptic ulcer perforation; Graham-patch
8.  The early results of our initial experience with robotic adrenalectomy 
Objective:
Robotic adrenalectomy is one of the minimally invasive surgical methods gaining wide acceptance due to the three-dimensional imaging system and ergonomics of the equipment. We aimed to present the early data on patients who underwent robotic adrenalectomy due to adrenal masses in our hospital.
Material and Methods:
The records of eight cases, in which a unilateral robotic trans-peritoneal adrenalectomy was conducted due to an adrenal mass between 2011 and 2013, have been evaluated. Demographic characteristics of cases, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, preoperative diagnosis, diameter and localization of the adrenal mass, operative time, blood loss, conversion rate to open surgery, morbidity and mortality rates, length of hospital stay, total hospital charges and postoperative pathologic results were considered.
Results:
The female to male ratio was 6:2, the median age was 49.5 (26–71) and the median BMI was 29.7 (21.7–38.5). An adrenalectomy was performed in six cases for a right adrenal mass and in two cases for a left adrenal mass. The mean tumor diameter was 53.6 mm (20–90). The average surgical time (including docking) was 98 min. (55–175 min.) and the average blood loss was 50 mL. The only complication was a diaphragm injury which was repaired robotically. There were no conversions to traditional laparoscopic or open surgery and there have not been any mortality in the series. The median length of hospital stay was 4.1 days (range 2–11) and the average cost was 3617.12 TL ($1808.56).
Conclusion:
Robotic adrenalectomy is an effective and safe surgical alternative to laparoscopic adrenalectomy. However its high cost has emerged as its main disadvantage.
doi:10.5152/UCD.2014.2518
PMCID: PMC4379778  PMID: 25931887
Robotic adrenalectomy; minimally invasive surgery; laparoscopy; adrenal neoplasm
9.  Gastropleural Fistula: A Rare Complication of Ewing Sarcoma 
Gastropleural fistula (GPF) is a rare condition that can occur as a consequence of prior pulmonary surgery, trauma, or malignancy. Conservative management usually fails, and gastrectomy and even thoracotomy is often required, especially in debilitated patients. We present a patient with GPF who had a history of Ewing's sarcoma. Diagnosis of GPF was confirmed by upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy and radiographic contrast examination, and the patient underwent a laparoscopic wedge resection of the fistula. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a GPF, in the formation of which recurrence of Ewing's sarcoma had played a role and in the treatment of which wedge resection of the fistula was performed. Laparoscopic treatment of GPF may be associated with less morbidity and should be considered as the initial procedure of choice.
doi:10.5090/kjtcs.2013.46.4.293
PMCID: PMC3756162  PMID: 24003412
Fistula; Gastrectomy
10.  The chain of postoperative complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy 
Bile duct injuries are among the most dreadful complications of cholecystectomy. As laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become increasingly popular, the incidence of this complication increased and has remained unchanged in spite the learning curve being completed. A 50-year-old female underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstone disease. A complicated bile duct injury occurred during the procedure. As the injury was immediately recognized, it was treated with concomitant hepaticojejunostomy. In the postoperative period, biliary fistula, which was assumed to be the result of an anastomotic leak, was encountered. Diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was considered. It revealed that the anastomosis was intact and the source of biliary leak was an aberrant right posterior sectorial branch. A severe bleeding through the biliary catheter occurred due to transmigration of the catheter into the portal vein. Bleeding was controlled with embolization by the interventional radiologist. The patient thereafter was re-operated, and the leakage was sealed by ligation of the aberrant right posterior sectorial branch. The postoperative period was uneventful. As long as cholecystectomy is performed, bile duct injuries will always exist. Therefore, every abdominal surgeon should be aware of possible consequences of complications related to this procedure.
doi:10.5152/UCD.2013.25
PMCID: PMC4379847  PMID: 25931907
Cholecystectomy; bile duct injury; hepaticojejunostomy; percutaneous biliary drainage
11.  A rare reason of abdominal compartment syndrome: non-Hodgkin lymphoma 
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is characterized by intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which affects all body systems. In healthy individuals, normal intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is <5 to 7 mmHg. The upper limit of IAP is generally accepted to be 12 mmHg. ACS has been classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary subtypes. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a rare reason for ACS. We report here one case of NHL as a primary retroperitoneal mass in an 80-year-old male patient who presented with IAH.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.4.242
PMCID: PMC3467391  PMID: 23091797
Abdominal hypertension; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Results 1-11 (11)