Arthralgia is the most common side effect in breast cancer patients receiving aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. Few studies have evaluated the risk factors, onset, and incidence of musculoskeletal pain in these patients. This study identifies the risk factors of AI-related severe arthralgia and their prevalence.
All the clinical and pathological records of postmenopausal patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer using AI at Samsung Medical Center from January 2005 to November 2007 were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the risk factors of AI-associated musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS) and factors associated with AI discontinuance.
Among 299 patients, 69 patients (23%) experienced musculoskeletal symptoms attributed to AI use. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, no statistically significant outcome was found to confirm the risk factors for the development of AIMSS. Among the 69 patients who experienced AI-associated musculoskeletal symptoms, 29 (39.7%) discontinued AI use. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed an association of prior tamoxifen use with discontinuance of AI (P < 0.01; odds ratio, 4.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.74 to 10.50).
Prior use of tamoxifen is related to discontinuation of AI due to AI-associated severe arthralgia. Special monitoring and proper pain control for these patients should be considered during the treatment period.
Aromatase inhibitors; Aromatase inhibitor-associated musculoskeletal symptoms; Prior tamoxifen
A number of researchers have suggested the use of sodium hyaluronate carboxymethyl cellulose (HA-CMC) membrane for preventing postoperative adhesion. This study evaluated the antiadhesive effect and safety of HA-CMC membrane in thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer.
One hundred sixty-two patients who underwent thyroidectomy were prospectively randomized. In the study group of 80 patients, the 7.5 cm × 13 cm HA-CMC membrane was applied to the operative field after thyroidectomy. The subjects were asked about complications including adhesive symptoms using an 8-item questionnaire at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. In addition, items on the appearance of neck wrinkles and scars were evaluated by a physician who had no information about the patient's allocation.
There were no significant differences in complications such as swallowing difficulty, and wrinkles between study and control groups. Both groups presented significantly decreased scores over time in swallowing difficulty, and wrinkles. There were no complications regarding the HA-CMC membrane.
The antiadhesive effect of HA-CMC membrane in thyroid surgery is still uncertain, although it is biologically safe. Further investigation is needed to confirm the antiadhesive effect of HA-CMC membrane in thyroid surgery.
Sodium hyaluronate carboxymethyl cellulose; HA-CMC; Seprafilm; Adhesion; Thyroid
Prognostic factors for distal bile duct cancer are contentious. This study was conducted to analyze the prognostic factors of distal bile duct cancer after surgery with the aim of identifying those associated with diminished survival.
Two hundred forty-one patients who underwent pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) or Whipple procedure in our tertiary hospital from February 1995 to June 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were pathologically proven to have distal bile duct adenocarcinoma. Postoperative complications, survival, and well-known prognostic factors after resection for distal bile duct cancer were investigated.
Preoperative elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) level (P = 0.006), positive resection margin (P < 0.001), advanced T stage (P = 0.043), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) were significantly independent worse prognostic indicators by multivariate analysis of resectable distal bile duct cancer.
R0 resection is the most important so that frozen sections should be utilized aggressively during each operation. For the distal bile duct cancer with elevated preoperative CA 19-9 level or advanced stage, further study on postoperative adjuvant treatment may be warranted.
Bile duct cancer; CA-19-9 antigen; Pancreaticoduodenectomy
Hepatopulmonary syndrome is an arterial oxygenation disorder brought about by advanced liver failure and pulmonary vascular dilatations. The reason why hypoxia develops in hepatopulmonary syndrome depends on the broadening of perialveolar capillary veins. Our study aims to investigate the effects of Flavanoid on hepatopulmonary syndrome through its inhibition of nitric oxide.
Three groups, each having 8 rats, were formed within the scope of our study. Group I (the control group) only received laparatomy, group II received choledoch ligation, and group III was administered Flavanoid (90% flavonoid diosmin, 10% flavonoid hesperidin) following choledoch ligation. The rats were administered Flavanoid at week two following choledoch ligation. The rats' livers and lungs were examined histopathologically following a five-week follow-up and the perialveolar vein diameters were measured. Arterial blood gases and biochemical parameters were evaluated.
It was seen that fibrosis and oxidative damage in the liver with obstructive jaundice as well as hypoxia with pulmonary perialveolar vein sizes were significantly lower than the other group with cirrhosis formed through the administration of Flavanoid.
We have concluded that Flavanoid administration might be useful in the treatment of hypoxia in hepatopulmonary syndrome and the delay of cirrhosis contraction.
Hepatopulmonary syndrome; Flavanoid; Liver; Lung
Laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (LCE) in children is being attempted more frequently around the world, and although it has been performed in Korea, no publication has been published on it. However, cholangitis and/or pancreatitis are limitations that make open conversion more likely. The aims of this study, through a retrospective clinical analysis, were to prove the efficacy of LCE in children and to validate that preoperative management expands its indications.
From May 2011 to November 2012, 13 pediatric LCEs were performed. Demo graphics, preoperative findings, management, operative and postoperative outcomes were reviewed.
The mean age at operation was 48.5 months and mean bodyweight 19.0 kg. Ultrasonography was conducted in all patients followed by either magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (8 cases) or computed tomography (5 cases). The mean diameter of the cysts was 30.2 mm. Eight patients with cholangitis and/or pancreatitis were given antibiotics preoperatively. Four had their condition resolved by administration of antibiotics, 3 underwent additional endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, and one, due to aggravating tenderness, underwent surgery after 4 days of administrating antibiotics without improvement of the inflammation. Two faced open conversions, one because of a very narrow bile duct, and the other because of remnant inflammation after inadequate preoperative management already mentioned above. Patients were discharged on the eighth postoperative day. There were no complications.
Pediatric LCE is a feasible option for choledochal cyst. Proper preoperative management such as antibiotics and drainage procedures enhances its efficacy by broadening its indications, even with concomitant cholangitis and/or pancreatitis.
Choledochal cyst; Laparoscopy; Child
This study aimed to assess the cytolytic activity and the phenotype of circulating blood immune cells in cancer patients by using a simple preparation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Peripheral blood was obtained from 94 diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 112 healthy donors. PBMCs were cocultured with K562 cells for 2 hours and lactate dehydrogenase released from the dead K562 cells was measured by using a spectrophotometer. Meanwhile, PBMCs were stained with fluorescence conjugated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and analyzed by flow cytometry.
The cytolytic activity of PBMCs were significantly different between CRC patient and healthy groups (8.82% ± 3.84% vs. 17.51% ± 8.57%; P < 0.001). However, no significant difference in the cytolytic activity was observed after surgery in the CRC patient group (before surgery, 8.82% ± 3.84% vs. after surgery, 9.95% ± 4.94%; P = 0.326). In addition, the percentage of peripheral blood natural killer cells was significantly higher in the preoperative patient group than in the healthy group (19.97% ± 11.51% vs. 15.60% ± 5.77%, P = 0.041). In contrast, the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes was lower in the preoperative patient group than in the healthy group (28.41% ± 8.31% vs. 36.4% ± 8.6%, P < 0.001).
These results demonstrate that circulating blood immune cells of CRC patients are functionally impaired and undergo an immunophenotypic perturbation, and show that a simple preparation of PBMCs can be useful to evaluate cellular immunity in cancer.
Blood cells; Natural killer cells; Immunologic cytotoxicity; Colorectal neoplasms
The aim of this study was to compare two different treatment methods for pilonidal sinus with respect to complications, recurrence, and patient quality of life.
Five hundred forty-nine patients who underwent surgery for pilonidal sinus between January 2007 and August 2012 were included in this study. The patients were classified into group I (excision and primary closure) and group II (Limberg flap).
There was no significant difference in the mean age and gender of the patients between groups I and II (P = 0.512 and P = 0.472). The duration of surgical operation was lower in group I (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in hospitalization time after surgery, minor complications, and recurrence between the groups (P = 0.674, P = 1.000, and P = 1.000, respectively). The time required for pain-free walking, urinating, and returning to work was significantly lower in group II (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). The patients in group I stated that they were more satisfied in terms of aesthetics (P < 0.001).
According to the results of this study, Limberg flap method has better outcomes compared with excision and primary closure. Therefore, we recommend Limberg flap for treatment of pilonidal sinus disease.
Complication; Quality of life; Pilonidal sinus
Abdominal wall defect with large duodenal disruption after penetrating abdominal injury is a rare emergency situation that can result in life-threatening complications. We report on a 64-year-old man who had abdominal wall defect with large duodenal disruption after penetrating abdominal injury. The patient presented with intra-abdominal exsanguinating bleeding, duodenal disruption, and multiple small bowel perforation. The rarity of this complex injury and its initial presentation as a posttraumatic large duodenal disruption with abdominal wall defect warrant its description. The present case indicates that combining a free tissue flap with a covered expandable metallic stent can effectively and successfully repair an abdominal wall defect that is associated with a large duodenal disruption.
Stents; Abdominal wall; Duodenum; Abdominal injury; Free tissue flaps
Subclavian venous catheterization was once widely used for volume resuscitation, emergency venous access, chemotherapy, parenteral nutrition, and hemodialysis. However, its use has drastically reduced recently because of life-threatening complications such as hemothorax, pneumothorax. In this case, a patient admitted for a scheduled operation underwent right subclavian venous catheterization for preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative volume resuscitation and parenteral nutrition. The procedure was performed by an experienced senior resident. Despite detecting slight resistance during the guidewire insertion, the resident continued the procedure to the point of being unable to advance or remove it, then attempted to forcefully remove the guidewire, but it broke and became entrapped within the thorax. We tried to remove the guidewire through infraclavicular skin incision but failed. So video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was used to remove the broken guidewire. This incident demonstrates the risks of subclavian venous catheterization and the importance of using a proper and gentle technique.
Broken guidewire; Central venous catheterization; Complications; Subclavian venous catheterization; Video assisted thoracic surgery
Minimally invasive surgical technics have benefits such as decreased pain, reduced surgical trauma, and increased potential to perform as day case surgery, and cost benefit. The primary aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled study was to compare the effects of single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) and conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) procedures regarding postoperative pain.
Ninety adult patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomized to either SILC or CLC. Patient characteristics, postoperative abdominal and shoulder pain scores, rescue analgesic use, and intraoperative and early postoperative complications were recorded.
A total of 83 patients completed the study. Patient characteristics, postoperative abdominal and shoulder pain scores and rescue analgesic requirement were similar between each group except with the lower abdominal pain score in CLC group at 30th minute (P = 0.04). Wound infection was seen in 1 patient in each group. Nausea occurred in 13 of 43 patients (30%) in the SILC group and 8 of 40 patients (20%) in the CLC group (P > 0.05). Despite ondansetron treatment, 6 patients in SILC group and 7 patients in CLC group vomited (P > 0.05).
In conclusion, in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, SILC or CLC techniques does not influence the postoperative pain and analgesic medication requirements. Our results also suggest that all laparoscopy patients suffer moderate and/or severe abdominal pain and nearly half of these patients also suffer from some form of shoulder pain.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Postoperative pain
This study evaluated the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining 5-flurouracil/folinic acid with irinotecan (FOLFIRI) in colorectal multiple liver metastases regardless of resectability.
Forty-four patients with multiple (at least two) colorectal liver metastases were enrolled at seven tertiary referral hospitals between May 2007 and September 2010. All patients received the FOLFIRI chemotherapeutic regimen. Response to chemotherapy was assessed after three cycles (6 weeks) and once more after six cycles (12 weeks) of treatment.
Objective response was noted in 27 patients (61.4%) and 4 patients (9.1%) had progressive disease. Of 44 patients, 10 patients (22.7%) underwent curative surgery (R0 resection) and 34 patients did not receive R0 resection. Grades 3 to 4 hematological toxicity was noted in 12 patients (27.3%) and grades 3 to 4 nonhematologic toxicity was identified in 5 patients (11.4%).
FOLFIRI chemotherapy as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy for multiple colorectal liver metastases regardless of resectability demonstrated the possibility of R0 resection, high rate of objective response, and tolerable toxicities in this study.
Colorectal cancer; Neoadjuvant therapy; Metastasis; Chemotherapy
This study investigated the Jurkat T cell line expresses cytotoxicity when treated with different concentrations of FK506, and analyzed the expression pattern of microRNA when stimulated by FK506 using the microRNAs microarray, as well as the expression pattern of a gene that is related to the differentiation, activation and proliferation of T cells after being affected by the change of microRNAs.
To investigate the effects of FK506 on microRNA expression, we purified total RNA of Jurkat cells treated with 20 µM FK506 for 72 hours and used to analyze microRNA profiling by using Agilent's chip.
These results demonstrated that treatment with FK506 markedly induced the down-regulation of 20 microRNAs as well as the up-regulation of 20 microRNAs in a time-dependent manner. The genes that down-regulated by FK506 include let-7a*, miR-20a*, and miR-487a. Otherwise miR-202, miR-485-5p, and miR-518c* are gradually up-regulated in expression. Sanger Institute and DAVIDs bioinformatics indicated that microRNAs regulated the several transcriptomes including nuclear factor of activated T cell-related, T cell receptor/interleukin-2 signaling, and Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin pathways.
As a result of treating FK506 to a Jurkat cell line and running the microRNA microarray, it was found that FK506 not only took part in the suppression of T cell proliferation/activation by inhibiting calcineurin in Jurkat apoptosis, but also affected the microRNAs that are involved in the regulation of various signal transduction pathways.
Tacrolimus; MicroRNAs; Jurkat T lymphocyte
Increased saphenous vein diameter is a common consequence of saphenous vein reflux. Until now, there have been no reports about the correlation between diameter and reflux of saphenous vein in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between saphenous vein reflux and diameter changes.
From April 2009 to August 2012, 777 patients were sent to the vascular laboratory for evaluation of venous reflux. The diameter of the saphenous vein was measured with B-mode imaging, and reflux was quantified based on valve closure time using Doppler spectral tracings. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was applied to determine the best saphenous vein diameter cutoff for predicting reflux.
The mean diameters of normal great saphenous vein (GSV) and refluxed GSV were 5.0 ± 2.4 mm and 6.4 ± 2.0 mm, respectively. The mean diameters of normal small saphenous vein (SSV) and refluxed SSV were 3.1 ± 1.3 mm and 5.2 ± 2.7 mm, respectively. The diameter differences between the normal and refluxed GSV and SSV were 1.4 mm and 2.1 mm, respectively, and these differences were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). A GSV threshold diameter of 5.05 mm had the best positive predictive value for reflux. The sensitivity and specificity at 5.05 mm were 76% and 60%, respectively. The best SSV diameter for predicting reflux was 3.55 mm. The sensitivity and specificity at 3.55 mm were 87% and 71%, respectively.
GSV diameter of ≥5.05 mm had the best positive predictive value for pathologic reflux. For pathologic reflux of SSV, the best cutoff diameter was 3.55 mm.
Varicose veins; Venous insufficiency; Vein; Saphenous; Ultrasonography
In this retrospective study, we aimed to compare the clinical characteristics of inguinal hernia developed after radical retropubic surgery for prostate cancer to the hernia without previous radical prostatectomy.
Twenty-three patients (group A) who had radical retropubic surgery for prostate cancer underwent laparoscopic or open tension-free inguinal hernia repair from March 2007 to February 2011. Nine hundred and forty patients (group B) without previous radical retropubic surgery received laparoscopic or tension-free open hernia operation.
Group A was older than group B (mean ± standard deviation, 69.6 ± 7.2 vs. 54.1 ± 16.1; P < 0.001). Right side (73.9%) and indirect type (91.3%) in group A were more prevalent than in group B (51.5% and 69.4%, respectively) with statistic significance (P = 0.020 and P = 0.023). The rate of laparoscopic surgery in group B (n = 862, 91.7%) was higher than in group A (n = 14, 64.3%, P < 0.001). In comparing perioperative variables between the two groups, operative time (49.4 ± 23.5 minutes) and hospital stay (1.9 ± 0.7 days) in group A were longer than in group B (38.9 ± 16.9, 1.1 ± 0.2; P = 0.046 and P < 0.001, respectively) and pain score at 7 days in group A was higher than in group B (3.1 ± 0.7 vs. 2.3 ± 1.0, P < 0.001). Postoperative recurrence rate was not significantly different between the two groups.
Inguinal hernia following radical retropubic surgery for prostate cancer was predominantly right side and indirect type with statistic significance compared to hernias without previous radical prostatectomy.
Prostate neoplasms; Prostatectomy; Inguinal hernia; Recurrence
Since the 1990's, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been used to treat soft tissue defects, burn wounds, and to achieve skin graft fixation. In the field of abdominal surgery, the application of NPWT is increasing in cases with an open abdominal wound requiring temporary wound closure and a second look operation. In the present study, the authors analyzed patients that underwent NPWT for postoperative wound dehiscence.
The computerized records of patients that had undergone an abdominal operation from November 2009 to May 2012 were retrospectively analyzed.
The number of total enrolled patients was 50, and 30 patients (60%) underwent an emergency operation. Diagnoses were as follows: panperitonitis or intra-abdominal abscess (24 cases, 48%), intestinal obstruction (10 cases, 20%), cancer (7 cases, 14%), mesentery ischemia (3 cases, 6%), and hemoperitoneum (1 case, 2%). NPWT was applied at a mean of 12.9 ± 8.2 days after surgery and mean NPWT duration was 17.9 days (2 to 96 days). The 11 patients (22%) with unsuccessful wound closure had a deeper and more complex wound than the other 39 patients (78%) (90.9% vs. 38.5%, P = 0.005). There were two complication cases (4%) due to delayed wound healing.
Most patients recovered well due to granulation formation and suturing. NPWT was found to be convenient and safe, but a prospective comparative study is needed to confirm the usefulness of NPWT in patients whose wounds are dehisced.
Negative pressure wound therapy; Vacuum-assisted closure; Surgical wound dehiscence; Abdomen; Surgery
To evaluate the optimum timing of aspirin cessation before noncardiac surgeries. We have conducted a pilot study to minimize the aspirin cessation time before various surgeries.
Eighty patients who were taking regular aspirin for secondary prevention undergoing elective surgical operations were enrolled in the study. We separated the patients into two groups. The control group had 35 patients who stopped aspirin intake 10 days before surgery. The study group had 45 patients who stopped their aspirin intake and underwent surgery one day after arachidonic acid aggregation tests were within normal limits. Bleeding, blood loss, and transfusion requirements were assessed perioperatively.
The mean time between aspirin cessation and aspirin nonresponsiveness were found to be 4.2 days with a median value of 4 days. In addition, the mean time between aspirin cessation and operation day were found to be 5.5 days with a median value of 5 days. No perioperative bleeding, thromboembolic or cardiovascular complications were encountered.
Reducing time of aspirin cessation from 7-10 days to 4-5 days is a possibility for patients using aspirin for secondary prevention without increased perioperative complications.
Aspirin; Arachidonic acid; Blood platelets; Perioperative period; General surgery
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a rare form of chronic cholecystitis that is accompanied by xanthomatous histiocytes and chronic inflammation. A 2-month-old boy presented with a right upper abdominal palpable mass. Cholecystectomy with liver wedge resection was done, under the impression that the mass might be a hepatic tumor or liver abscess. Pathologic examination showed XGC with abscess formation. Most cases of XGC were observed in adult and only a few cases were reported in children. We describe a very rare case of XGC in infancy.
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis; Cholecystitis; Infant; Cholecystectomy
Preduodenal portal vein, a rare anomaly, could be found in any age groups. In pediatrics it may present with a duodenal obstruction by itself or other coexisting anomalies; however it usually present with an asymptomatic or incidental findings during other surgery in adults. This anomaly has a clinical importance due to the possibility of accidental damage to portal vein. In addition to describing a series of 3 cases with different manifestation in infants, discuss about this anomaly with a review of relevant literature.
Preduodenal portal vein; Infant
The cervical lymph nodes are the most common sites of locoregional recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Accurate tumor localization is important for the successful removal of impalpable recurrences in the cervical lymph nodes. We evaluated the benefits of ultrasound-guided localization (UGL) performed by a single surgeon on site.
Of 53 PTC patients who underwent reoperation for impalpable nodal recurrences, 32 (group 1) were assessed only using preoperative imaging, while 21 (group 2) were additionally evaluated by on-site UGL performed by the operating surgeon. Postoperative outcomes were compared between the two groups.
Operation times were significantly shorter (P < 0.001) and the mean size of the resected lymph nodes were smaller (P = 0.013) for group 2 patients. More lymph nodes were identified and resected in group 1 (3.56 vs. 3.19), but the rate of positive lymph nodes was significantly higher in group 2 (P < 0.001). There were no differences between the two groups in terms of resection success rate, complication rate, and postoperative hospital stay. During a mean follow-up period of 27.6 months, 52 patients (98.1%) showed no evidence of recurrence on routine ultrasound, and serum thyroglobulin concentrations remained < 1 ng/mL in 49 patients (92.5%).
On-site UGL performed by the operating surgeon is useful for accurate resection of impalpable nodal recurrences in PTC patients.
On-site ultrasound; Localization; Impalpable nodal recurrences; Papillary thyroid carcinoma
The goals of this study are to evaluate the effect of duodenojejunal bypass (DJB) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients below body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m2 in one year follow-up, and to compare the results of 1 week which we have reported in 2011.
In this prospective observational study, there were 31 type 2 diabetic patients who underwent DJB at Inha University Hospital from July 2009 to January 2011. We did laboratories such as 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin level and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), etc. and compared their changes of preoperative, a week, 3 months, and 12 months.
Mean BMI was 23.1 ± 1.3 kg/m2, mean duration of T2DM was 8.3 ± 4.7 and mean age was 46.6 ± 7.7 years. There were a significant decrease of 75-g OGTT levels and increase of insulin secretion after 3 months. 13.3% showed diabetic remission (HbA1c < 6.0, medication cessation) and 26.7% showed diabetic improvement. The rates of remission and improvement much declined comparing with that of postoperative 1 week although those were determined by fasting and postprandial 2 hour level of glucose.
This is the first study of metabolic surgery in Korean diabetes patients in the healthy weight range. DJB exerted positive influences on insulin resistance as well as beta cell function. Early effects on T2DM after DJB could be estimated as one of good modalities, although the effectiveness seems to be unacceptable. Further studies are mandatory for evaluation of the effectiveness of metabolic surgery and finding prognostic factors.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Metabolic surgery; Duodenojejunal bypass
We sought to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts and surgical success, focusing on cyst recurrence.
From February 2004 to August 2011, 37 consecutive patients with symptomatic hepatic cysts were evaluated and treated at Dong-A University Hospital. Indications were simple cysts (n = 20), multiple cysts (n = 6), polycystic disease (n = 2), and cystadenoma (n = 9).
The median patient age was 64 years, with a mean lesion diameter of 11.4 cm. The coincidence between preoperative imaging and final pathologic diagnosis was 54% and half (n = 19) of the cysts were located in segments VII and VIII. Twenty-two patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification I and II, and nine had ASA classification III. Surgical treatment of hepatic cysts were open liver resection (n = 3), laparoscopic deroofing (n = 24), laparoscopic cyst excision (n = 4), laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (n = 2), hand assisted laparoscopic procedure (n = 2), and single port laparoscopic deroofing (n = 2). The mean fellow-up was 21 months, and six patients (16%) experienced radiographic-apparent recurrence. Reoperation due to recurrence was performed in two patients. Among the factors predicting recurrence, multivariate analysis revealed that interventional radiological procedures and pathologic diagnosis were statistically significant.
Laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts is a simple and effective method to relieve symptoms with minimal surgical trauma. Moreover, the recurrence is dependent on the type of pathology involved, and the sclerotherapy undertaken.
Liver; Hepatic cyst; Laparoscopy
To compare and assess the efficacy, safety and utility of hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) with open surgery (OS) in total colectomy with ileorectal for colonic inertia.
From January 2001 to February 2012, 56 patients diagnosed with colonic inertia who failed to respond to medical treatments underwent hand-assisted laparoscopic total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis. Another 68 patients underwent laparotomy. Main parameters such as clinical manifestations, conversion to open procedure, operative time, incision length, pain score, intraoperative blood loss, time to first flatus and hospitalization, early postoperative complications and hospitalization cost were retrospectively analyzed. Postoperative defecating frequencies were followed up in both groups.
All patients received successful operation, no surgical mortality happened and none of the patients required conversion to an exploratory laparotomy in HALS group. The clinical features, the estimated blood loss, incision length, pain score, first passing flatus time, and postoperative hospitalization time were superior in HALS group (P < 0.05). The early postoperative complications and frequency of defecation were similar. However, the mean operative time was longer and hospitalization cost was higher in HALS group than those in OS group (P < 0.05).
HALS total colectomy can be a safe and efficient technique in the treatment of colonic inertia. HALS can result in a better cosmetic result and a quicker postoperative recovery, but requires higher direct cost.
Hand-assisted laparoscopy; Proctocolectomy; Constipation
Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a newly developed and effective peripheral block involving the nerves of the anterior abdominal wall for lower abdominal surgery. We evaluated the postoperative analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided TAP block using 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine in patients undergoing open appendectomy.
Forty-four patients undergoing appendectomy were assigned either to undergo a right sided-TAP block (group I, n = 22), or to receive standard care (group II, n = 22). All patients received standard anesthetics, and the TAP block group received ultrasound-guided right side TAP block using 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine after induction of anesthesia. All patients received acetaminophen, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as required during the 48 postoperative hours. Each patients was assessed for time to first rescue analgesia, verbal numerical rating pain scores (VNRS), number of rescue analgesic demands, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and drowsiness by a blinded investigator at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively.
The TAP block group with levobupivacaine compared to the control group reduced VNRS significantly up to 12 hours postoperatively. There were no significant differences in time to first analgesia, number of rescue analgesics demands, nausea, vomiting, pruritus and drowsiness between the groups. There were no complications attributable to the TAP block.
Ultrasound-guided TAP block using 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine provided effective postoperative analgesia during the 12 postoperative hours after an open appendectomy.
Appendectomy; Postoperative pain; Nerve block; Ultrasonography
In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of regulated negative pressure vacuum-assisted wound therapy for inguinal lymphatic complications in critically ill, liver transplant recipients.
The great saphenous vein was harvested for hepatic vein reconstruction during liver transplantation in 599 living-donor liver transplant recipients. Fourteen of the recipients (2.3%) developed postoperative inguinal lymphatic complications and were treated with negative pressure wound therapy, and they were included in this study.
The average total duration of negative pressure wound therapy was 23 days (range, 11 to 42 days). Complete resolution of the lymphatic complications and wound healing were achieved in all 14 patients, 5 of whom were treated in hospital and 9 as outpatients. There was no clinically detectable infection, bleeding or recurrence after an average follow-up of 27 months (range, 7 to 36 months).
Negative pressure wound therapy is an effective, readily-available treatment option that is less invasive than exploration and ligation of leaking lymphatics and provides good control of drainage and rapid wound closure in critically ill patients.
Wound; Lymphatic; Complication; Negative pressure; Therapy
Subclavian venous catheterization was previously frequently performed, but because of life-threatening complications such as hemothorax, pneumothorax, mediastinal hematoma, and myocardial injury, its use has become less common. However, this practice has some advantages in patient mobility, secured dressing, and rapidity and adequacy of vascular access. In some situations where patient comfort is an especially important consideration, such as with totally implantable venous port insertion for chemotherapy, the subclavian route can be a good choice if an experienced and well-trained faculty is available. The authors have had recent experience with pinch-off syndrome-in other words, spontaneous catheter fracture-in 3 patients who had undergone venous port implantation through the right subclavian route. Through these cases, we intend to review the dangers of subclavian venous catheterization, the causes of pinch-off syndrome, and its clinical presentation, progress, treatments, and prevention.
Pinch off syndrome; Subclavian venous catheterization; Spontaneous catheter fracture; Implantable venous port