To evaluate the visual outcome of combined phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and vitrectomy for macula-sparing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.
The results of combined vitrectomy with cataract extraction were retrospectively analyzed in patients with preexisting cataracts and new-onset rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. To qualify, patients must also have had macular sparing in a region 6,000 µm in diameter on optical coherence tomography. The anatomical success rate, visual outcomes, and postoperative complications relating to visual acuity were evaluated.
In 56 patients followed postoperatively for more than 12 months, the initial and final surgical success rate was 96.4% and 100%, respectively. The mean preoperative logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity was 0.05 and decreased to 0.11 postoperatively (p < 0.001). Of the 56 patients, 20 (35.7%) had worse visual acuity postoperatively, compared with preoperatively (0.06 vs. 0.27, p < 0.001); these cases were comprised of six patients with epiretinal membranes, 12 patients with a posterior capsule opacity, and two patients with cystoid macular edema. In the remaining 36 patients, there were no significant differences in visual acuity preoperatively and postoperatively (0.04 vs. 0.03, p = 0.324).
In patients with cataracts who develop macula-sparing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and whose visual prognosis is excellent assuming the retina can be reattached successfully, combined phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and vitrectomy might be an effective treatment. However, the visual prognosis is significantly affected by postoperative complications such as an epiretinal membranes, posterior capsule opacity, and cystoid macular edema. Therefore, further studies should examine methods to prevent these postoperative complications.
Cataract extraction; Optical coherence tomography; Pars plana vitrectomy; Retinal detachment
To investigate the clinical and demographic features of idiopathic macular telangiectasia (MacTel) in Korean patients since the introduction of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
We reviewed medical records of patients who were diagnosed with MacTel from 2009 to 2013. All patients underwent fluorescein angiography and SD-OCT and were classified as type 1 or type 2 according to the classification system proposed by Yannuzzi.
Over a period of 5 years, 4 (18.2%) patients were diagnosed with type 1 MacTel and 18 (81.8%) patients were diagnosed with type 2 MacTel. All patients with type1 MacTel were male, and their mean age was 51 ± 8.6 years. Among patients with type 2 MacTel, 3 (16.7%) were male, 15 (83.3%) were female, and the mean age was 60 ± 13.6 years. Whereas all type 1 MacTel patients had either metamorphopsia or mild scotoma, of the 18 patients with type 2 MacTel, only 4 (22.2%) had those symptoms, 10 (55.6%) complained of only mild visual impairment, and the other 4 (22.2%) had no symptoms. Intraretinal cystoid spaces were observed in 26 (72.2%) of 36 eyes with type 2 MacTel by SD-OCT. These cystoid spaces had irregular boundaries and did not correspond to angiographic leakages.
Type 2 MacTel was most common in the present study. The wider availability of SD-OCT may have contributed to the diagnosis of type 2 MacTel. Type 2 MacTel may be more prevalent than type 1 in Koreans, which corresponds to the results of Western countries.
Idiopathic juxtafoveal retinal telangiectasia; Macular telangiectasia; Spectral domain optical coherence tomography
To analyze differences in the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT) between bevacizumab responders (BevRs) and nonresponders (BevNRs) in patients with idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).
The medical records of 30 unilateral chronic CSC patients who were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) as a first line treatment were reviewed. Patients were categorized as BevNRs when CSC did not completely resolve after a minimum of 3 IVB treatments. Enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography was used and SFChT was measured before and after treatment. Choroidal hyperpermeability was also evaluated using indocyanine angiography.
Twenty and 10 eyes were classified as BevRs or BevNRs, respectively. The mean number of IVB treatments was 2.22 ± 0.89 in BevRs, and 4.80 ± 1.03 in BevNRs. Compared with BevNRs, BevRs demonstrated significantly greater pretreatment SFChT (441.25 ± 88.09 vs. 364.10 ± 61.97 µm); SFChT reduction following IVB was significantly greater in BevRs than BevNRs. SFChT in the unaffected eyes was also greater in BevRs than BevNRs. Choroidal hyperpermeability was detected less frequently in BevNRs (hypofluorescence on late-phase, 0.0% and 33.3% in BevNRs and BevRs, respectively; p= 0.049).
Compared with CSC eyes that did not respond well to IVB, BevRs demonstrated significantly thicker SFChT at baseline, greater reduction in SFChT after IVB treatment, and hyperfluorescence on late-phase indocyanine green angiography. We recommend IVB injection as the first-line therapy for CSC eyes with relatively high SFChT and hyperfluorescence on late-phase indocyanine green angiography.
Bevacizumab; Central serous chorioretinopathy; Enhanced depth image-optical coherence tomography; Subfoveal choroidal thickness
To develop a novel, simplified method for correcting the ischemic index of nonperfused areas in diabetic retinopathy (DR).
We performed a retrospective review of 103 eyes with naive DR that underwent ultra-widefield angiography (UWFA) over a year. UWFAs were graded according to the quantity of retinal non-perfusion, and uncorrected ischemic index (UII) and corrected ischemic index (CII) were calculated using a simplified, novel method.
The average differences between UII and CII in the non-proliferative DR group and the proliferative DR group were 0.7 ± 0.9% in the <25% CII group, 3.0 ± 0.9% in the 25% to 49.9% CII group, and 3.6 ± 0.6% in the >50% CII group, respectively. A CII >25% was critical for determining DR progression (p < 0.001).
Distortion created by UWFA needs to be corrected because the difference between UII and CII in DR increases with the ischemic index.
Diabetic retinopathy; Ischemic index; Wide-field fluorescein angiography
This study was conducted to identify the relationship between control grade, stereoacuity and surgical success in basic intermittent exotropia.
This retrospective study involved 44 basic intermittent exotropia patients who underwent strabismus surgery and completed at least 6 months of follow-up. The 44 patients were divided into three subgroups according to their control grade: group 1 (good control group, n = 12), group 2 (fair control group, n = 18), and group 3 (poor control group, n = 14). Evaluation was done to identify the relationships between near and distance stereoacuity and control grade, and between surgical success and control grade. Surgical success was defined as ocular alignment between 5 prism diopters esodeviation and 10 prism diopters exodeviation in the primary position at the final visit.
Mean near stereoacuity measured by the graded circle test was 57.50 seconds of arc (seconds) in group 1, 77.77 seconds in group 2, and 131.43 seconds in group 3 (p < 0.01). Mean distance steroacuity measured by Mentor B-VAT II BVS contour circle was 108.33 seconds in group 1, 148.33 seconds in group 2, and 262.82 seconds in group 3 (p < 0.01). Ten patients (83.33%) in group 1, 12 (66.67%) in group 2, and 9 (64.29%) in group 3 obtained surgical success (p = 0.28).
In basic intermittent exotropia, better control grade was significantly accompanied by better stereoacuity. Better control grade was accompanied by higher surgical success rate but with no statistical significance.
Exotropia; Prevention & control; Stereoacuity; Strabismus
To evaluate the performance of the hand-held and table-top autorefractokeratometer in measuring refractive errors by comparing them with cycloplegic retinoscopy.
Included in the study were 112 eyes of 112 pediatric patients whose mean age was 6.78 ± 2.61 years (range, 2 to 12 years). The refractive errors of all the eyes were measured with and without cycloplegia using a hand held autorefractokeratometer (Retinomax K-plus 3), table top autorefractokeratometer (Canon RK-F1) and performing cycloplegic retinoscopy. The spherical equivalent, cylindrical axis and keratometer values were statistically compared.
The mean spherical equivalent obtained from the Retinomax K-plus 3 was significantly less hyperopic than that of Canon RK-F1 (p = 0.004) before cycloplegia. When the Bland Altman analysis was performed in comparisons of spherical equivalent values measured with the Retinomax K-plus 3, Canon RK-F1 and cycloplegic retinoscopy, it was seen that almost all of the differences between the measurements remained within the range of ±2 standard deviation. Good agreement was found between Retinomax K-plus 3 and Canon RK-F1 for the Jackson cross-cylinder values at axis 0° and 45°; keratometer values respectively.
The refractive error components were highly correlated between the two instruments and cycloplegic retinoscopy.
Hand-held autorefractokeratometer; Refractive errors; Retinoscopy; Table-top autorefractokeratometer
To compare the characteristics of the pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) in patients with severe visual loss and normal controls, and to demonstrate the range of PVEP parameters in normal Koreans.
The patients were divided into three groups according to visual acuity: group 1, ranging from no light perception to less than 0.02; group 2, ranging from 0.02 to 0.1; and group 3, ranging from 0.125 to 0.25. Group 4 was established as a healthy control group. The 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the PVEP parameters were calculated for group 4. The PVEP parameters were compared among these four groups, and the amplitudes were evaluated with respect to the 95% CIs. We used the area under the curve to integrate the sensitivity and the specificity of the PVEP parameter quantitative values (7.01 to 9.57 µV and 6.75 to 10.11 µV).
A total of 101 eyes were investigated. The 95% CIs of the P100 and N135 amplitudes of group 4 were 7.01 to 9.57 µV and 6.75 to 10.11 µV, respectively. The amplitudes of P100 and N135 were significantly higher in group 4 (p < 0.001). The P100 and N135 amplitude were below the 95% CI in all group 1 patients. The area under the curve of the P100 amplitude was the highest (0.789).
No legally blind patient in the present study exhibited a value within the 95% CI of the controls. The P100 amplitude may be the best parameter for defining blindness in patients.
Blindness; Pattern visual evoked potentials; Visual loss
To compare pain scores of patients during intravitreal 27-gauge bevacizumab and 30-gauge ranibizumab injection procedures.
Seventy eyes of 70 patients who had not previously undergone intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy were included in this study. Thirty-five patients received ranibizumab and 35 patients received bevacizumab. The diagnoses of the patients were: 27 age related macular degeneration, 15 diabetic macular edema, 9 diabetic vitreous hemorrhage, 6 central retinal vein occlusion, 11 branch retinal vein occlusion and 2 central serous chorioretinopathy. Bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) was injected into the vitreous cavity using a 27-gauge needle, and ranibizumab (0.5 mg/0.05 mL) was injected with 30-gauge needle. Patients were asked just after the injection to rate their perceived pain during the injection using the visual analogue scale (VAS) of 0 (no pain) to 10 (unbearable/worst pain). The average of these scores was used as the primary outcome.
The VAS pain scores in the ranibizumab and bevacizumab groups were 1.06 ± 0.91 (range, 0 to 3) and 1.94 ± 1.55 (range, 0 to 7), respectively, a significant difference (p = 0.005). Patients <65 and ≥65 years of age in both the ranibizumab and bevacizumab groups were then compared. For patients <65, there was a significant difference in the average VAS pain scores between groups (p = 0.003). However, for patients ≥65 years, there was not a significant difference in the average VAS pain scores between groups (p = 0.238). Female and male patients in both ranibizumab and bevacizumab groups were also compared. For female patients, there was a significant difference in the average VAS pain scores between groups (p = 0.016), although not for male patients (p = 0.078).
Thirty-gauge intravitreal injection is more comfortable than 27-gauge injection. Injection of bevacizumab with 30-gauge needle syringes may be more tolerable for patients.
Bevacizumab; Intravitreal injections; Pain; Ranibizumab; Visual analogue scale
To investigate the feasibility of estimating effective lens position (ELP) and calculating intraocular lens power using corneal height (CH), as measured using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), in patients who have undergone corneal refractive surgery.
This study included 23 patients (30 eyes) who have undergone myopic corneal refractive surgery and subsequent successful cataract surgery. The CH was measured with AS-OCT, and the measured ELP (ELPm) was calculated. Intraocular lens power, which could achieve actual emmetropia (Preal), was determined with medical records. Estimated ELP (ELPest) was back-calculated using Preal, axial length, and keratometric value through the SRK/T formula. After searching the best-fit regression formula between ELPm and ELPest, converted ELP and intraocular lens power (ELPconv, Pconv) were obtained and then compared to ELPest and Preal, respectively. The proportion of eyes within a defined error was investigated.
Mean CH, ELPest, and ELPm were 3.71 ± 0.23, 7.74 ± 1.09, 5.78 ± 0.26 mm, respectively. The ELPm and ELPest were linearly correlated (ELPest = 1.841 × ELPm - 2.018, p = 0.023, R = 0.410) and ELPconv and Pconv agreed well with ELPest and Preal, respectively. Eyes within ±0.5, ±1.0, ±1.5, and ±2.0 diopters of the calculated Pconv, were 23.3%, 66.6%, 83.3%, and 100.0%, respectively.
Intraocular lens power calculation using CH measured with AS-OCT shows comparable accuracy to several conventional methods in eyes following corneal refractive surgery.
Anterior segment optical coherence tomography; Corneal height; Corneal refractive surgery; Effective lens position; Intraocular lens power calculation
To investigate the risk factors for initial central scotoma (ICS) compared with initial peripheral scotoma (IPS) in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG).
Fifty-six NTG patients (56 eyes) with an ICS and 103 NTG patients (103 eyes) with an IPS were included. Retrospectively, the differences were assessed between the two groups for baseline characteristics, ocular factors, systemic factors, and lifestyle factors. Also, the mean deviation of visual field was compared between the two groups.
Patients from both ICS and IPS groups were of similar age, gender, family history of glaucoma, and follow-up periods. Frequency of disc hemorrhage was significantly higher among patients with ICS than in patients with IPS. Moreover, systemic risk factors such as hypotension, migraine, Raynaud's phenomenon, and snoring were more prevalent in the ICS group than in the IPS group. There were no statistical differences in lifestyle risk factors such as smoking or body mass index. Pattern standard deviation was significantly greater in the ICS group than in the IPS group, but the mean deviation was similar between the two groups.
NTG Patients with ICS and IPS have different profiles of risk factors and clinical characteristics. This suggests that the pattern of initial visual field loss may be useful to identify patients at higher risk of central field loss.
Low tension glaucoma; Risk factors; Scotoma; Visual fields
To compare the surgical results of trabeculectomy and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation after a previous failed trabeculectomy.
A retrospective comparative case series review was performed on 31 eye surgeries in 20 patients with primary congenital glaucoma who underwent trabeculectomy or Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation after a previous failed trabeculectomy with mitomycin C.
The preoperative mean intraocular pressure was 25.5 mmHg in the trabeculectomy group and 26.9 mmHg in the Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation group (p = 0.73). The 48-month postoperative mean intraocular pressure was 19.6 mmHg in the trabeculectomy group and 20.2 mmHg in the Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation group (p = 0.95). The 12-month trabeculectomy success rate was 69%, compared with 64% for Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation, and the 48-month success rates were 42% and 36% for trabeculectomy and valve implantation, respectively. The success rates following the entire follow-up period were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05 by log rank test). Postoperative complications occurred in 25% of the trabeculectomy-operated eyes and 9% of the Ahmed-implanted eyes (p = 0.38).
There was no significant difference in surgical outcome between the trabeculectomy and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation groups, neither of which had favorable results. However, the trabeculectomy group demonstrated a higher prevalence of adverse complications such as post-operative endophthalmitis.
Ahmed valve implantation; Congenital glaucoma; Surgical outcomes; Trabeculectomy
To assess the clinical outcomes following botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) treatment with an individualized injection technique based on the types of spasms and to compare the results of the individualized injection technique with those of the conventional injection technique in the same patients.
From November 2011 to July 2013, 77 BoNT-A injections were performed in 38 patients. Eighteen patients were treated with conventional BoNT-A injections before 2011, and 20 patients were referred to our hospital for unsatisfactory results after a conventional injection technique. We classified the patients by spasm-dominant sites: the lateral orbital area, representing the orbital orbicularis-dominant group (ODG); the glabella, representing the corrugator-dominant group (CDG); and the ptosis, representing the palpebral part of the orbicularis-dominant group (PDG). We increased the injection dose into the spasm-dominant sites of the blepharospasm groups. We assessed subjective symptom scores (functional disability score, FDS) after treatment.
This study included 38 patients (26 women, 12 men; mean age, 60.6 ± 10.9 years). There were 21 patients in the ODG, 10 patients in the CDG, and 7 patients in the PDG. Mean ages were 59.7 ± 12.6, 59.8 ± 8.5, and 66.8 ± 9.0 years, and mean BoNT-A injection dose was 38.8 ± 11.2, 38.8 ± 11.2, and 38.8 ± 10.8 U in each group, respectively (p = 0.44, 0.82 Kruskal-Wallis test). Mean FDS after injection was 1.7 ± 0.7 in the ODG, 1.4 ± 0.8 in the CDG, and 1.2 ± 0.3 in the PDG. There were significant differences in reading and job scale among the three groups. In a comparison between the conventional and individualized injection techniques, there was a significant improvement in mean FDS and in the reading scale in the PDG with the individualized injection technique. The success rate was 92.1% in the conventional injection group and 94.1% in the individualized injection group.
The individualized injection technique of BoNT-A according to the spasm-dominant site is an effective and safe treatment method for essential blepharospasm patients.
Benign essential blepharospasm; Botulinum nerotoxin A; Individualized injection technique
To investigate patterns of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation during sentence reading before and after wearing color-tinted lenses.
A total of 15 Meares-Irlen syndrome patients with a mean age of 23.4 years (range, 13 to 42 years) with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders were scanned using a 3T MR scanner (Siemens, Tim-Trio, Germany). Each patient underwent two sessions of fMRI imaging (before and after MISViS color-tinted lens application). The fMRI paradigm included a block design of 20 seconds of rest (cross), 20 seconds of activation (sentence reading), and ten blocks (a total of 200 echo-planar image volumes) repeated for each session. Data preprocessing and analyses were performed using the SPM8 software package.
The reading speed of patients improved more than 20% while wearing the selected lenses. When compared to the before-lens session, the after-lens session identified significant regions of activation in the left middle and superior temporal gyri (paired t-test; maximal z score, 5.38; Montreal Neurological Institute coordinate, -60 / -39 / 0; threshold at p < 0.05; corrected for multiple comparisons using family-wise error). No region of activation at the same threshold was found in the before-lens session as compared to the after-lens session.
In the current study, we confirmed activation in the left middle and superior temporal gyri during sentence reading after wearing color-tinted lenses. These results could explain the effectiveness of color-tinted lenses in patients with Meares-Irlen syndrome.
Left temporal gyrus; Magnetic resonance imaging; Meares-Irlen syndrome
The purpose of this study was to establish a set of normative data values for saccade movements using videonystagmography and to evaluate the effects of manual correction on this data.
We examined 25 healthy subjects (9 men and 16 women). All tests were carried out by one well-instructed physician. Errors such as the wrong detection of the inflection point, missing movement, and prediction occurred during some tests. Thus, the same physician manually corrected the data by deleting error data from row results.
We established a set of normative data for horizontal saccade movements (amplitude size 15 and 30 degrees) for mean peak velocity, latency, and accuracy. Manual correction only impacted latency and accuracy at 30 degrees horizontal, which is likely related to possible errors during the test.
The present study provides clinically useful videonystagmography-based normative data for clinicians regarding saccade movements in Korean individuals.
Accuracy; Latency; Saccades; Velocity
To investigate the therapeutic effects of mineral oil (MO) and hyaluronic acid (HA) mixture eye drops on the tear film and ocular surface in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE).
Eye drops consisting of 0.1% HA alone or mixed with 0.1%, 0.5%, or 5.0% MO were applied to desiccating stress-induced murine dry eyes. Tear volume, corneal irregularity score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured at 5 and 10 days after treatment. Ten days after treatment, goblet cells in the conjunctiva were counted after Periodic acid-Schiff staining.
There was no significant difference in the tear volume between desiccating stress-induced groups. The corneal irregularity score was lower in the 0.5% MO group compared with the EDE and HA groups. The 0.5% and 5.0% MO groups showed a significant improvement in TBUT compared with the EDE group. Mice treated with 0.1% and 0.5% MO mixture eye drops showed a significant improvement in fluorescein staining scores compared with the EDE group and the HA group. The conjunctival goblet cell count was higher in the 0.5% MO group compared with the EDE group and HA group.
The MO and HA mixture eye drops had a beneficial effect on the tear films and ocular surface of murine dry eye. The application of 0.5% MO and 0.1% HA mixture eye drops could improve corneal irregularity, the corneal fluorescein staining score, and conjunctival goblet cell count compared with 0.1% HA eye drops in the treatment of EDE.
Dry eye; Hyaluronic acid; Mineral oil; Ocular surface
To report the clinical outcomes of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) when sterile gamma-irradiated acellular corneal tissues (VisionGraft) are used in combination with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for intractable ocular surface diseases.
The medical records of fifteen patients who had DALK with AMT were retrospectively reviewed. Indications for surgery included ocular burn, bacterial keratitis, herpes simplex virus keratitis, corneal opacity with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Mooren's ulcer, idiopathic myxoid degeneration of corneal stroma, and recurrent band keratopathy. DALK was performed using partial-thickness acellular corneal tissue and a temporary amniotic membrane patch was added at the end of the operation.
All cases that underwent DALK with AMT became epithelialized within 2 postoperative weeks. Twelve patients showed favorable outcomes without graft rejection, corneal opacification, or neovascularization. The other three grafts developed corneal opacification and neovascularization, and required additional penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Unlike the results of previous PKs, there were no graft rejections and the graft clarity was well-maintained in these three cases for at least 8 months after PK.
DALK using sterile acellular corneal tissues in combination with AMT may be a good therapeutic strategy for treating intractable ocular surface diseases because of lowered immune rejection, fibroblast activation, and facilitation of epithelialization. Furthermore, DALK can help stabilize the ocular surface, prolong graft survival, and may allow better outcomes when combined with subsequent PK.
Amniotic membrane transplantation; Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty; Intractable ocular surface disease; Sterile acellular cornea; Visiongraft
The purpose of the study was to differentiate ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) from nonischemic CRVO during the early acute phase using plasma homocysteine as a biochemical marker.
Fasting plasma homocysteine, serum vitamin B12, and folate levels were measured in 108 consecutive unilateral elderly adult (age >50 years) ischemic CRVO patients in the absence of local and systemic disease and compared with a total of 144 age and sex matched nonischemic CRVO patients and 120 age and sex matched healthy control subjects.
Homocysteine level was significantly increased in the patients with ischemic CRVO in comparison with nonischemic CRVO patients (p = 0.009) and also in comparison with control subjects (p < 0.001). Analysis also showed that hyperhomocysteinemia was associated with increased incidence of ischemic CRVO (odds ratio, 18) than that for nonischemic CRVO (odds ratio, 4.5). Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in CRVO patients compared to the control but were not significantly different between nonischemic and ischemic CRVO patients (p > 0.1).
Hyperhomocysteinemia can be regarded as useful in differentiating nonischemic and ischemic CRVO during the early acute phase in absence of local and systemic disease in the elderly adult (age >50 years) population.
Central retinal vein occlusion; Homocysteine; Hyperhomocysteinemia; Ischemic central retinal vein occlusion; Nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion