To describe a modified surgical technique for blepharoptosis repair through a small orbital septum incision
and minimal dissection, along with the results obtained in patients with coexisting dermatochalasis.
A retrospective chart review included 33 patients (52 eyelids) with blepharoptosis coexisting with dermatochalasis, surgically corrected through a small orbital septum incision and minimal dissection after redundant upper lid skin excision, by placing a single fixation suture between the levator aponeurosis and the tarsal plate. Outcome measures included the pre- and postoperative marginal reflex distances (MRD1), eyelid contour, post-operative complications, and need for reoperation.
The pre- and postoperative MRD1 averaged 1.1 ± 0.8 mm and 2.8 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. Of the 33 patients, 9 patients (9 eyelids) underwent surgery on one eyelid for unilateral blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis (Group I), 5 patients (5 eyelids) underwent a simple skin excision blepharoplasty of the contralateral eyelid (Group II), and 19 patients (38 eyelids) underwent bilateral blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis repair (Group III). Of the 14 eyelids that underwent unilateral ptosis repair (Groups I and II), 12 eyelids (85.7%) showed less than a 1-mm difference from the contralateral eyelid. Of the 38 eyelids that underwent bilateral ptosis repair (Group III), 27 eyelids (71.1%), 5 eyelids (13.1%), and 6 eyelids (15.8%) had excellent, good, and poor outcomes, respectively. Overall, 44 eyelids (84.6%) out of a total of 52 eyelids had successful outcomes; the remaining 8 eyelids demonstrated unsatisfactory eyelid contour was corrected by an additional surgery.
Blepharoptosis repair through a small orbital septum incision and minimal dissection can be considered an efficient technique in patients with ptosis and dermatochalasis.
Blepharoptosis; Dermatochalasis; Minimal dissection; Small incision
To compare the efficacy of the transconjunctival releasable suture technique for pars plana vitrectomy using 23-gauge (23G) instruments versus the conventional 20-gauge (20G) technique.
A retrospective and interventional case series was consecutively performed for 199 eyes of the 192 patients that were a part of this study. Clinical data were reviewed retrospectively regarding the operation time, preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure, visual acuity and astigmatism for 54 consecutive patients who received a 23G releasable suture vitrectomy and for 98 consecutive patients who received a 20G conventional vitrectomy during the period between April 2007 and September 2010.
Mean operation time based on the operation record was 88.5 ± 20.1 minutes in the 23G releasable suture vitrectomy group and 102.1 ± 23.1 minutes in the 20G conventional vitrectomy group, respectively (p = 0.01). The last best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was significantly better than the preoperative BCVA in both patient groups (p = 0.01, p = 0.01). The 23G releasable suture group showed less surgically induced astigmatism than the 20G conventional vitrectomy group. Vitreous bleeding was observed to be in 6 eyes (5.9%) in the 23G group, and in 8 eyes (8.2%) in the 20G group. In addition, ocular hypertension was noted to be in 3 eyes (3.0%) in the 23G group, and 6 eyes (6.1%) in the 20G group. No serious complications such as postoperative hypotony or endophthalmitis were observed in either group.
The 23G releasable suture technique is as effective as the 20G conventional technique and offers several advantages.
Vitrectomy; Vitreoretinal surgery
To investigate the morphologic changes in the outer retina of patients with cone dystrophy, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
The medical records of 15 cone dystrophy patients examined from January 2007 to January 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients underwent ophthalmic evaluation including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), color vision testing, fundus examination, full-field standard electroretinography (ERG), multifocal (mf) ERG, and SD-OCT. Qualitative and quantitative SD-OCT data and ERG responses were analyzed and compared among the patient categories and the normal control group.
There were 4 major categories of SD-OCT findings, based on the status of the ellipsoid portion of the photoreceptor inner segment (ISe), outer segment (OS) contact cylinder, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer. Category 0 showed no structural abnormalities. Category 1 showed foveal ISe loss and obscurity of the border between the ISe band and the external limiting membrane (ELM). Category 2 showed foveal thinning and focal foveal ISe disruption with an intact ELM. Category 3 showed foveal thickening and perifoveal disruption of the ISe layer. Category 1 to 3 showed OS contact cylinder layer absence and RPE thickening. The patients in category 0 tended to be younger (mean, 10.0 years) than those in categories 1 to 3 (mean, 17.6 years), although this difference was not statistically significant. Category 1 to 3 patients exhibited statistically significant thinning of the central retina and outer nuclear layer and thickening of the RPE layer relative to the category 0 and normal control group. There was a significant correlation between the central foveal thickness and BCVA in the patients with cone dystrophy. ERG and mfERG responses did not differ significantly among the different cone dystrophy categories.
The morphologic features of cone dystrophy as revealed by SD-OCT, could be categorized as either normal or 1 of 3 different types of outer retinal changes. The presence of normal retinal structures in young cone dystrophy patients with functional impairment (category 0) indicates that electrophysiologic studies are superior to current imaging modalities for the early diagnosis of cone dystrophy. The characteristic SD-OCT findings in cone dystrophy patients may aid in differential diagnosis and be useful for future research on the pathology of cone dystrophy.
Cone dystrophy; Electroretinography; Photoreceptor cells; Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography
To evaluate the effect of adjunctive subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in gas-filled eyes after vitrectomy for complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).
This nonrandomized comparative study included 27 patients (27 eyes) who underwent pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade for treatment of PDR with tractional or combined tractional-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and who received subtenon injection of TA (40 mg) at the end of surgery. The study group was compared with the control group (29 eyes), which was matched with the study group for preoperative and intraoperative parameters, but underwent pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade without a subtenon injection of TA.
Retinal reattachments without reoperation were achieved in 25 eyes (92.6%) and 26 eyes (89.7%) at 6 months (p = 1.000) in the study and control groups, respectively. The study group and the control group did not differ significantly in the frequency of postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy, retinal redetachment rate, reoperation rate, macular pucker formation, postoperative vitreous hemorrhage, gain in visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and intraocular inflammation (p > 0.05).
The clinical results of pars plana vitrectomy for complicated PDR are not improved significantly by an adjunctive subtenon TA injection in gas-filled eyes.
Gas tamponade; Pars plana vitrectomy; Posterior subtenon injection; Proliferative diabetic retinopathy; Triamcinolone acetonide
To describe the long-term results of deep sclerectomy with collagen implant (DSCI) with or without adjuvant mitomycin C in Korean patients with primary or secondary open-angle glaucoma (OAG).
This retrospective review was comprised of 65 Korean patients who received DSCI with or without adjuvant mitomycin C due to primary or secondary OAG. Patients were followed for 72 months after surgery. Complete success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mmHg without medication and qualified success was defined as IOP <21 mmHg with or without medication.
Mean postoperative follow-up period was 53.0 ± 16.2 months. Mean IOP was 30.5 ± 11.7 mmHg preoperatively, 8.4 ± 4.3 mmHg at postoperative day one and 13.4 ± 3.8 mmHg 60 months after surgery. The mean number of glaucoma medications was decreased from 3.6 ± 1.1 to 1.6 ± 1.3 at 60 months after the operation. Complete and qualified success rates were 36.7% and 79.6% at postoperative 60 months, respectively (Kaplan-Meier survival curve). No shallow or flat anterior chamber, endophthalmitis, or surgery-induced significant cataract was observed.
The results of DSCI in Korean patients presented here seem reasonably excellent with qualified success rates of over 70% at six years with negligible complications.
Deep sclerectomy; Koreans; Open-angle glaucoma; Small collagen implant
To evaluate the correlation between hypertropia and excyclotorsion in acquired superior oblique palsy (SOP).
Thirty-one patients with acquired unilateral SOP were recruited for this study. The torsional angle of each patient was assessed via one objective method (fundus photography) and two subjective methods (double Maddox rod test and major amblyoscope). The patient population was divided into two groups (concordance group, n = 19 and discordance group, n = 12) according to the correspondence between the hypertropic eye (paralytic eye) and the more extorted eye (non-fixating eye), which was evaluated by fundus photography.
The mean value of objective torsion was 5.09° ± 3.84°. The subjective excyclotorsion degrees were 5.18° ± 4.11° and 3.65° ± 1.93° as measured by double Maddox rod test and major amblyoscope, respectively. Hypertropia and the excyclotorsional angle did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.257). Although no correlation was found in the discordance group, the concordance group showed a significant and positive correlation between hypertropia and excyclotorsion (p = 0.011).
Torsional deviation was not related to hypertropia. However, in the concordance patients in whom the hypertropic eye showed excyclotorsion, a significant positive correlation was found between hypertropia and excyclotorsion.
Major amblyoscope; Strabismus; Noncomitantsuperior oblique palsy; Torsion
To determine the relationship between the differences in the ocular component values with the degree of anisomyopia.
Refraction, corneal power (CP), and biometry were examined in 50 myopic adults with refractive differences (RD) over 1.50 diopters (D). Ocular components were measured by ultrasound biometry and keratometry. The correlation between the differences in the ocular component values with the degree of anisomyopia was analyzed by linear regression analysis.
Among 50 adults with anisomyopia, 5 had RD from 1.50 to 2.99 D, 11 had RD from 3.00 to 3.99 D, 9 had RD from 4.00 to 5.99 D, 12 had RD from 6.00 to 7.99 D, 7 had RD from 8.00 to 11.99 D, and 6 had ≥12.00 D. There was no significant correlation between the ocular components (CP, crystalline lens thickness [LT], and anterior chamber depth [ACD], and the length from the cornea to the posterior surface of the lens [ACD + LT]) and the RD (p > 0.05). The RD showed a significantly positive correlation with vitreous chamber depth (VCD), and axial length (r = 0.963, p < 0.0001).
The severity of anisomyopia was not correlated with the between-eye differences in the anterior chamber values of the eye (CP, ACD, LT, ACD + LT). The severity of anisomyopia was significantly correlated with the between-eye differences in VCD.
Anisometropia; Axial length
To assess whether the expression of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) protects rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) from apoptotic cell death.
Hsp72 expression in RGC-5 cells transduced with replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus was analyzed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. The effect of Hsp72 expression on etoposide-induced apoptotic cell death was examined by microscopic analysis and confirmed by cell proliferation assay.
Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence clearly showed adenovirus-mediated Hsp72 expression in RGC-5 cells. Treatment with etoposide resulted in the death of a proportion of the cells by apoptosis. However, this apoptotic cell death was significantly reduced in cells expressing Hsp72, with the reduction in cell death correlating to the level of Hsp72 expression.
Over-expression of Hsp72 alone is sufficient to rescue neuronal cells from apoptotic cell death, suggesting that fine-tuning its expression may be an effective neuroprotective approach in retinal degenerative disease.
Adenoviral vector; Apoptosis; Glaucoma; Hsp72 heat-shock proteins; Retinal ganglion cells
The author reports a case of orbital Sarcoidosis in a 70-year-old female that initially presented as diffuse swelling of the lower eyelid. The patient complained of painless swelling of the left lower lid without palpable mass, and a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the orbit was unremarkable. A serum angiotensin converting enzyme level was elevated, and hilar lymphadenopathy was noted on the chest CT. The patient underwent surgical debulking for histologic confirmation, which led to a final diagnosis of sarcoidosis involving the orbital fat. Unexplained chronic eyelid swelling without a mass should be considered a possible ophthalmic manifestation of orbital sarcoidosis.
Chronic swelling; Lower lid; Orbital sarcoidosis
A 6-year-old boy was referred to our hospital with symblepharon and lateral canthal deformity in both eyes, which developed 6 years ago. The patient was born at 27 weeks gestation. He had received cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity. One month after cryotherapy, he developed a conjunctival scar with symblepharon in both eyes and underwent symblepharon lysis at another hospital 5 years prior. Ocular examination revealed an extensive conjunctival hypertrophic scar with symblepharon and limitation of extraocular movements. An excisional biopsy, lateral canthoplasty, and symblepharon lysis with conjunctival autograft from the contralateral eye were performed in the left eye. Histopathologic examination revealed diffuse proliferation and infiltration of collagenous tissue.
Cicatrix; Cryotherapy; Hypertrophic; Retinopathy of prematurity; Symblepharon
A 32-year-old male who had infective endocarditis complained of photophobia and blurred vision in both eyes. Biomicroscopic examination and fundus examination revealed anterior chamber reaction, vitritis, optic disc swelling, and Roth spots. He was diagnosed with bilateral nongranulomatous uveitis and treated with topical steroid eye drops and posterior sub-Tenon injection of triamcinolone. His visual symptoms were resolved within 1 week, and inflammation resolved within 4 weeks after treatment.
Immune system disease; Optic disc; Uveitis
We report a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis after intravitreal bevacizumab injection. A 61-year-old woman with diabetic macular edema developed dense vitritis and necrotizing retinitis 3 weeks after intravitreal bevacizumab injection. A diagnostic vitrectomy was performed. The undiluted vitreous sample acquired by vitrectomy was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and culture. Polymerase chain reaction of the vitreous was positive for CMV DNA. Other laboratory results did not show evidence of other infectious retinitis and systemic immune dysfunction. Human immunodeficiency virus antibodies were also negative. After systemic administration of ganciclovir, retinitis has resolved and there has been no recurrence of retinitis during the follow-up period of 12 months. Ophthalmologists should be aware of potential risk for CMV retinitis after intravitreal bevacizumab injection.
Bevacizumab; Cytomegalovirus; Retinitis
Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) rarely cause neovascular glaucoma (NVG). A 58-year-old woman with hypertension and type 2 diabetic mellitus complained of progressive visual loss in her right eye for the previous 3 months. At initial examination, visual acuity was 20 / 63 in the right eye. Angle neovascularization was observed and the intraocular pressure (IOP) was 30 mmHg in her right eye. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography showed BRAO combined with BRVO. We immediately injected intravitreal and intracameral bevacizumab in her right eye. The next day, we performed scatter photocoagulation in the nonperfusion area. One month later, visual acuity was 20 / 20 in her right eye and the IOP was 17 mmHg with one topical antiglaucoma agent. The neovascularization had regressed completely. We report a case of unilateral NVG which was caused by BRAO with concomitant BRVO and advise close ophthalmic examination of the iris and angle in BRVO with BRAO.
Branch retinal artery occlusion; Branch retinal vein occlusion; Neovascular glaucoma; Neovascularization; Retinal ischemia
A 5-year-old girl was diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) due to multiple neurofibromas, cafe-au-lait spots, and schwannomas of the brain. During ophthalmologic evaluation, a posterior subcapsular cataract and a gray-green colored subretinal lesion were found in right eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed a combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (CHRRPE). At age 9, she underwent cataract surgery. At this time FA and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were taken. The SD-OCT showed an elevated hyperreflective mass in the retina with prominent attenuation of the inner and outer retina, but minimal attenuation in the photoreceptor layers. The underlying retina appeared to be disorganized and thick (791 µm). This is the first case report of SD-OCT imaging of a CHRRPE associated with NF-2 in a pediatric patient. By using SD-OCT in this patient, we could obtain detailed tumor characteristics, and SD-OCT may be helpful in the diagnosis and management of CHRRPE.
Combined hamartoma of retina and retinal pigment epithelium; Neurofibromatoses; Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography
To evaluate changes over time of the anterior capsule opening size after phacoemulsification, based on haptic number and composition of three acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs).
Fifty-five patients (70 eyes) were included. All underwent phacoemulsification followed by implantation of either an acrylic IOL with two-haptic (one-piece, 26 eyes; three-piece, 22 eyes), or four-haptic (one-piece, 22 eyes). The area of the anterior capsule opening size was measured one week postoperatively (baseline) and at three months.
There was a significant reduction in the area of the anterior capsule opening from one week as compared to three months postoperatively in all groups (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the reduction in the anterior capsule opening between the IOLs (p = 0.36).
The number and material of the haptic of the three acrylic IOLs did not influence the degree of anterior capsule opening shrinkage.
Anterior capsule of the lens; Capsulorhexis; Intraocular; Lenses
To evaluate the changes of refractive astigmatism after horizontal rectus muscle surgery in intermittent exotropic children.
Sixty-nine exotropic patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of those, 35 patients received unilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR group, 35 eyes) and 34 patients received unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection (R&R group, 34 eyes). Non-cycloplegic refractions were measured until 6 months postoperatively. Spherical equivalent (SE), J0 and J45 using power vectors were calculated to determine and compare the changes of refractive astigmatism and axis in both groups.
SE significantly decreased after surgery for the first week and did not changed thereafter in both groups (p = 0.000 and p = 0.018, respectively). In BLR group, J0 showed significant changes at the first week and 1 month after surgery (p = 0.005 and p = 0.016, respectively), but in R&R group, J0 changed significantly between 1 week and 3 months postoperatively (p = 0.023 and p = 0.016, respectively). J45 did not change significantly as time passed in both groups (all p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the magnitude of changes in SE, J0 and J45 between the two groups after the 6-month follow-up (p = 0.500, p = 0.244 and p = 0.202, respectively).
Horizontal rectus muscle surgery in intermittent exotropic children tends to induce a statistically significant change in astigmatism in the with-the-rule direction and myopic shift in SE. This astigmatism change seems to occur within the first 3 months after surgery. Thus, astigmatism induced by surgery should be checked and corrected at least 3 months after horizontal strabismus surgery.
Astigmatism; Horizontal rectus muscle surgery; Intermittent exotropia
To compare the effect of using fibrin glue or 10-0 nylon sutures on the clinical outcome of patients undergoing pterygium excision and conjunctival autografting.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 52 eyes from 46 patients who underwent pterygium excision and conjunctival autografting and were followed up for more than 3 months. The operation duration, postoperative inflammation, complications, and recurrence rates were compared between groups of 20 patients (22 eyes) for whom fibrin glue was used (fibrin glue group) and 26 patients (30 eyes) for whom suturing was performed with 10-0 nylon (suture group) in pterygium excision and conjunctival autografting.
The operation duration was 27.71 (5.22) minutes in the fibrin glue group and 43.30 (8.18) minutes in the suture group (p = 0.000). Seven days after the operation, the fibrin glue group showed milder conjunctival inflammation than the suture group (p = 0.000). Postoperative complications and corneal recurrence rates were not statistically different between the two groups.
The use of fibrin glue in pterygium excision with conjunctival autografting is likely to be a more effective, safer procedure than suturing.
Conjunctival autograft; Fibrin glue; Pterygium excision
The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacogenetic effects of complement factor H (CFH) Y402H, LOC387715 and high-temperature requirement factor A1 (HTRA1) genotypes on the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by intravitreal bevacizumab injection in a Korean population.
Seventy-five patients diagnosed with exudative AMD were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (2.5 mg) monotherapy. All patients received three initial intravitreal bevacizumab injections every four weeks and were then treated "as needed" based on clinical findings, optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography during the 12 month follow-up period after the third injection.
The difference in visual acuity improvement among the three genotypes of LOC387715 were statistically significant at six months post-treatment (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; TT, 0.346; GT, 0.264; GG, 0.188; p = 0.037). Among the LOC387715 genotypes, the number of additional injections was lower in patients who had the risk T allele (GG, 2.143; GT, 2.000; TT, 1.575; p = 0.064). There was no significant difference between visual acuity and central macular thickness change in the CFH Y402H polymorphism group during the 12 month follow-up period. However, the TC group of CFH Y402H required more additional bevacizumab injections than the TT group (TT, 1.517; TC, 3.363; p = 0.020).
This study demonstrated that different LOC387715/HTRA1 genotypes resulted in different bevacizumab treatment responses on exudative AMD. Patients with the risk allele had an improved treatment response and less need for additional injections. However, patients with the CFH Y402H risk allele needed more additional injections of bevacizumab in order to improve visual acuity. This study illustrates how pharmacogenetic factors may help determine treatment modality and dosing. This could ultimately provide basic data for 'personalized medicine' in AMD.
Bevacizumab; Complement factor H Y402H; HTRA1; LOC387715; Macular degeneration
To investigate whether the G6721T polymorphism (rs.7003908) of the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair XRCC7 gene contributes to the development of exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD).
The present case-control study consisted of 111 patients with exudative ARMD and 112 sex frequency-matched healthy controls that were randomly selected from unrelated volunteers in the same clinic. Genotypes were determined by the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based method. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ARMD risk associated with polymorphism of XRCC7. In all analysis the GG genotype was considered to be the reference genotype.
There was no significant association between genotypes of XRCC7 and susceptibility to ARMD. Considering the significant difference in age distribution between cases and controls, age was used as a covariate in further analysis. After ORs were adjusted for age, the same result was observed. In the next step we stratified our subjects into outdoor and indoor groups according to their job titles. The outdoor and indoor patients were occupationally exposed to sunlight and not exposed to sunlight, respectively. Our present study showed that among indoor subjects there was no association between XRCC7 polymorphism and susceptibility to ARMD. However, among outdoor subjects, the GT + TT genotypes compared to the GG genotype increased the risk of ARMD (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.04-9.39; p = 0.042).
Our study revealed that the T allele of the G6721T polymorphism of XRCC7 increased the risk of ARMD among outdoor subjects.
Macular degeneration; Susceptibility; XRCC7
To investigate the advantages of ultrawide-field fluorescein angiography (FA) over the standard fundus examination in the evaluation of diabetic retinopathy (DR).
Ultrawide-field FAs were obtained in 118 eyes of 59 diabetic patients; 11 eyes with no DR, 71 eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 36 eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), diagnosed by the standard method. The presence of peripheral abnormal lesions beyond the standard seven fields was examined.
Ultrawide-field FA images demonstrated peripheral microaneurysms in six (54.5%) of 11 eyes with no DR and all eyes with moderate to severe NPDR and PDR. Peripheral retinal neovascularizations were detected in three (4.2%) of 71 eyes with NPDR and in 13 (36.1%) of 36 eyes with PDR. Peripheral vascular nonperfusion and vascular leakage were found in two-thirds of eyes with severe NPDR and PDR.
Ultrawide-field FA demonstrates peripheral lesions beyond standard fields, which can allow early detection and a close evaluation of DR.
Diabetic retinopathy; Fluorescein angiography; Ultrawide-field
To evaluate whether a combination of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) or pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation affords a level of success similar to that of AGV implantation alone.
Eighteen eyes underwent simultaneous PPV and AGV, 14 eyes with PKP and AGV and 30 eyes with AGV implantation alone were evaluated. Success was defined as attainment of an intraocular pressure (IOP) >5 and <22 mmHg, with or without use of anti-glaucoma medication. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare cumulative survival between the combined surgery groups and the AGV implantation-alone group. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted to identify factors predictive of success in each of the three groups.
Mean (±standard deviation) preoperative IOP was 30.2 ± 10.2 mmHg in the PKP + AGV, 35.2 ± 9.8 mmHg in the PPV + AGV, and 36.2 ± 10.1 mmHg in the AGV implantation-alone group. The cumulative success rate at 18 months was 66.9%, 73.2%, and 70.8% in the three groups, respectively. Neither combined surgery group differed significantly in terms of cumulative success rate compared with the AGV implantation-alone group (p = 0.556, p = 0.487, respectively). The mean number of preoperative anti-glaucoma medications prescribed was significantly associated with success in the PKP + AGV implantation group (hazard ratio, 2.942; p = 0.024).
Either PKP or PPV performed in conjunction with AGV implantation afforded similar success rates compared to patients treated with AGV implantation alone. Therefore, in patients with refractory glaucoma who have underlying corneal or retinal pathology requiring treatment with PKP or PPV, AGV implantation can be performed simultaneously.
Ahmed valve; Glaucoma; Intraocular pressure; Pars plana vitrectomy; Penetrating keratoplasty
To analyze the postoperative strabismic angle for five years or more and to investigate when the angle stabilized in intermittent exotropia.
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 89 patients who had undergone surgery for intermittent exotropia. The postoperative strabismic angles measured were analyzed at one-year intervals up to five years postoperatively. We divided them into two groups according to their age at the time of surgery. Group 1 was less than 5 years of age, while Group 2 participants were 5 years of age or older.
For our 89 total patients, average exo-angles were 7.8 ± 7.26, 7.9 ± 7.51, 9.5 ± 7.05, 10.1 ± 6.87, and 9.4 ± 6.90 prism diopters at one, two, three, four, and five years postoperatively, respectively. Average exo-angles between postoperative year one and year three, as well as between postoperative year two and year three, were statistically significant (p = 0.015, 0.022). However, the angles were not statistically significant between postoperative year three and year four or between years three and five, respectively (p = 0.707, p = 0.948). The stabilization characteristics of the angle were somewhat different according to age group. In Group 1, the average exo-angle in postoperative years one and three were statistically significant (p = 0.016), but the angle in the same period was not statistically significant in Group 2 (p = 0.203).
There was no significant interval change after three years postoperatively in intermittent exotropia, but if the patient's age at surgery was 5 years or higher, no significant change of exo-angle was found following postoperative year one in this study.
Intermittent exotropia; Stabilization; Strabismic angle
The aims of this study were to examine the distribution of refractive errors and clinical characteristics of strabismus in Korean patients with Down's syndrome.
A total of 41 Korean patients with Down's syndrome were screened for strabismus and refractive errors in 2009.
A total of 41 patients with an average age of 11.9 years (range, 2 to 36 years) were screened. Eighteen patients (43.9%) had strabismus. Ten (23.4%) of 18 patients exhibited esotropia and the others had intermittent exotropia. The most frequently detected type of esotropia was acquired non-accommodative esotropia, and that of exotropia was the basic type. Fifteen patients (36.6%) had hypermetropia and 20 (48.8%) had myopia. The patients with esotropia had refractive errors of +4.89 diopters (D, ±3.73) and the patients with exotropia had refractive errors of -0.31 D (±1.78). Six of ten patients with esotropia had an accommodation weakness. Twenty one patients (63.4%) had astigmatism. Eleven (28.6%) of 21 patients had anisometropia and six (14.6%) of those had clinically significant anisometropia.
In Korean patients with Down's syndrome, esotropia was more common than exotropia and hypermetropia more common than myopia. Especially, Down's syndrome patients with esotropia generally exhibit clinically significant hyperopic errors (>+3.00 D) and evidence of under-accommodation. Thus, hypermetropia and accommodation weakness could be possible factors in esotropia when it occurs in Down's syndrome patients. Based on the results of this study, eye examinations of Down's syndrome patients should routinely include a measure of accommodation at near distances, and bifocals should be considered for those with evidence of under-accommodation.
Down syndrome; Korea; Refractive errors; Strabismus
We investigated whether oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) results in changes in the protein expression of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases (nNOS and iNOS, respectively) in rat model of OIR. In addition, we evaluated whether treatment of rats with triamcinolone acetonide (TA) prevents this response.
To promote OIR, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hyperoxia from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P14. They were then returned to normoxia after P15. TA was injected into the right vitreous of P15 rats, while saline was injected into the left vitreous. At P18 the expression of nNOS and iNOS was determined using Western blotting and immunostaining techniques in retinas obtained from control rats.
In P18 OIR rats, the abundance of nNOS and iNOS protein was significantly increased compared with controls. These increases were not observed in the retinas of rats treated with TA. The change in expression of nNOS and iNOS were specific to parvalbumin and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. Treatment with TA prevented the increased expression of nNOS and iNOS in all samples.
Hypoxia upregulates expression of nNOS and iNOS in OIR rat retinas, which is can be prevented by treatment with TA.
Anoxia; Nitric oxide synthase type I; Nitric oxide synthase type II; Oxygen-induced retinopathy; Triamcinolone acetonide
We report a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus. A systemically healthy 1-year-old girl came to the outpatient clinic with a complaint of tearing on the temporal side of the right lateral canthus since birth. On examination, a small orifice was found in the skin on the temporal side of the lateral canthus. There was no evidence of inflammation or swelling within the opening. Surgeons carried out an operation under general anesthesia. They passed a probe through the lacrimal orifice and advanced it toward the lacrimal sac. Next, they introduced saline to the inferior punctum and found that it drained to the lateral fistula. The lower lid stretched as the dissected fistula was pulled. After the operation, the patient was free of the symptom. This paper is to report a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus.
Lacrimal sac; Lateral; Fistula