Myelochroa (Asahina) Elix & Hale is a common foliose lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded nearly two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the current study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Myelochroa in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review confirmed the presence of twelve species of Myelochroa from S. Korea, including one new record, Myelochroa xantholepis (Mont. & Bosch) Elix & Hale. Descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characters together with a key to all known Myelochroa species are presented.
Key; Myelochroa; New record; Parmeliaceae; South Korea
This study illustrates the status of thelotremoid Graphidaceae in South Korea. The taxonomy and systematics of thelotremoid lichens in the country have recently advanced greatly. Following the earlier known taxa from the group, four new records of the genus Thelotrema are reported and described briefly. An artificial key for all known species under thelotremoid group of Graphidaceae from South Korea is also provided.
Jeju Island; Mt. Halla; Taxonomy; Thelotremoid
Fungal endophytes are microfungi that live in plants without causing apparent symptoms of infection. This study was conducted to identify endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of coniferous trees in Bohyeon Mountain of Korea. We collected leaves of two species of coniferous trees, Pinus densiflora and Pinus koraiensis, from 11 sites in the study area. A total 58 isolates were obtained and identified using molecular and morphological characteristics. Four species of endophytic fungi were isolated from P. densiflora: Lophodermium conigenum, Leotiomycetes sp., Septoria pini-thunbergii, and Polyporales sp., while two fungal species were isolated from P. koraiensis: Eurotiomycetes sp. and Rhytismataceae sp. The most frequently isolated species were L. conigenum and S. pini-thunbergii.
Fungal endophytes; Lophodermium conigenum; Pinus densiflora; Pinus koraiensis; Septoria pini-thunbergii
Pleurotus nebrodensis is an edible and commercially available mushroom in Korea. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the anticancer and immunopotentiating activities of crude polysaccharides, extracted in methanol, neutral saline, and hot water (hereafter referred to as Fr. MeOH, Fr. NaCl, and Fr. HW, respectively) from the fruiting bodies of P. nebrodensis. β-Glucan and protein contents in Fr. MeOH, Fr. NaCl, and Fr. HW extracts of P. nebrodensis ranged from 23.79~36.63 g/100 g and 4.45~6.12 g/100 g, respectively. Crude polysaccharides were not cytotoxic against sarcoma 180, HT-29, NIH3T3, and RAW 264.7 cell lines at a range of 10~2,000 µg/mL. Intraperitoneal injection with crude polysaccharides resulted in a life prolongation effect of 11.76~27.06% in mice previously inoculated with sarcoma 180. Treatment with Fr. NaCl resulted in an increase in the numbers of spleen cells by 1.49 fold at the concentration of 50 µg/mL, compared with control. Fr. HW improved the immuno-potentiating activity of B lymphocytes through an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity by 1.65 fold, compared with control at 200 µg/mL. Maximum production of nitric oxide (14.3 µM) was recorded in the Fr. NaCl fraction at 200 µg/mL. Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly higher, compared to control, and IL-6 production was highest, in contrast to TNF-α, IL-1β, and positive control, concanavalin at the tested concentration of the various fractions. Results of the current study suggest that polysaccharides extracted from P. nebrodensis have a strong anticancer effect and may be useful as an ingredient of biopharmaceutical products for treatment of cancer.
Anticancer activity; Crude polysaccharides; Immunomodulation; Mouse sarcoma 180; Pleurotus nebrodensis
In vitro and greenhouse screening of seven rhizobacterial isolates, AB05, AB10, AB11, AB12, AB14, AB15 and AB17, was conducted to investigate the plant growth promoting activities and inhibition against anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in pepper. According to identification based on 16S rDNA sequencing, the majority of the isolates are members of Bacillus and a single isolate belongs to the genus Paenibacillus. All seven bacterial isolates were capable of inhibiting C. acutatum to various degrees. The results primarily showed that antibiotic substances produced by the selected bacteria were effective and resulted in strong antifungal activity against the fungi. However, isolate AB15 was the most effective bacterial strain, with the potential to suppress more than 50% mycelial growth of C. acutatum
in vitro. Moreover, antibiotics from Paenibacillus polymyxa (AB15) and volatile compounds from Bacillus subtilis (AB14) exerted efficient antagonistic activity against the pathogens in a dual culture assay. In vivo suppression activity of selected bacteria was also analyzed in a greenhouse with the reference to their prominent in vitro antagonism efficacy. Induced systemic resistance in pepper against C. acutatum was also observed under greenhouse conditions. Where, isolate AB15 was found to be the most effective bacterial strain at suppressing pepper anthracnose under greenhouse conditions. Moreover, four isolates, AB10, AB12, AB15, and AB17, were identified as the most effective growth promoting bacteria under greenhouse conditions, with AB17 inducing the greatest enhancement of pepper growth.
Antagonistic activity; Biocontrol; Colletotrichum acutatum; Pepper (Capsicum annuum); Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria
The lichen species Polychidium muscicola was found in South Korea for the first time and this is the first record of the genus Polychidium from the Korean peninsula. This species is characterized by a dichotomously branched minute thallus with clustered cells of Nostoc as the photobiont. A detailed description and illustrations of this species are provided.
Fruticose; Massalongiaceae; Nostoc; Polychidium; South Korea
Among 80 types of yeast isolated from wild flowers in Daejeon, Korea, two species that have not yet been identified by phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) genes and 26S rDNA sequences were identified as Candida sp. 44-C-1 and Cryptococcus sp. 9-D-1. Neither of the newly identified species formed ascospores, while Candida sp. 44-C-1 formed pseudomycelium and Cryptococcus sp. 9-D-1 did not.
26S rDNA sequence; Candida sp. 44-C-1; Cryptococcus sp. 9-D-1; Internal transcribed spacer 2; Phylogenetic analysis
cDNA of the glx1 gene encoding glyoxal oxidase (GLX) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was isolated and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant GLX (rGLX) produces H2O2 over 7.0 nmol/min/mL using methyl glyoxal as a substrate. Use of rGLX as a generator of H2O2 improved the coupled reaction with recombinant manganese peroxidase resulting in decolorization of malachite green up to 150 µM within 90 min.
Dye decolorization; Glyoxal oxidase; Manganese peroxidase; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; Pichia pastoris
Sclerotium rot was found on Cymbidium orchids at Seosan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea, in July, 2010. Symptoms occurred on low leaves, which turned yellowish, after which the entire plant wilted. Severely infected plants were blighted and eventually died. White mycelial mats and sclerotia appeared on pseudobulbs. Based on the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity, the causal fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii. This is the first report of new Sclerotium rot on Cymbidium spp. caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.
Cymbidium spp.; Orchid; Sclerotium rolfsii; Sclerotium rot
Sleeping blight was observed on soybean plants grown in Yanggu, Suwon and Geumsan from 2005 to 2011. Symptoms developed on stems and pods of affected soybean plants. Five fungal isolates were obtained from the diseased plants and identified as Septogloeum sojae based on their morphological, cultural and molecular characteristics. Pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed on soybean plants by artificial inoculation. This is the first report of S. sojae causing sleeping blight in soybean plants in Korea.
Septogloeum sojae; Sleeping blight; Soybean
In June 2012, leaf spot and stem rot were observed on Wilford Swallowwort plants grown in Cheonan, Korea. Three fungal isolates obtained from the diseased leaves and stems were identified as Stemphylium lycopersici, based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics and pathogenicity. This is the first report of leaf spot and stem rot on Wilford Swallowwort caused by S. lycopersici.
Leaf spot; Stemphylium lycopersici; Stem rot; Wilford Swallowwort
This paper provides a description of Opegrapha herbarum, Opegrapha viridis and Phaeographis subdividens, all newly identified in the Republic of Korea. The characteristic features of O. herbarum include Varia-type asci, Subelevata-type ascospores, a lack of secondary metabolites and a saxicolous habitat. O. viridis possesses Calcarea-type asci, Vulgata-type ascospores and no chemicals in the thallus. P. subdividens is recognizable by its curved to sinuous lirellae, divergent labia, a brown and uniformly thick proper exciple which is open at its base, 3~4-septate ascospores, and lack of secondary metabolites. All three taxa are now reported to exist on Bogil Island in the Republic of Korea.
Bogil Island; Graphidaceae; Lichen; Morphology; New records; Roccellaceae
Very few studies have addressed the phylogenetic diversity of fungi from Northeast India under the Eastern Himalayan range. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the phylogenetic diversity of culturable soil fungi along the altitudinal gradients of eastern Himalayas. Soil samples from 24 m above sea level to 2,000 m above sea level altitudes of North-East India were collected to investigate soil micro-fungal community structure and diversity. Molecular characterization of the isolates was done by PCR amplification of 18S rDNA using universal primers. Phylogenetic analysis using BLAST revealed variation in the distribution and richness of different fungal biodiversity over a wide range of altitudes. A total of 107 isolates were characterized belonging to the phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota, corresponding to seven orders (Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Calosphaeriales, Capnodiales, Pleosporales, Mucorales, and Mortierellales) and Incertae sedis. The characterized isolates were analysed for richness, evenness and diversity indices. Fungal diversity had significant correlation with soil physico-chemical parameters and the altitude. Eurotiales and Hypocreales were most diverse and abundant group of fungi along the entire altitudinal stretch. Species of Penicillium (D = 1.44) and Aspergillus (D = 1.288) were found to have highest diversity index followed by Talaromyces (D = 1.26) and Fusarium (D = 1.26). Fungal distribution showed negative correlation with altitude and soil moisture content. Soil temperature, pH, humidity and ambient temperature showed positive correlation with fungal distribution.
Altitude; Diversity indices; Microfungal diversity; Richness; 18S rDNA
Detailed descriptions of five species of the lichen genus Canoparmelia Elix & Hale. are presented. Until now, three species of the genus Canoparmelia, including C. apata (Krempelh.) Elix & Hale, C. owariensis (Asah.) Elix, and C. texana (Tuck.) Elix & Hale have been reported in South Korea. Canoparmelia carneopruinata (Zahlbr.) Elix & Hale, C. crozalsiana (de Lesd.) Elix & Hale, and C. ecaperata (Müll. Arg.) Elix & Hale are new to the South Korean lichen flora. An artificial key is provided for all species of Canoparmelia, including the three new records.
Canoparmelia; Key; Lichen; New record; Parmeliaceae
The effects of aeration through lid filters on the hyphal growth of Lentinula edodes (oak mushroom) in sawdust cultivation bags were investigated. The aeration treatment levels were traditional 27 mm hole cotton plugs, cotton balls and combinations of seven hole sizes × two hole positions (up and under) in the lids covering plastic bags containing 1.4 kg sawdust medium at 63% moisture that had been autoclaved for one hour and inoculated with sawdust spawn of L. edodes strain 921. Aeration treatment effects were measured based on the CO2 concentration at the 15th wk, as well as the hyphal growth rate and degree of weight loss of bags every 14 days for 15 wk. In bags with traditional cotton plugs, the CO2 concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3%, daily mean hyphal growth was 2.3 ± 0.6 mm and daily mean weight loss was 0.84 ± 0.26 g. In the bags with 15 mm diameter holes, the CO2 concentration was 6.0 ± 1.6%, daily hyphal growth was 2.8 ± 0.2 mm and daily weight loss was 0.86 ± 0.4 g. The bags with 15 mm holes had a higher CO2 concentration and lower water loss than bags with other hole sizes, but the hyphal growth was not significantly different from that of other bags. The weight loss of bags increased proportionally relative to the lid hole sizes. Taken together, these results indicate that traditional cotton plugs are economically efficient, but 15 mm hole lids are the most efficient at maintaining hyphal growth and controlling water loss while allowing CO2 emissions.
CO2 concentration; Hyphal growth; Lentinula edodes; Medium weight loss; Sawdust bag cultivation
In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on the roots of P. densiflora. The results suggest that soil ameliorators can have a positive effect on ECM fungi in terms of growth of host plants and show the potential use of soil ameliorator treatment for revegetation with ECM-colonized pine seedlings in the coal mine spoils.
Coal mine spoils; Colonization rate; Ectomycorrhizal fungi; Pinus densiflora; Soil ameliorator; Species diversity
A β-glucosidase from Penicillium italicum was purified with a specific activity of 61.8 U/mg, using a chromatography system. The native form of the enzyme was an 88.5-kDa tetramer with a molecular mass of 354 kDa. Optimum activity was observed at pH 4.5 and 60℃, and the half-lives were 1,737, 330, 34, and 1 hr at 50, 55, 60, and 65℃, respectively. Its activity was inhibited by 47% by 5 mM Ni2+. The enzyme exhibited hydrolytic activity for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNP-Glu), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xyloside, and cellobiose, however, no activity was observed for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-lactopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, carboxymetyl cellulose, xylan, and cellulose, indicating that the enzyme was a β-glucosidase. The kcat/Km (s-1 mM-1) values for pNP-Glu and cellobiose were 15,770.4 mM and 6,361.4 mM, respectively. These values were the highest reported for β-glucosidases. Non-competitive inhibition of the enzyme by both glucose (Ki = 8.9 mM) and glucono-δ-lactone (Ki = 11.3 mM) was observed when pNP-Glu was used as the substrate. This is the first report of non-competitive inhibition of β-glucosidase by glucose and glucono-δ-lactone.
β-Glucosidase; Cellulolytic fungi; Characterization; Identification; Purification
This study was initiated in order to investigate the anticancer and immunomodulating activities of crude polysaccharides extracted in methanol, neutral saline, and hot water (hereinafter referred to as Fr. MeOH, Fr. NaCl, and Fr. HW, respectively) from the fruiting bodies of Panellus serotinus. Content of β-glucan and protein in Fr. MeOH, Fr. NaCl, and Fr. HW extracts of P. serotinus ranged from 22.92~28.52 g/100 g and 3.24~3.68 g/100 g, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity tests, none of the various fractions of crude polysaccharides were cytotoxic against sarcoma 180, HT-29, NIH3T3, and RAW 264.7 cell lines at the tested concentration. Intraperitoneal injection with crude polysaccharides resulted in a life prolongation effect of 23.53~44.71% in mice previously inoculated with sarcoma 180. Treatment with Fr. HW resulted in an increase in the numbers of spleen cells by 1.3 fold at the concentration of 50 µg/mL compared with control. Treatment with Fr. NaCl resulted in improvement of the immuno-potentiating activity of B lymphocytes by increasing the alkaline phosphatase activity by 1.4 fold, compared with control, at the concentration of 200 µg/mL. Among the three fractions, maximum nitric oxide (13.48 µM) was recorded at 500 µg/mL in Fr. HW. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 was significantly higher, compared to the positive control, concanavalin A, at the tested concentration. Therefore, treatment with crude polysaccharides extracted from the fruiting body of P. serotinus could result in improvement of antitumor activity.
Antitumor activities; Crude polysaccharides; Immunomodulating; Mouse sarcoma 180; Panellus serotinus
Four Cladobotryum isolates were collected from four different commercially grown mushroom types infected with cobweb disease in Cheongdo-gun and Chilgok-gun of Gyeongbuk Province, Korea in 2010. The isolates were identified as C. mycophilum from Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus eryngii, C. varium from Flammulina velutipes and Hypsizygus marmoreus. The cultural characteristics of the four isolates were investigated using potato dextrose agar (PDA) media under nine different temperatures ranging from 5~32℃. Rapid growth of the isolates to colony diameters of 47~82 mm was observed at conditions of 18~22℃. No growth was observed at 32℃. C. mycophilum produced a yellowish red pigment while C. varium produced a cream colored pigment after cultivation for 25 days on PDA. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and partial 28S rDNA from the four isolates confirmed they were C. mycophilum and C. varium. Cross pathogenicity tests revealed that the two isolates of C. mycophilum were highly pathogenic toward three mushroom types, but not toward H. marmoreus. The two isolates of C. varium were less pathogenic than those of C. mycophilum, but were pathogenic toward all mushroom types evaluated.
Cobweb disease; Cross pathogenicity; ITS region; Phylogenetic analysis; 28S rDNA
During the investigation of Korean indigenous fungi from Seoul, three genera-Fuscoporia, Porostereum, and Trametopsis, and four species-Fuscoporia senex, Phlebia acerina, Porostereum spadiceum, and Trametopsis cervina were found. Their morphological characteristics were examined and their identification was confirmed by molecular analysis based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA region sequences. These fungi are new to Korea and registered here with descriptions.
Basidiomycete; Seoul; Taxonomy; Wood decay fungi
Heterodermia flabellata (Fée) D. D. Awasthi was found as a new lichen record in Jeju Island of South Korea in 2012. A detailed taxonomic description and comments are provided for the taxa. An updated key for all recorded species of Heterodermia from South Korea is given.
Heterodermia; Jeju Island; Lichen; New record; Updated key
A fungus detected from the importing seeds of Papaver rhoeas under plant quarantine inspection in Korea was identified as Brachycladium penicillatum Corda. It differed in morphological characteristics from a similar species, B. papaveris, which was known to form no macroconidiophores and no microsclerotia. Since the first interception in 2006, this fungus has frequently been found from importing seeds of Papaver spp. It was detected from 31 out of 282 seed consignments imported from 2006 to 2011. To prevent its introduction to Korea, the seed consignments infested by B. penicillatum were destroyed or reshipped.
Brachycladium penicillatum; Dendryphion; Papaver; Plant quarantine; Seed-borne
The amino acid sequence of the mheA gene of Aspergillus oryzae encodes a putative metallothionein-like protein 1. The size of the mheA transcript was 497 nt and the mheA promoter was induced by glucose, consistent with results of analysis by Northern hybridization and with the pdcA promoter, respectively.
Aspergillus oryzae; mheA promoter
Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS), a disease caused by a complex of fungi, results in substantial economic losses for commercial growers of sweet persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) in Korea. However, many species causing SBFS in Korea have not been identified and sources of inoculum are uncertain. Based on mycological characteristics, pathogenicity, and molecular data, the causal fungi were identified as Dissoconium sp. and Zygophiala wisconsinensis. This is the first report of SBFS of sweet persimmon in Korea.
Dissoconium sp.; Sooty blotch and flyspeck; Zygophiala wisconsinensis
Soft rot on banana fruit caused by Rhizopus oryzae was identified for the first time in Korea. Colonies were white to light brown and formed numerous sporangiospores. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth was 30℃. Sporangia were globose and 30~200 µm. Sporangiophores were usually straight, 8~20 µm, and rhizoids usually in groups of 3~5. Columella were globose to sub-globose and 90~110 µm. Sporangiospores were sub-globose or oval and 4~10 µm. Based on its mycological characteristics, molecular analysis, and pathogenicity to host plants, this fungus was identified as Rhizopus oryzae Went & Prisen Geerligs. This is the first report of soft rot on banana caused by Rhizopus oryzae in Korea.
Banana; Postharvest disease; Rhizopus oryzae; Soft rot