To investigate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of weekly docetaxel treatment in advanced non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in Korea.
This prospective observational study included Korean advanced NSCLC patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status <2 who received weekly monotherapy of docetaxel at a dose determined by the physician. Efficacy measurements included tumor response rate, overall survival (OS), progression‐free survival, and one‐year survival rate. Safety was analyzed through recorded incidences of adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), deaths, and other related safety parameters, along with their toxicity grades.
Of 274 patients analyzed, one patient achieved a complete response and 42 partial responses; thus, the overall response rate was 15.7%. The OS rate at baseline and at one‐year follow‐up was 38.3% and 33.8%, respectively. AEs were reported in 229 (83.6%) patients. The most frequently reported hematologic AE of grade ≥3 was a decrease in neutrophils, with 6.6% of the patients developing neutropenia. In non‐hematologic AEs of grade ≥3, the most common were infection with unknown absolute neutrophil count and death not associated with Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) (4.7% each). The most common SAE reported was death, not associated with CTCAE (7.3%).
In Korean patients, the weekly regimen of docetaxel monotherapy was safe and efficacious against advanced NSCLC.
Carcinoma; docetaxel; non‐small cell lung cancer; safety
Combination chemotherapy consisting of ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisolone (IMEP) was active as first-line and second-line treatment for extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL).
Forty-four patients with chemo-naïve stage I/II NTCL were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, phase II study and received six cycles of IMEP (ifosfamide 1.5 g/m2 on days 1–3; methotrextate 30 mg/m2 on days 3 and 10; etoposide 100 mg/m2 on days 1–3; and prednisolone 60 mg/m2 per day on days 1–5) followed by involved field radiotherapy (IFRT).
Overall response rates were 73% (complete remission [CR] in 11 of 41 evaluable patients [27%]) after IMEP chemotherapy and 78% (CR 18 of 27 evaluable patients [67%]) after IMEP followed by IFRT. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were documented in 33 patients (75%) and 7 patients (16%), respectively. Only 8 patients (18%) experienced febrile neutropenia. Three-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 66% and 56%, respectively. High Ki-67 (≥70%) and Ann Arbor stage II independently reduced PFS (p = .004) and OS (p = .001), respectively.
Due to the high rate of progression during IMEP chemotherapy, IFRT needs to be introduced earlier. Moreover, active chemotherapy including an l-asparaginase-based regimen should be use to reduce systemic treatment failure in stage I/II NTCL.
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azasetron compared to ondansetron in the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Materials and Methods
This study was a multi-center, prospective, randomized, double-dummy, double-blind and parallel-group trial involving 12 institutions in Korea between May 2005 and December 2005. A total of 265 patients with moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy were included and randomly assigned to either the azasetron or ondansetron group. All patients received azasetron (10 mg intravenously) and dexamethasone (20 mg intravenously) on day 1 and dexamethasone (4 mg orally every 12 hours) on days 2-4. The azasetron group received azasetron (10 mg orally) with placebo of ondansetron (orally every 12 hours), and the ondansetron group received ondansetron (8 mg orally every 12 hours) with placebo of azasetron (orally) on days 2-6.
Over days 2-6, the effective ratio of complete response in the azasetron and ondansetron groups was 45% and 54.5%, respectively (95% confidence interval, -21.4 to 2.5%). Thus, the non-inferiority of azasetron compared with ondansetron in delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting was not proven in the present study. All treatments were well tolerated and no unexpected drug-related adverse events were reported. The most common adverse events related to the treatment were constipation and hiccups, and there were no differences in the overall incidence of adverse events.
In the present study, azasetron showed inferiority in the control of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting compared with ondansetron whereas safety profiles were similar between the two groups.
Vomiting; Vomiting/chemically induced; Vomiting/prevention and control; Antineoplastic agents; Serotonin antagonists; Azasetron; Ondansetron
This study evaluates the effectiveness of immunochemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of patients with primary bone lymphoma (PBL).
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 33 patients with PBL who were treated at 6 medical centers in Korea from 1992 to 2010. Clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes were analyzed.
The median age of the patients participating in our study was 40 years. The most common sites of involvement were the pelvis (12.36%) and femur (11.33%). CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) or CHOP-like regimens were administered to 20 patients (61%), and R-CHOP (rituximab plus CHOP) was administered to the remaining 13 patients (39%). The overall response rate was 89% (complete response, 76%; partial response, 12%). The overall survival (OS) of patients with solitary bone lesions was longer than that of patients with multiple bone lesions (median OS: not reached vs. 166 months, respectively; P=0.089). Addition of rituximab to CHOP did not significantly affect either OS or progression-free survival (P=0.53 and P=0.23, respectively). Combining radiation therapy with chemotherapy also did not improve the OS or progression-free survival of patients with solitary bone lesions.
Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy remains an effective treatment option for patients with PBL. Additional benefits of supplementing chemotherapy with either rituximab or radiation therapy were not observed in this study. Further investigation is needed to characterize the role of immunochemotherapy in treating patients with PBL.
Bone lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Rituximab
The purpose of our study was to determine the most accurate analytic method to define in vitro chemosensitivity, using clinical response as reference standard in prospective clinical trial, and to assess accuracy of adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA). Forty-eight patients with chemo-naïve, histologically confirmed, locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer were enrolled for the study and were treated with combination chemotherapy of paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 for maximum of six cycles after obtaining specimen for ATP-CRA. We performed the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis using patient responses by WHO criteria and ATP-CRA results to define the method with the highest accuracy. Median progression free survival was 4.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-5.0) and median overall survival was 11.8 months (95% CI: 9.7-13.8) for all enrolled patients. Chemosensitivity index method yielded highest accuracy of 77.8% by ROC curve analysis, and the specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values were 95.7%, 46.2%, 85.7%, and 75.9%. In vitro chemosensitive group showed higher response rate (85.7% vs. 24.1%) (P=0.005) compared to chemoresistant group. ATP-CRA could predict clinical response to paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy with high accuracy in advanced gastric cancer patients. Our study supports the use of ATP-CRA in further validation studies.
Stomach neoplasms; Antineoplastic Agents; Therapeutic Use; Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor; Paclitaxel; Cisplatin; Sensitivity and Specificity
Primary gastric choriocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare tumor, and its pathogenesis is still uncertain. Most PGCs have been reported to possess an adenocarcinoma component of variable extent, and pure PGC is especially rare. The diagnosis of PGC is confirmed by exhibition of choriocarcinomatous components on biopsy and exhibition of β-hCG positive cell on immunohistochemical stain and elevation of the serum β-hCG. Moreover it must be confirmed that no other site including gonads displays any tumor masses. The PGC tends to be more invasive and to have early metastasis. The median survival is known to be less than several months. We report two cases. The first case was a 62 year-old man who was diagnosed as advanced gastric cancer (AGC) by endoscopic biopsy with hepatic metasasis and received palliative chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX regimen and Genexol plus cisplatin regimen. He underwent subtotal gastrectomy due to perforation of the stomach during chemotherapy. On post-operative biopsy, He was re-diagnosed as PGC and received another palliative chemotherapy modified FOLFIRI, BEP, EMACO, VIP. However, multiple liver metastases were aggravated, and also serum AFP level increased. Ultimately, the paient died 10 months after initial diagnosis. Another case was a 45 year-old man. On endoscopic biopsy, he was diagnosed as AGC of adenocarcinoma. On Chest and Abdomen CT, multiple pulmonary and hepatic metastasis were also confirmed. On liver biopsy, He was diagnosed as PGC. The immunohistochemical stains were performed and the results were cytokeratin positive, EMA negative and β-hCG weak positive. The serum β-hCG level was highly elevated. BEP, VIP and EMA/CO combination therapy were administered, but he died at 12th months after the initial diagnosis.
The aim of the current study was to determine the clinical significance according to the subtypes of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and presence of KRAS mutations in operable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We sequenced exons 18-21 of the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain and examined mutations in codons 12 and 13 of KRAS in tissues of patients with NSCLC who had undergone surgical resection. EGFR mutations were more frequent in never-smokers than smokers (33% vs. 14%, respectively; p=0.009) and in females than in males (31% vs. 16%, respectively; p=0.036). Mutations in exon 18-19 and 20-21 were found in 10 and 22 patients, respectively. Never-smokers and broncho-alveolar cell carcinoma features were positively associated with a mutation in exon 18-19 (p=0.027 and 0.016, respectively). The five-year survival rate in patients with a mutation in exons 18-19 (100%) was higher than that in patients without such mutation (47%; p=0.021). KRAS mutations were found in 16 patients (12%) and were not related to the overall survival (p=0.742). Patients with an EGFR mutation in exons 18-19 had better survival than patients without such mutation. Subtypes of EGFR mutations may be prognostic factors in patients undergoing curative resection.
Carcinoma, Non-small-cell Lung; Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; Genes, Ras; Mutation
Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma is rarely found in the head and neck regions. We report an unusual case of extraskeletal Ewing's Sarcoma of the parapharynx region in a 49-year-old man who presented with blindness. MRI examination showed marked enhancement of tumor thrombosis involving the superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and internal jugular vein. The final diagnosis was extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma after biopsy of the internal jugular vein thrombosis by histopathological evaluation and immunohistochemical assay. In addition, the patient was diagnosed as having adenocarcinoma of the rectum by biopsy of the rectal mass. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy and showed improved response with durable remission. The patient's visual acuity, however, did not improve.
Sarcoma; Head and neck neoplasms; Blindness
Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a clinical disorder characterized by persistent eosinophilia and systemic involvement, in which a specific causative factor for the eosinophilia cannot be verified during a certain period of time. There have been only a few reported cases of this syndrome associated with malignant lymphoma. We report a case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma-unspecified with hypereosinophilic syndrome. The patient was a 42-year-old woman with an uncontrolled fever and a sore throat. Eosinophilia was observed on the peripheral blood smear. We confirmed the diagnosis by bone marrow and liver biopsies:. A bone marrow aspiration demonstrated markedly increased eosinophils (24.8%), and a liver biopsy demonstrated infiltration by scattered eosinophils and atypical lymphoid cells, which were confirmed to be T-cell lymphoma cells. This case was a distinctive presentation of peripheral T-cell lymphoma with hypereosinophilic syndrome, probably due to a paraneoplastic condition.
Hypereosinophilic syndrome; Lymphoma; T-Cell; Peripheral; Paraneoplastic syndrome
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most fatal cancers in humans and many factors are known to be related to its poor prognosis. Immunohistochemical (IHC) stainings were done on SCLC specimens in order to investigate the prognostic value of the apoptosis-related gene expression and the tumor proliferative maker, and the relationships among these IHC results and patients clinical characteristics, chemoresponsiveness, and survival were analyzed. The medical records of 107 patients were reviewed retrospectively. IHC stainings for p53, bcl-2 and Ki-67 expressions were performed in the 66 paraffin-embedded biopsy samples. Sixty-six out of the 107 patients were evaluable for response rate and survival. The overall response rate was 75% (95% Confidence Interval=74-76%) and the median survival time was 14 months. The median survival time of limited stage was 16 months and that of extensive stage was 10 months. The prevalence of p53, bcl-2 and Ki-67 expression was 62%, 70%, and 49%, respectively. There were no correlations among the immunoreactivities of p53, bcl-2 and Ki-67 with clinical stage, chemoresponsiveness or overall survival. The clinical stage was the only prognostic factor influencing survival. The expression rates of p53, bcl-2, and Ki-67 were relatively high in SCLC without any prognostic significance. The exact clinical role of these markers should be defined through further investigations.
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; bcl-2-Associated X Protein; Ki-67 Antigen; Carcinoma, Small Cell; Tumor Marker, Biological; Prognosis
The potential therapeutic benefit of introducing IFN-γ and GM-CSF genes in combination with the HSVtk suicide gene into subcutaneously implanted CT26 tumor cells was compared with that from each treatment alone. Cells, unmodified or retrovirally transduced with HSVtk or IFN-γ/GM-CSF genes, were inoculated subcutaneously into syngeneic BALB/c mice in various combinations. HSVtk gene, with intraperitoneal ganciclovir treatment, reduced tumor volume by 81% at locally inoculated tumor sites (p<0.01) and by 25% at distantly inoculated tumor sites (p=0.052). IFN-γ/GM-CSF genes showed a 56% tumor volume reduction at local tumor sites (p<0.01) and 15% volume reduction at remote tumor sites, although this was not statistically significant. The combination of HSVtk (with GCV) and IFN-γ/GM-CSF genes showed an 81% volume reduction at local tumor sites (p<0.01) and a 43% volume reduction at remote tumor sites (p<0.01). Thus, the combination of HSVtk and IFN-γ/GM-CSF gene therapy produced greater therapeutic efficacy than either treatment alone.
Gene Therapy; Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase; Interferon-gamma; Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
Granulocytosis occurs in 40% of patients with lung and gastrointestinal cancers, 20% of patients with breast cancer, 30% of patients with brain tumor and ovarian cancer and 10% of patients with renal cell carcinoma. Granulocytosis occurs because of production of G-CSF, GM-CSF and IL-6. Uterine cervical carcinoma with granulocytosis as a paraneoplastic syndrome, however, has been rarely reported. We recently witnessed a case of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix with granulocytosis. Leukocytosis developed up to 69,000/µL, and then normalized after chemo-radiotherapy. There was no evidence of infection, tumor necrosis, glucocorticoid administration, or myeloproliferative disease by examination of a bone marrow aspirate when granulocytosis appeared. This phenomenon was probably associated with the secretion of hematopoietic growth factors such as G-CSF, GM-CSF and IL-6 by the tumor. We suggest that, like some other solid tumors, cervical cancer can present with granulocytosis as a paraneoplastic syndrome.
Leukocytosis; Paraneoplastic syndrome; Cervical cancer