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author:("Ryu, Jin-took")
1.  Long-Term Consequence of Elevated Thyroglobulin in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer 
Thyroid  2013;23(1):58-63.
Background
Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is the most sensitive biomarker for recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). We have assessed the changing pattern of stimulated Tg (sTg) and the clinical course of patients with no structural evidence of disease (NSED), based on imaging studies such as neck ultrasonography (US), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, and/or chest computed tomogram (CT). We sought to determine if, in patients with DTC who had been treated with bilateral thyroidectomy and remnant ablation with radioactive iodine, sTg 1 year (sTg1) after initial treatment and repeated sTg measurements, 1–2 years after sTg1, helped predict the long-term outcome with respect to structural recurrence and biochemical remission (BR), which is defined as sTg <1 ng/mL.
Methods
We retrospectively assessed the records of patients with DTC who had been treated with bilateral thyroidectomy and remnant ablation with radioactive iodine between 1995 and 2004. The study included 186 patients who had NSED with sTg1 ≥2 ng/mL and subsequent sTg measurements (sTg2) without additional treatment. Patients were classified into three groups based on their sTg1 measurements: Group A, 2–4.9 ng/mL; Group B, 5–19.9 ng/mL; and Group C, ≥20 ng/mL. Patients were also classified into two groups based on whether sTg2, 1–2 years after sTg1, had decreased by ≥50% (Group 1) or had either decreased by <50% or increased (Group 2). sTg was measured every 1–2 years until structural recurrence or BR.
Results
Patients remaining in NSED showed a decrease in serial sTg. Of patients in Groups A, B, and C, 41%, 17%, and 1%, respectively, achieved BR, and there was a significant difference in the BR rate between Groups 1 and 2 (p<0.001). In patients with structural recurrence, serial sTg generally did not decrease from sTg1. There was a significant difference in the recurrence rate among Groups A, B, and C (p=0.005) and between Groups 1 and 2 (p<0.001).
Conclusions
We found that 41% of patients with sTg1 in the range 2–5 ng/mL achieved BR, and that sTg1 and percent change of subsequent sTg were predictive of BR. Repeated sTg measurements are useful for predicting patient prognosis in patients with DTC.
doi:10.1089/thy.2011.0487
PMCID: PMC3539255  PMID: 22973946
2.  Long-Term Clinical Outcome of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients with Undetectable Stimulated Thyroglobulin Level One Year After Initial Treatment 
Thyroid  2012;22(8):784-790.
Background
Measurement of the serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level with TSH stimulation (sTg) is the cornerstone of monitoring for the recurrence or persistence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in patients who have undergone surgery and remnant ablation. However, there have been several reports that an undetectable sTg could not predict the absence of future recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of DTC patients who achieved biochemical remission (BR, defined as sTg<1 ng/mL) after initial treatment, and to determine the role of repeated sTg measurement in detecting a clinical recurrence.
Methods
This is a retrospective observational cohort study in a tertiary referral hospital. There were 1010 DTC patients who achieved BR at 12 months after the initial treatment (surgery and ablation), and they were eligible for analysis. Among them, 787 patients had values of repeated sTg.
Results
Thirteen out of 1010 (1.3%) patients had clinical recurrences during a median 84 months of follow-up. All of the clinical recurrences were limited to the cervical lymph nodes without clinical evidence of distant metastasis. Among 787 patients with available repeated sTg, 10 had clinical recurrences (5 out of 750 patients with repeated sTg<1 ng/mL and 5 out of 37 patients with repeated sTg≥1 ng/mL). Patients with repeated sTg ≥1 ng/mL had a much greater chance of disease recurrence (log-rank statistics=43.7, df=1, p<0.001).
Conclusions
About 1% of DTC patients who had sTg<1 ng/mL 12 months after initial treatment had a clinical recurrence. All of clinical recurrences were loco-regional recurrences. Although repeated sTg measurement can be helpful to predict recurrence, we could not recommend it for surveillance in patients with BR due to its very low yield.
doi:10.1089/thy.2011.0322
PMCID: PMC3407383  PMID: 22780573
3.  Yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan plus busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (BuCyE) versus BuCyE alone as a conditioning regimen for non-Hodgkin lymphoma 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(2):119-125.
Background
Radioimmunotherapy agents have a highly significant role in autologous stem cell transplantation as they improve tolerability and increase the efficacy of the conditioning regimen.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy and toxicity of yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) combined with intravenous busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (Z-BuCyE) compared with those of BuCyE alone followed by autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The efficacy, toxicity, and engraftment characteristics were compared between 19 patients who received Z-BuCyE and 19 historical controls who received BuCyE.
Results
The 2 treatment groups shared similar baseline characteristics. The median time to platelet engraftment (>20×109/L) and neutrophil engraftment (>0.5×109/L) did not significantly differ between the Z-BuCyE group (12 days and 10 days, respectively) and the BuCyE group (12 days and 10 days, respectively). No significant differences were observed between the groups with respect to toxicities and treatment-related mortality. The median follow-up period was 30.4 months, and median event-free survival was generally better in the Z-BuCyE group (12.5 months) vs. the BuCyE group (6.2 months, P=0.236). No significant difference in overall survival between the groups was noted.
Conclusion
Adding ibritumomab tiuxetan to BuCyE high-dose chemotherapy may benefit patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell NHL with no risk of additional toxicity.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2012.47.2.119
PMCID: PMC3389060  PMID: 22783358
Yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan; BuCyE; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
4.  PET/CT Fusion Viewing Software for Use with Picture Archiving and Communication Systems 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2009;23(6):732-743.
We developed positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) viewing software (PETviewer) that can display co-registered PET and CT images obtained by PET/CT and stored on picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). PETviewer has tools for presetting windows for CT display; control bars for PET window level; zoom, pan, and pseudo-color functions; and allows the user to draw a rectangular region of interest (ROI) for standardized uptake value (SUV) measurement. SUV was calculated using PET DICOM header information and the pixel intensity in PETviewer. Reconstructed datasets of PET/CT and maximum intensity projection (MIP) of the PET images were transferred and archived in PACS. Phantom experiments were performed to evaluate the validity of image fusion. PET/CT images were displayed on an independent window in PACS. Transaxial PET images were reformatted as sagittal and coronal PET images, which were displayed with the corresponding CT and PET/CT fusion images with adjustable color and transparency. Transaxial, sagittal, and coronal PET images corresponding to the location of the cursor were shown using cine display of MIP images. All images were displayed in PETviewer within 20 s on a personal computer for PACS, which was equipped with a P4, 1.3-GHz CPU, and 512 Mb of RAM. We could measure maximum and mean SUV in a ROI using PETviewer. Transaxial fused images of patients and phantoms showed excellent registration and fusion of PET and CT images in the X and Y directions. PETviewer provided very useful clinical tools for assessing PET/CT images on PACS and should assist in maximizing the benefits derived from PET/CT imaging.
doi:10.1007/s10278-009-9227-3
PMCID: PMC3046700  PMID: 19657696
PET/CT; PACS; image fusion; multimodality imaging
5.  Prognostic parameters for recurrence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:296.
Background
Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) is defined as a papillary thyroid carcinoma less than or equal to 1.0 cm in size. Independent prognostic factors for clinical recurrence of PTMC have not been clearly delineated.
Methods
Clinicopathological parameters predicting PTMC recurrence were determined by retrospective analysis of 307 patients.
Results
Of the 293 patients eligible for analysis, 14 (5%) had recurrence during a median follow-up time of 65 months. Recurrence was observed in 8 of 166 patients (0.5%) treated with total or near-total thyroidectomy; gender (P = 0.02) and presence of lateral cervical node metastases at initial surgery (P = 0.01) were associated with recurrence. Six of the 127 patients (0.5%) treated with hemi- or subtotal thyroidectomy experience recurrences, but no significant prognostic factor for recurrence was identified. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis showed that gender and cervical lymph node metastasis were significant variables
Conclusion
PTMC showed very diverse disease extent and could not be regarded as indolent, relatively benign disease based on the primary tumor size. The extent of surgery should be based on prognostic parameters, such as gender and lateral neck node metastasis, in patients with PTMC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-296
PMCID: PMC2576338  PMID: 18851763
6.  Is Routine Central Neck Dissection Necessary for the Treatment of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma? 
Objectives
It remains unclear as to whether routine central neck dissection (CND) is necessary when performing surgery to treat patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). To determine the necessity for routine CND in PTMC patients, we reviewed the clinicopathologic and laboratory data of the patients of PTMC.
Methods
Between September 2001 and July 2005, 101 patients with PTMC and clinical N0 disease were retrospectively reviewed. The study cohort was devided into groups: the total thyroidectomy plus CND group (the CND group, N=48) and the total thyroidectomy without CND group (the no CND group, N=53). The serum stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were measured after surgery and prior to radioactive iodine ablation therapy (RAI) and at 6-12 months after RAI. Pathology, the Tg levels and recurrence data were compared between the 2 groups.
Results
Central nodal metastases were found in 18 of the 48 CND patients (37.5%). The incidence of Tg levels >5 ng/mL at RAI was higher in the no CND patients and in the 18 node-positive CND patients compared with the 30 node-negative CND patients (22-24% vs. 3%, respectively, P=0.020-0.058). The difference when performing a similar comparison using a >2 ng/mL Tg threshold level showed no significance (10-11% vs. 4%, respectively, P>0.1). Two of the no CND patients and one node-positive CND patient had recurrences in the thyroid bed or lateral neck during a mean follow-up of 24 months.
Conclusion
The data showed that occult metastasis to the central neck is common in PTMC patients. A CND provides pathologic information about the nodal metastases, and it potentially provides guidance for planning the postoperative RAI. However, the long-term benefit of CND on recurrence and survival remains somewhat questionable.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2008.1.1.41
PMCID: PMC2671760  PMID: 19434261
Papillary microcarcinoma; Central compartment; Neck dissection; Neoplasm metastasis; Thyroglobulin
7.  Specific and common antigens of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini (Opisthorchidae, Trematoda) 
The antigenic characterizations and serological reactions of human liver flukes, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, were analyzed by immunoblot. The antigenic profiles of the crude extract of Clonorchis contained major proteins of 8, 26-28, 34-37, 43, and 70 kDa, and those of Opisthorchis 34-37, 43, 70, and 100 kDa. Of these, the 8, 26-28 and 34-37 kDa bands of Clonorchis and the 100 kDa of Opisthorchis were major components of each excretory-secretory antigen. The 8 and 26-28 kDa bands were specific to Clonorchis but the 100 kDa of Opisthorchis cross-reacted with the sera of clonorchiasis, and the 34-37, 70 and 100 kDa bands cross-reacted with sera of other helminthiases. The frequency and intensity of the immunoblot reactions were positively correlated with the intensity of the liver fluke infection.
doi:10.3347/kjp.2003.41.3.155
PMCID: PMC2717500  PMID: 12972729
Clonorchis sinensis; Opisthorchis viverrini; antigens; diagnosis

Results 1-7 (7)