Objective. Although two recent randomized placebo-controlled trials of rituximab (RTX) failed to demonstrate efficacy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), clinicians continue to use off-label RTX for cases refractory to current treatments. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of rituximab for patients with refractory SLE in Korea. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed multicenter patients treated with RTX in Korea. Results. 39 SLE patients treated with RTX were included in the following manner: lupus nephritis 43.6%, hematologic 33.3%, arthritis 7.8%, myositis 7.8%, and others 7.7%. All patients had responded poorly to at least one conventional immunosuppressive agent (mean 2.5 ± 1.1, cyclophosphamide 43.6%, mycophenolate mofetil 48.7%, and other drugs) before RTX. Clinical improvements (complete or partial remission) occurred in patients with renal disease, hematologic disease, arthritis, myositis, and other manifestations at 6 months after RTX. The SLEDAI score was significantly decreased from 10.8 ± 7.1 at baseline to 6.7 ± 4.0 at 6 months, 6.2 ± 4.1 at 12 months, and 5.5 ± 3.6 at 24 months after RTX (P < 0.05). Among 28 clinical responders, 4 patients experienced a relapse of disease at 25 ± 4 months. Infections were noted in 3 patients (7.7%).
Conclusion. RTX could be an effective and relatively safe therapeutic option in patients with severe refractory SLE until novel B-cell depletion therapy is available.
This study examined the effectiveness of Holmium-166 (Ho-166) chitosan complex therapy for a malignant glioma. Cultured C6 glioma cells (100,000 in 5 µl) were injected into the caudate/putamen of 200 - 250 gram Wistar rats. Five days later, a Ho-166 chitosan complex was injected into the same site of the glioma injection. Four injection doses were administered: the control group received PBS 10 µl, group 1 received an injection of 100 µCi (10 µl), group 2 received an injection of 50 µCi (5 µl), and group 3 received an injection of 10 µCi (1 µl). The average tumor volume for each group was 1.385 mm3 for the control group, 0.036 mm3 for group 1, 0.104 mm3 for group 2, and 0.111 mm3 for group 3. Compared with the control group, the size of the tumors in groups 1, 2 and 3 was reduced by an average of 97.4%, 92.5% and 91.9%, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve of group 2 was the longest, followed by groups 3, group 1 and the control. The mean survival was 22.8, 59, 60, and 44.6 days for the control group and groups 3, 2 and 1, respectively. H-E staining revealed that group 2 yielded the best results in the destruction of the malignant glioma. TUNEL staining and immunohistochemical studies indicated apoptotic features. The Ho-166 chitosan complex proved to be effective in destroying the malignant glioma.
Holmium-166 chitosan complex; malignant glioma; brachytherapy; therapeutic effects
Sustained activation of NF-κB is one of the causative factors for various liver diseases, including liver inflammation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been known that activating the NF-κB signal by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is implicated in the development of HCC. However, despite numerous studies on HBx-induced NF-κB activation, the detailed mechanisms still remain unsolved. Recently, p22-FLIP, a cleavage product of c-FLIPL, has been reported to induce NF-κB activation through interaction with the IκB kinase (IKK) complex in primary immune cells. Since our previous report on the interaction of HBx with c-FLIPL, we explored whether p22-FLIP is involved in the modulation of HBx function. First, we identified the expression of endogenous p22-FLIP in liver cells. NF-κB reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that the expression of p22-FLIP synergistically enhances HBx-induced NF-κB activation. Moreover, we found that HBx physically interacts with p22-FLIP and NEMO and potentially forms a ternary complex. Knock-down of c-FLIP leading to the downregulation of p22-FLIP showed that endogenous p22-FLIP is involved in HBx-induced NF-κB activation, and the formation of a ternary complex is necessary to activate NF-κB signaling. In conclusion, we showed a novel mechanism of HBx-induced NF-κB activation in which ternary complex formation is involved among HBx, p22-FLIP and NEMO. Our findings will extend the understanding of HBx-induced NF-κB activation and provide a new target for intervention in HBV-associated liver diseases and in the development of HCC.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, puritic skin disorder. These syndromes result from multifactorial inheritance, with interaction between genetic and environmental factors. In particular, the macrophage-derived chemokine CCL22 is directly implicated in skin inflammatory reactions and its levels are significantly elevated in serum and correlated with disease severity in AD. We tested the suppression of the CCL22 gene by microRNA (miRNA) and observed the effects in mice with inflammation similar to AD. We used Salmonella as a vector to deliver miRNA. The recombinant strain of Salmonella typhimurium expressing CCL22 miRNA (ST-miRCCL22) was prepared for in vivo knockdown of CCL22. ST-miRCCL22 was orally inoculated into mice and the CCL22 gene suppressed with CCL22 miRNA in the activated lymphocytes. IgE and interleukin-4 were inhibited and interferon-γ was induced after treatments with ST-miRCCL22 and CCL22 was suppressed. Further, Th17 cells were suppressed in the atopic mice treated with ST-miRCCL22. These results suggested that suppression of the CCL22 gene using Salmonella induced anti-inflammatory effects.
Bupleuri Radix (BR) is a major component of several Oriental herbal medicines used to treat stress and mental illness. There are evidences that antidepressant drugs modulate oxidative damage implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorder, including depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant and proliferative effects of BR against oxidative stress induced by serum deprivation in SH-SY5Y cells.
We examined the antioxidant effects of BR on a number of measures, including cell viability, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and levels of both Bcl-2 and Bax. We also investigated the effects of BR on cell proliferation using the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay, and used Western blot analysis to measure changes in expression of the cell cycle phase regulators.
1) Serum deprivation significantly induced the loss of cell viability, the formation of ROS, the reduction of SOD activity, down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax expression. However, BR extract reversed these effects in dose-dependent manner. 2) Serum deprivation significantly reduced cell proliferation. Western blot analysis revealed that serum deprivation significantly decreased cyclinD1 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) expression, and increased p27 expression. On the other hand, BR dose dependently reversed these effects.
This study suggests that aqueous extract of BR may exert potent antioxidant effects and also play an important role in regulating cell cycle progression during neurogenesis. These effects of BR may be a potentially important mechanism of antidepressant underlying the observed antioxidant and proliferative effects.
Bupleuri Radix; Antioxidant effect; Proliferative effect; Antidepressant
Treatment of thrombocytopenia in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is considered in cases of current bleeding, severe bruising, or a platelet count below 50,000/µL. Corticosteroid is the first choice of medication for inducing remission, and immunosuppressive agents can be added when thrombocytopenia is refractory to corticosteroid or recurs despite it. We presented two SLE patients with thrombocytopenia who successfully induced remission after intravenous administration of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CYC) (500 mg fixed dose, biweekly for 3 months), followed by azathioprine (AZA) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Both patients developed severe thrombocytopenia in SLE that did not respond to pulsed methylprednisolone therapy, and started the intravenous low-dose CYC therapy. In case 1, the platelet count increased to 50,000/µL after the first CYC infusion, and remission was maintained with low dose prednisolone and AZA. The case 2 achieved remission after three cycles of CYC, and the remission continued with low dose prednisolone and MMF.
Cyclophosphamide; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Thrombocytopenia
Osteochondroma is the most common benign tumor of the growing bone commonly involving the knee joint region. It often involves the metaphysis of the long bone, occurring extra-articularly. In spite of this, solitary intra-articular osteochondroma has rarely been reported in the literature. A 41-year-old man presented with diffuse pain and discomfort of the left knee for over 2 months. Clinical examination revealed a bony prominence involving the superolateral aspect of the left distal femur. Diagnostic evaluation involved radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and a diagnostic arthroscopy, which showed features of an intra-articular osteochondroma in the left distal femur. Arthroscopic excision of the solitary intra-articular osteochondroma resulted in a complete relief of symptoms and return to full competitive activities. No recurrence of symptoms occurred during the one year of follow-up. Solitary intra-articular osteochondroma of the knee is an unusual case, which can be successfully managed with arthroscopy.
Osteochondroma; Intra-articular; Arthroscopy; Knee
MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin glycoprotein expressed on the apical surface of mucosal epithelial cells. Previous in vivo and in vitro studies established that MUC1 counter-regulates airway inflammation by suppressing TLR signaling. In this report, we elucidate the mechanism by which MUC1 inhibits TLR5 signaling. Overexpression of MUC1 in human embryonic kidney HEK293 (293) cells dramatically reduced Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa)-stimulated IL-8 expression, and decreased the activation of NF-κB and MAPK compared with MUC1 non-expressing cells. Overexpression of MUC1 in 293 cells, however, did not affect NF-κB or MAKP activation in response to TNF-α. Overexpression of MyD88 abrogated the ability of MUC1 to inhibit NF-κB activation, and MUC1 overexpression inhibited flagellin-induced association of TLR5/MyD88, compared with controls. The MUC1 cytoplasmic tail (MUC1 CT) associated with TLR5 in all cells tested, including 293T cells, human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells, and human and mouse primary airway epithelial cells. Activation of EGFR tyrosine kinase with TGF-α induced phosphorylation of the MUC1 CT at the Y46 EKV sequence and increased association of MUC1/TLR5. Finally, in vivo experiments demonstrated increased immunofluorescence co-localization of Muc1/TLR5 and Muc1/phosphotyrosine staining patterns in mouse airway epithelium and increased Muc1 tyrosine phosphorylation in mouse lung homogenates following Pa infection. In conclusion, EGFR tyrosine phosphorylates MUC1, leading to an increase in its association with TLR5, thereby competitively and reversibly inhibiting recruitment of MyD88 to TLR5 and downstream signaling events. This unique ability of MUC1 to control TLR5 signaling suggests its potential role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory lung diseases.
We investigated the genotoxic effects of 40-59 nm silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), in vitro comet assay and micronucleus (MN) assay. In particular, we directly compared the effect of cytochalasin B (cytoB) and rat liver homogenate (S9 mix) in the formation of MN by Ag-NPs.
Before testing, we confirmed that Ag-NPs were completely dispersed in the experimental medium by sonication (three times in 1 minute) and filtration (0.2 µm pore size filter), and then we measured their size in a zeta potential analyzer. After that the genotoxicity were measured and especially, S9 mix and with and without cytoB were compared one another in MN assay.
Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 strains revealed that Ag-NPs with or without S9 mix did not display a mutagenic effect. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs was also evaluated in a mammalian cell system using Chinese hamster ovary cells. The results revealed that Ag-NPs stimulated DNA breakage and MN formation with or without S9 mix in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.01 µg/mL to 10 µg/mL). In particular, MN induction was affected by cytoB.
All of our findings, with the exception of the Ames test results, indicate that Ag-NPs show genotoxic effects in mammalian cell system. In addition, present study suggests the potential error due to use of cytoB in genotoxic test of nanoparticles.
Bacterial reverse mutation test; Comet assay; Genotoxicity; Micronucleus assay; Silver nanoparticles
MUC1 (or Muc1 in nonhuman species) is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the apical surface of mucosal epithelia (including those of the airways) that suppresses Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. We sought to determine whether the anti-inflammatory effect of MUC1 is operative during infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and if so, which TLR pathway was affected. Our results showed that: (1) a lysate of NTHi increased the early release of IL-8 and later production of MUC1 protein by A549 cells in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners, compared with vehicle control; (2) both effects were attenuated after transfection of the cells with a TLR2-targeting small interfering (si) RNA, compared with a control siRNA; (3) the NTHi-induced release of IL-8 was suppressed by an overexpression of MUC1, and was enhanced by the knockdown of MUC1; (4) the TNF-α released after treatment with NTHi was sufficient to up-regulate MUC1, which was completely inhibited by pretreatment with a soluble TNF-α receptor; and (5) primary murine tracheal surface epithelial (MTSE) cells from Muc1 knockout mice exhibited an increased in vitro production of NTHi-stimulated keratinocyte chemoattractant compared with MTSE cells from Muc1-expressing animals. These results suggest a hypothetical feedback loop model whereby NTHi activates TLRs (mainly TLR2) in airway epithelial cells, leading to the increased production of TNF-α and IL-8, which subsequently up-regulate the expression of MUC1, resulting in suppressed TLR signaling and decreased production of IL-8. This report is the first, to the best of our knowledge, demonstrating that the inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells during infection with NTHi is controlled by MUC1 mucin, mainly through the suppression of TLR2 signaling.
bacteria; innate immunity; inflammation; TNF-α
Flagella are surface appendages that are important for bacterial motility and invasion of host cells. Two flagellin subunits in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, FliC and FljB, are alternatively expressed by a site-specific DNA inversion mechanism called flagellar phase variation. Although this inversion mechanism is understood at the molecular level, the key factor controlling the expression of the two flagellin subunits has not been determined. In this study, we found that a putative acyl carrier protein, IacP, affects flagellar phase variation in S. Typhimurium strain UK-1 under Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1)-inducing conditions. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the secreted proteins from S. Typhimurium determined that the amount of FljB secreted was significantly higher in the iacP mutant strain, a finding confirmed by Western blot analysis. Northern blotting, quantitative PCR, and microarray data showed that the level of FljB in the iacP mutant strain was regulated at the transcriptional level, although the transcription and expression of the fliC gene were independent of IacP. FljB production was abolished by the deletion of the Hin DNA invertase but could be restored by the introduction of a plasmid carrying the hin gene. We also found that in the iacP mutant strain, the orientation of the invertible H segment is in the FljB-expressing phase. Furthermore, electron microscopy observations indicated that the iacP mutant strain had more flagella per cell than the wild-type strain. These results suggest that IacP is associated with flagellar phase switching under SPI1-inducing conditions.
Maize (Zea mays L.) lipoxygenases (ZmLOXs) are well recognized as important players in plant defense against pathogens, especially in cross kingdom lipid communication with pathogenic fungi. This study is among the first to investigate genetic diversity at important gene paralogs ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5. Sequencing of these genes in 400 diverse maize lines showed little genetic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium in the two genes. Importantly, we identified one inbred line in which ZmLOX5 has a disrupted open reading frame, a line missing ZmLOX5, and five lines with a duplication of ZmLOX5. Tajima's D test suggests that both ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5 have been under neutral selection. Further investigation of haplotype data revealed that within the ZmLOX family members only ZmLOX12, a monocot specific ZmLOX, showed strong linkage disequilibrium that extends further than expected in maize. Linkage disequilibrium patterns at these loci of interest are crucial for future candidate gene association mapping studies. ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5 mutations and copy number variants are under further investigation for crop improvement.
The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of occupational stress and physical symptoms among family medicine residents and investigate the effect of subscales of occupational stress on physical symptoms.
A self-administered questionnaire survey of 1,152 family medicine residents was carried out via e-mail from April 2010 to July 2010. The response rate was 13.1% and the R (ver. 2.9.1) was used for the analysis of completed data obtained from 150 subjects. The questionnaire included demographic factors, resident training related factors, 24-items of the Korean Occupational Stress Scales and Korean Versions of the Wahler Physical Symptom Inventory.
The total score of occupational stress of family medicine residents was relatively low compared to that of average workers. The scores of 'high job demand', 'inadequate social support', 'organizational injustice', and 'discomfort in occupational climate' were within the top 50%. Parameters associated with higher occupational stress included level of training, on-duty time, daily patient load, critical patient assigned, total working days, night duty day, sleep duration, and sleep quality. The six subscales of occupational stress, except for 'Job insecurity', had a significant positive correlation with physical symptom scores after adjustment had been made for potential confounders (total score, r = 0.325 and P < 0.001; high job demand, r = 0.439 and P < 0.001).
After the adjustment had been made for potential confounders, the total score of occupational stress and six subscales in family medicine residents showed a significant positive correlation with physical symptom scores.
Stress; Signs and Symptoms; Family Physicians; Internship and Residency; Questionnaires
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and affects many organ systems. It often presents sterile pyuria, microscopic hematuria, and proteinuria due to renal involvement. The aims of this study were to define clinical characteristics of acute KD patients with pyuria and to analyze meaning of pyuria in KD.
The medical records and laboratory findings including serum and urine test of 133 patients with KD admitted to Yeungnam University Hospital from March 2006 to December 2010 were reviewed retrospectively.
Forty patients had sterile pyuria and their clinical characteristics including age, gender and body weight were not significantly different with those who did not have pyuria. Fever duration after treatment was significantly longer in KD patients with pyuria. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase were significantly higher in patients with pyuria. Hyponatremia and coronary artery lesion were seen more often in patients with pyuria but there was no significant difference. Also serum blood urea nitrogen was significantly higher in KD patients with pyuria. Urine β2-microglobulin was elevated in both patients groups and showed no difference between two groups.
We found more severe inflammatory reaction in KD patients with pyuria. We also found elevation of some useful parameters like β2-microglobulin that indicate renal involvement of KD through the urine test. Careful management and follow up will need for KD patients with pyuria and it is necessary in the future to study the specific parameters for renal involvement of KD.
Kawasaki disease; Sterile pyuria
KOB03 is a polyherbal medicine that originated from the oriental prescription for the treatment of chronic allergic diseases such as rhinitis and asthma. This study aims to evaluate the effect of KOB03 on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) in guinea pigs.
Hartley guinea pigs were sensitized to OVA by intraperitoneal injection on days 0, 7, and 14 and challenged with intranasal exposure to OVA three times for 7 days after the last sensitization. KOB03 at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg were orally administrated to guinea pigs once daily during challenge. The serum levels of histamine, OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4 and IFN-γ) in OVA sensitization/challenge-induced AR guinea pigs were measured. We also observed histological changes in nasal tissues of AR guinea pigs by staining with H&E, Periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue.
The administration of KOB03 at a dose of 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the serum levels of histamine (P = 0.001), OVA-specific IgE (P = 0.0017), ECP (P = 0.008), and TNF-α (P = 0.0003) in OVA-sensitized/challenged guinea pigs compared with controls. KOB03 significantly decreased the serum levels of a Th2 cytokine, IL-4 (P = 0.017), while significantly increasing the levels of a Th1 cytokine, IFN-γ (P = 0.0006) in OVA-sensitized/challenged guinea pigs compared with controls. In addition, KOB03 suppressed the epithelial destruction, goblet cell hyperplasia and eosinophilic infiltration into nasal mucosa associated with AR.
KOB03 may regulate allergic inflammation in AR by inhibiting nasal damage, the release of allergic mediators and modulating the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines.
Mitochondria exhibit a dynamic morphology in cells and their biogenesis and function are integrated with the nuclear cell cycle. In mitotic cells, the filamentous network structure of mitochondria takes on a fragmented form. To date, however, whether mitochondrial fusion activity is regulated in mitosis has yet to be elucidated.
Here, we report that mitochondria were found to be fragmented in G2 phase prior to mitotic entry. Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), a mitochondrial fusion protein, interacted with cyclin B1, and their interactions became stronger in G2/M phase. In addition, MARCH5, a mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase, reduced Mfn1 levels and the MARCH5-mediated Mfn1 ubiquitylation were enhanced in G2/M phase.
Mfn1 is degraded through the MARCH5-mediated ubiquitylation in G2/M phase and the cell cycle-dependent degradation of Mfn1 could be facilitated by interaction with cyclin B1/Cdk1 complexes.
MARCH5; Mfn1; G2/M; Mitochondrial fragmentation
Structure activity relationships of cycloalkylamide compounds as inhibitors of human sEH were investigated. When the left side of amide function was modified by a variety of cycloalkanes, at least a C6 like cyclohexane was necessary to yield reasonable inhibition potency on the target enzyme. In compounds with a smaller cycloalkane or with a polar group on the left side of amide function, no inhibition was observed. On the other hand, increased hydrophobicity dramatically improved inhibition potency. Especially, a tetrahydronaphthalene (20) effectively increased the potency. When a series of alkyl or aryl derivatives of cycloalkylamide were investigated to continuously optimize the right side of the amide pharmacophore, a benzyl moiety functionalized with a polar group produced highly potent inhibition. Non-substituted benzyl, alkyl, aryl, or biaryl structure present in the right side of cycloalkylamide function induced a big decrease in inhibition potency. Also, a resulting potent cycloalkylamide (32) showed reasonable physical properties.
Functional hemispherectomy is effective in carefully selected patients, resulting in a reduction of seizure burden up to complete resolution, improvement of intellectual development, and developmental benefit despite possible additional neurological deficit. Despite apparent hemispheric pathology on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or other imaging tests, scalp electroencephalography (EEG) could be suggestive of bilateral ictal onset or even ictal onset contralateral to the dominant imaging abnormality. We aimed to investigate the role of scalp EEG lateralization pre-operatively in predicting outcome.
We retrospectively reviewed 54 patients who underwent hemispherectomy between 1991 and 2009 at Medical College of Georgia (1991–2006) and Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center (2006–2009) and had at least one year post-operative follow-up. All preoperative EEGs were reviewed, and classified as either lateralizing or nonlateralizing, for both ictal and interictal EEG recordings.
Of 54 patients, 42 (78%) became seizure free. Twenty-four (44%) of 54 had a nonlateralizing ictal or interictal EEG. Further analysis was based on etiology of epilepsy, including malformation of cortical development (MCD), Rasmussen syndrome (RS), and stroke (CVA). EEG nonlateralization did not predict poor outcome in any of the etiology groups evaluated.
Scalp EEG abnormalities in contralateral or bilateral hemispheres do not, in isolation, predict a poor outcome from hemispherectomy. Results of other non-invasive and invasive evaluations should be used to determine candidacy.
Hemispherectomy; Hemispherotomy; EEG; Bilateral; Outcome
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are known to play a protective role in the immune responses of mice against a variety of infectious pathogens. However, little is known about the detailed information of NKT cells in patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The aims of this study were to examine NKT cell levels and functions in patients with active M. tuberculosis infection, to investigate relationships between NKT cell levels and clinical parameters, and to determine the mechanism responsible for the poor response to α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). NKT cell levels were significantly lower in the peripheral blood of pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients, and the proliferative responses of NKT cells to α-GalCer were also lower in patients, whereas NKT cell levels and responses were comparable in latent tuberculosis infection subjects and healthy controls. Furthermore, this NKT cell deficiency was found to be correlated with serum C-reactive protein levels. In addition, the poor response to α-GalCer in M. tuberculosis-infected patients was found to be due to increased NKT cell apoptosis, reduced CD1d expression, and a defect in NKT cells. Notably, M. tuberculosis infection was associated with an elevated expression of the inhibitory programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor on NKT cells, and blockade of PD-1 signaling enhanced the response to α-GalCer. This study shows that NKT cell levels and functions are reduced in M. tuberculosis-infected patients and these deficiencies were found to reflect the presence of active tuberculosis.
Research suggests that the contents of delusions in schizophrenia are influenced by culture and social environment. However, few studies have investigated the chronological change of such delusions within a society. To investigate specifically the changes in the persecutory delusions of schizophrenia that have occurred over time, we compared the nature of the persecutors and their persecutory behaviors among inpatients with schizophrenia.
All admissions to the psychiatric unit of Hanyang University Guri Hospital with discharge diagnoses of schizophrenia during two different five-year time frames (1996-2000 and 2006-2010) were reviewed. From their inpatient medical records, we investigated the descriptions of persecutors and their persecutory behaviors in the delusions of 124 patients (54 in the1990s and 72 in the 2000s).
Overall, persecutory behaviors and nature of persecutors in the delusions of schizophrenia did not differ between the two time frames. However, subgroup analysis revealed that in women but not in men, rejection as a persecutory behavior was significantly higher in the 1990s (p<0.05).
The ten-year time interval may be too short to find significant changes in delusional content in general. However, our additional finding in women may be a result of the tremendous change in status of Korean women during the last decade.
Schizophrenia; Delusions; Culture; Cultural psychiatry; Symptoms
A case of Carney complex in a Korean patient is presented. The patient had the characteristics of Carney complex including skin lesions, positive family history, and multiple myxomas including a superficial angiomyxoma in the perianal area. An extensive genetic analysis revealed a novel mutation in the protein kinase A type I-a regulatory subunit (PRKAR1A) gene, but not in the phosphodiesterase type 11A (PDE11A) gene. This is the first case wherein extensive genetic studies were performed in a patient with Carney complex in Korea.
Carney complex; PRKAR1A; PDE11A; Superficial angiomyxoma
Tracheoinnominate artery fistula is a critical complication of tracheostomy. The most important factors influencing patient outcome are prompt diagnosis, immediate control of bleeding with a patent airway, and emergency operation with or without interruption of the innominate artery. Here, we report a case of tracheoinnominate artery fistula in a 40-year-old woman with cerebrovascular accident who was successfully managed with an aorta-axillary artery bypass.
Complication; Tracheoinnominate artery fistula; Tracheostomy
Persimmon Leaf (PL), commonly consumed as herbal tea and traditional medicines, contains a variety of compounds that exert antioxidant, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. However, little is known about the in vivo effects and underlying mechanisms of PL on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetes. Powered PL (5%, w/w) was supplemented with a normal diet to C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice for 5 weeks. PL decreased blood glucose, HOMA-IR, plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, as well as liver weight, hepatic lipid droplets, triglycerides and cholesterol contents, while increasing plasma HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin levels. The anti-hyperglycemic effect was linked to decreased activity of gluconeogenic enzymes as well as increased glycogen content, glucokinase activity and its mRNA level in the liver. PL also led to a decrease in lipogenic transcriptional factor PPARγ as well as gene expression and activity of enzymes involved in lipogenesis, with a simultaneous increase in fecal lipids, which are seemingly attributable to the improved hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis and decreased hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, PL ameliorated plasma and hepatic oxidative stress. Supplementation with PL may be an effective dietary strategy to improve type 2 diabetes accompanied by dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis by partly modulating the activity or gene expression of enzymes related to antioxidant, glucose and lipid homeostasis.