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1.  A Rare Case of Transformation of Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndrome to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2013;33(2):130-135.
Transformation of MDS into ALL during childhood is extremely rare. We report a rare case of an 8-yr-old girl who presented with refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC) that transformed into ALL only 3 months after the diagnosis of childhood MDS. Although no cytogenetic abnormalities were observed in conventional karyotype and FISH analysis, we found several deletions on chromosomes 5q, 12q, 13q, and 22q. Partial homozygous deletion of the RB1 gene was observed on microarray analysis, with the bone marrow specimen diagnosed as ALL. This is the first case report of transformation of ALL from childhood MDS in Korea. We also compared the clinical, cytological, and cytogenetic features of 4 previously reported childhood MDS cases that transformed into ALL.
doi:10.3343/alm.2013.33.2.130
PMCID: PMC3589639  PMID: 23483089
Myelodysplastic syndromes; Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; Cytogenetic aberrations; Microarray analysis
2.  The effectiveness of tacrolimus and minidose methotrexate in the prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children: a single-center study in Korea 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(2):113-118.
Background
Knowledge of the roles of tacrolimus and minidose methotrexate (MTX) in the prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is limited. We retrospectively evaluated the engraftment status, incidence of aGVHD and chronic GVHD (cGVHD), and toxicities of tacrolimus and minidose MTX in aGVHD prophylaxis in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT.
Methods
Seventeen children, who underwent allogeneic HSCT and received tacrolimus and minidose MTX as GVHD prophylaxis from March 2003 to February 2011, were reviewed retrospectively. All the patients received tacrolimus since the day before transplantation at a dose of 0.03 mg/kg/day and MTX at a dose of 5 mg/m2 on days 1, 3, 6, and 11.
Results
Of the 17 patients, 9 received human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related donor transplants, and 8 received HLA-matched, or partially mismatched unrelated donor transplants. The median time for follow-up was 55 months. The incidence of aGVHD in the related and unrelated donor groups was 22.2% and 42.9%, respectively. cGVHD was not observed. To maintain therapeutic blood levels of tacrolimus, the younger group (<8 years of age) required an increased mean dose compared to the older group (≥8 years) (P=0.0075). The adverse events commonly associated with tacrolimus included hypomagnesemia (88%), nephrotoxicity (23%), and hyperglycemia (23%).
Conclusion
Tacrolimus and minidose MTX were well tolerated and effective in GVHD prophylaxis in pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Children <8 years of age undergoing HSCT required increased doses of tacrolimus to achieve therapeutic levels.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2012.47.2.113
PMCID: PMC3389059  PMID: 22783357
Tacrolimus; Methotrexate; Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Acute graft-versus-host disease; Children

Results 1-2 (2)