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1.  Prognostic impact of sarcopenia in patients with diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone 
Abstract
Background
Sarcopenia is known to be related to an increased risk of chemotherapy toxicity and to a poor prognosis in patients with malignancy. We assessed the prognostic role of sarcopenia in patients with diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
Methods
In total, 187 consecutive patients with DLBCL treated with induction rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R‐CHOP) immunochemotherapy were reviewed. Sarcopenia was defined as the lowest sex‐specific quartile of the skeletal muscle index, calculated by dividing the pectoralis muscle area by the height. Clinical outcomes were compared between the sarcopenic and non‐sarcopenic groups. A nomogram was constructed from the Cox regression model for overall survival (OS).
Results
Treatment‐related mortality (21.7 vs. 5.0%, P = 0.002) and early discontinuation of treatment (32.6 vs. 14.9%, P = 0.008) were more common in the sarcopenic group than in the non‐sarcopenic group. The 5 year progression‐free survival (PFS) rates were 35.3% in the sarcopenic group and 65.8% in the non‐sarcopenic group (P < 0.001). The 5 year OS rates were 37.3% in the sarcopenic group and 68.1% in the non‐sarcopenic group (P < 0.001). Sarcopenia and the five variables of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) were independent prognostic factors in a multivariate analysis for PFS and OS and were used to construct the nomogram. The calibration plot showed good agreement between the nomogram predictions and actual observations. The c index of the nomogram (0.80) was higher than those of other prognostic indices (IPI, 0.77, P = 0.009; revised‐IPI, 0.74, P < 0.001; National Comprehensive Cancer Network‐IPI, 0.77, P = 0.062).
Conclusions
Sarcopenia is associated with intolerance to standard R‐CHOP chemotherapy as well as a poor prognosis. Moreover, sarcopenia itself can be included in prognostic models in DLBCL.
doi:10.1002/jcsm.12115
PMCID: PMC4833756  PMID: 27104110
Sarcopenia; Diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma; Toxicity; Prognosis; Nomogram
2.  Waist-to-Height Ratio as an Index for Cardiometabolic Risk in Adolescents: Results from the 1998-2008 KNHANES 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2016;57(3):658-663.
Purpose
To describe the relationship between the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) and to evaluate the validity of WHtR in identifying adolescents with metabolic syndrome.
Materials and Methods
We analyzed data from a pooled population of 4068 adolescents aged 10–19 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 1998 and 2008. Overweight individuals were defined by body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile. Those with at least 2 CMRFs among hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were classified as having multiple CMRFs.
Results
WHtR was significantly related to systolic blood pressure, HDL-C, and triglycerides in both non-overweight and overweight adolescents (all p<0.01). Among overweight adolescents, the area under the curve (AUC) for WHtR in identifying multiple CMRFs was significantly greater than that for BMI (p=0.014). Metabolic syndrome was more common in overweight adolescents with a WHtR of ≥0.5 than in those with a WHtR of <0.5 (p<0.001). In non-overweight adolescents, the prevalences of multiple CMRFs (p=0.001) and metabolic syndrome (p<0.001) were higher in those with a WHtR of ≥0.5 than in those with a WHtR of <0.5. Among those without central obesity, the prevalence of multiple CMRFs was higher in those with a WHtR of ≥0.5 than in those with a WHtR of <0.5 (p=0.021).
Conclusion
WHtR is a simple and valid index for identifying adolescents with increased cardiometabolic risk and is related to CMRFs even in non-overweight adolescents. In adolescents already screened via BMI and waist circumference (WC), WHtR seems to be of additional help in discriminating those at higher cardiometabolic risk.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2016.57.3.658
PMCID: PMC4800356  PMID: 26996566
Waist; height; body mass index; metabolic syndrome; obesity
3.  Impact of lifestyle factors on trends in lipid profiles among Korean adolescents: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys study, 1998 and 2010 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2016;59(2):65-73.
Purpose
Only a few studies have explored nationwide trends in lipid profiles among Asian adolescents. We aimed to assess trends in lipid profiles and the associated lifestyle factors among Korean children.
Methods
We analyzed data for 2,094 adolescents who were aged 10–18 years and had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1998 and 2010.
Results
During 1998–2010, the prevalence of obesity significantly increased in boys, but no changes were observed in girls. Over this period, there was a small but significant decrease in the mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level in boys (1998, 87.5 mg/dL; 2010, 83.6 mg/dL; P=0.019) and mean triglyceride levels in girls (1998, 90.8 mg/dL; 2010, 85.8 mg/dL; P=0.020). There were no significant changes in the prevalence of dyslipidemia in boys, but a modest decrease was noted in girls (1998, 25.1%; 2010, 18.3%; P=0.052). During the study period, the prevalence of breakfast skipping decreased, whereas that of regular exercise increased in both groups. Daily total energy intake did not change between these years. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, breakfast skipping was associated with increased risk of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia in boys (odds ratio [OR], 5.77) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 2.27) in girls. Regular exercise was associated with decreased risk of hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (OR, 0.40) in boys.
Conclusion
Although the prevalence of obesity in boys increased, favorable or constant trends in lipid profiles were observed among Korean adolescents during 1998–2010. Decrease in breakfast skipping and increase in regular exercise may have contributed to these trends.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2016.59.2.65
PMCID: PMC4781734  PMID: 26958065
Adolescent; Dyslipidemias; Obesity; Trends; Life style
4.  Age at menarche in Korean adolescents: trends and influencing factors 
Reproductive Health  2016;13:121.
Background
An increased incidence of central precocious puberty has been recently reported in South Korea, which suggests an ongoing downward trend in pubertal development in the Korean population. We aimed to verify the trend in age at menarche in young Korean women during the last decade and associated factors.
Methods
We analyzed a population-based sample of 3409 Korean girls, aged 10–18 years, using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) II (2001), III (2005), IV (2007–2009), and V (2010 and 2011). Average age at menarche was studied using the Kaplan-Meier survival method and predictors were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards model. The percentage of subjects who had experienced menarche at each age level was compared by using the Cochran-Armitage test.
Results
Overall mean age at menarche was 12.7 years. The percentage of subjects who experienced menarche before the age of 12 years was 21.4 % in 2001 but increased to 34.6 % in 2010/2011 (p < 0.01). In addition, the percentage of girls who experienced menarche before the age of 14 years increased from 76 % in 2001 to 92 % in 2010/2011 (p < 0.005). Adolescents whose mothers who had experienced early menarche (HR 1.48, 95 % CI [1.22–1.80]), and adolescents who were overweight (HR 1.24, 95 % CI [1.04–1.49]) were more likely to have experienced menarche. Additionally, underweight adolescents (HR 0.27, 95 % CI [0.12–0.60]) and adolescents who had a mother having late menarche (HR 0.68, 95 % CI [0.59–0.79]) were expected to have late menarche. None of the socioeconomic factors assessed in our study showed an association with age at menarche.
Conclusions
A downward trend in age at menarche was defined in Korean adolescents during the last decade. Furthermore, influences of genetic and nutritional parameters on individual variance in age at menarche were defined.
doi:10.1186/s12978-016-0240-y
PMCID: PMC5035449  PMID: 27662834
Menarche; Puberty; Secular trend; Adolescents
5.  Metastatic Spermatic Cord Tumor From Colorectal Cancer 
Annals of Coloproctology  2015;31(5):202-204.
Metastatic tumors of the spermatic cord are extremely rare, and the prognosis for patients is typically poor. In the majority of cases, the primary tumor occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a 62-year-old man with a metastatic spermatic cord tumor. The patient complained of groin discomfort with a tender mass in the right inguinal area. An excisional biopsy was performed, and the pathologic finding was a metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma. We performed a systemic evaluation including colonoscopy, abdominal computed tomography, and total-body positron emission tomography, and the primary tumor was confirmed to involve the total colon, including the cecum, sigmoid colon, and rectum. The pathologic finding for rectum revealed a mucinous adenocarcinoma compatible with a metastatic spermatic cord tumor.
doi:10.3393/ac.2015.31.5.202
PMCID: PMC4644709  PMID: 26576400
Spermatic cord; Neoplasm metastasis; Colorectal neoplasms
6.  Autologous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Patients With Severe Recalcitrant Atopic Dermatitis: Long-Term Changes of Clinical Severity and Laboratory Parameters 
This report evaluated long-term changes in clinical severity and laboratory parameters in 3 adult patients with severe recalcitrant atopic dermatitis (AD) who were treated with intramuscular injections of 50 mg of autologous immunoglobulin G (IgG) twice a week for 4 weeks (autologous immunoglobulin therapy, AIGT) and followed up for more than 2 years after the treatment. We observed the following 4 major findings in these 3 patients during the long-term follow-up after AIGT. (1) Two of the 3 patients showed a long-term clinical improvement for more than 36 weeks after AIGT with a maximum decrease in clinical severity score greater than 80% from baseline. (2) These 2 patients also showed long-term decreases in serum total IgE concentrations and peripheral blood eosinophil count for more than 36 weeks after AIGT with a maximum decrease in the two laboratory parameters of allergic inflammatory greater than 70% from baseline. (3) No significant side effect was observed during the 2 years of follow-up period after the AIGT in all 3 patients. (4) Serum levels of IgG anti-idiotype antibodies to the F(ab')2 fragment of autologous IgG administered for the treatment were not significantly changed after AIGT in all 3 patients. These findings suggest that AIGT has long-term favorable effects on both clinical severity and laboratory parameters in selected patients with severe recalcitrant AD. Further studies are required to evaluate the clinical usefulness and therapeutic mechanism of AIGT for AD.
doi:10.4168/aair.2016.8.4.375
PMCID: PMC4853515  PMID: 27126731
Dermatitis, atopic; immunoglobulins; immunomodulation; therapy; antibodies; immunoglobulin G
7.  Phthalate exposure and childhood obesity 
Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and vehicles for cosmetic ingredients. Phthalate metabolites have documented biochemical activity including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and antiandrogenic effects, which may contribute to the development of obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phthalates have significant effects on the development of obesity, especially after prenatal exposure at low doses. Although few studies have examined the effects of phthalate on obesity development in humans, some work has shown that phthalates affect humans and animals similarly. In this paper, we review the possible mechanisms of phthalate-induced obesity, and discuss evidence supporting the role of phthalates in the development of obesity in humans.
doi:10.6065/apem.2014.19.2.69
PMCID: PMC4114051  PMID: 25077088
Diethylhexyl phthalate; Child; Endocrine disruptors; Obesity
8.  Prognostic impact of sarcopenia in patients with diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone 
Abstract
Background
Sarcopenia is known to be related to an increased risk of chemotherapy toxicity and to a poor prognosis in patients with malignancy. We assessed the prognostic role of sarcopenia in patients with diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
Methods
In total, 187 consecutive patients with DLBCL treated with induction rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R‐CHOP) immunochemotherapy were reviewed. Sarcopenia was defined as the lowest sex‐specific quartile of the skeletal muscle index, calculated by dividing the pectoralis muscle area by the height. Clinical outcomes were compared between the sarcopenic and non‐sarcopenic groups. A nomogram was constructed from the Cox regression model for overall survival (OS).
Results
Treatment‐related mortality (21.7 vs. 5.0%, P = 0.002) and early discontinuation of treatment (32.6 vs. 14.9%, P = 0.008) were more common in the sarcopenic group than in the non‐sarcopenic group. The 5 year progression‐free survival (PFS) rates were 35.3% in the sarcopenic group and 65.8% in the non‐sarcopenic group (P < 0.001). The 5 year OS rates were 37.3% in the sarcopenic group and 68.1% in the non‐sarcopenic group (P < 0.001). Sarcopenia and the five variables of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) were independent prognostic factors in a multivariate analysis for PFS and OS and were used to construct the nomogram. The calibration plot showed good agreement between the nomogram predictions and actual observations. The c index of the nomogram (0.80) was higher than those of other prognostic indices (IPI, 0.77, P = 0.009; revised‐IPI, 0.74, P < 0.001; National Comprehensive Cancer Network‐IPI, 0.77, P = 0.062).
Conclusions
Sarcopenia is associated with intolerance to standard R‐CHOP chemotherapy as well as a poor prognosis. Moreover, sarcopenia itself can be included in prognostic models in DLBCL.
doi:10.1002/jcsm.12115
PMCID: PMC4833756  PMID: 27104110
Sarcopenia; Diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma; Toxicity; Prognosis; Nomogram
9.  Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among Korean adolescents: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2016;59(3):114-119.
Purpose
This study aimed to assess the reference values and factors influencing blood lead levels among Korean adolescents.
Methods
The study population consisted of 1,585 adolescents (801 males, 784 females; aged 10-19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013. We analyzed blood lead concentrations in relation to demographic/lifestyle characteristics for all participants. "Reference values" of blood lead levels were calculated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile.
Results
The average "reference value" for blood lead concentrations among Korean adolescents was 2.25 µg/dL (2.49 µg/dL for males, 2.07 µg/dL for females), and the geometric mean of the blood lead concentrations was 1.34 µg/dL. Males had higher blood lead concentrations than females (male, 1.48 µg/dL; female, 1.19 µg/dL; P<0.001). Elementary school students had higher blood lead concentrations than junior and senior high school students (1.44 µg/dL vs. 1.31 µg/dL, P<0.001). Participants living in detached houses had higher blood lead concentrations than those living in apartments (P<0.001) and current smokers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers or participants with secondhand smoke exposure (P<0.05). Additionally, participants with excessive alcohol consumption had higher levels than non-drinkers (P<0.001).
Conclusion
This study provides national reference data on blood lead concentrations stratified by demographic and lifestyle factors among Korean adolescents. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between increased lead exposure and demographic factors including type of housing.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2016.59.3.114
PMCID: PMC4865621  PMID: 27186217
Adolescent; Blood; Lead; Reference value
10.  Strong Parent–Offspring Association of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Families 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(2):293-295.
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components between adolescents and their parents in Korea.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We analyzed data for 4,657 subjects (1,404 fathers, 1,404 mothers, 957 sons, and 892 daughters) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 1998 and 2008.
RESULTS
Compared with adolescents whose parents did not have MetS, the odds ratio (95% CI) for MetS in adolescents with MetS in one parent was 4.2 (2.1–8.5) and 8.7 (3.4–22.3) in those with MetS in both parents. Among obese adolescents, the prevalence of MetS was 18.2% without parental MetS, whereas 29.2% of obese adolescents with MetS in one parent and 53.9% with MetS in both parents also had MetS (P = 0.01 for trend).
CONCLUSIONS
The risk of MetS increased significantly in adolescents with parental MetS and was especially high in those with coexisting obesity and parental MetS.
doi:10.2337/dc11-1283
PMCID: PMC3263909  PMID: 22210569
11.  CT-guided biopsy of lung lesions using two needles in difficult and poorly cooperative patients 
SpringerPlus  2015;4:807.
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy using two needles in difficult and poorly cooperative patients; and to examine the usefulness of the malpositioned first needle in tissue sampling with a second needle. This study included 17 consecutive patients with unsuccessful first insertion of the biopsy needle in the normal lung parenchyma and re-attempted tissue sampling through another puncture site using a second needle with the first needle retained in position until completion of the biopsy. We examined the difficult factors in biopsy that led to a failed first attempt, success rate of tissue sampling, procedure-related complications, and usefulness of the malpositioned needle. There were 1 or multiple difficult factors in all patients. In all 17 patients, core samples were successfully obtained using a second needle. Post-procedure pneumothorax and parenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. The first needle was used as a navigational reference point for lesion localization in all patients and as an anchor restricting the mobility of the lung in patients with pneumothorax or poor breath holding capacity. CT-guided needle biopsy of the lung using a second needle without removing the first malpositioned needle is feasible and safe. During biopsy procedures in difficult or poorly cooperative patients, the malpositioned needle provides a navigational reference point or serves as an anchor to hold the movable lung.
doi:10.1186/s40064-015-1614-2
PMCID: PMC4689726  PMID: 26722627
Biopsy; CT-guided; Lung; Thorax; Two needles
12.  Effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2012;55(8):265-271.
Phytoestrogen is an estrogenic compound that occurs naturally in plants. The most common sources of phytoestrogen are soybean products, which contain high levels of isoflavones. This compound, which has structural similarity with estrogen, can act as an estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist. Animal studies provide evidence of the significant effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development, including altered pubertal timing, impaired estrous cycling and ovarian function, and altered hypothalamus and pituitary functions. Although human studies examining the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development are extremely limited, the results of some studies agree with those of the animal studies. In this paper, we review the possible mechanism of phytoestrogen action and the evidence showing the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development in animal and human studies.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2012.55.8.265
PMCID: PMC3433562  PMID: 22977438
Phytoestrogens; Puberty; Sexual development
13.  Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome risk factors among adolescents 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2012;55(4):128-135.
Purpose
Unbalanced diets and decreased physical activity have contributed to increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adolescents. We have performed a systematic review and data analysis to examine the association between dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome risk factors in adolescents.
Methods
We searched the PubMed and BioMedLib databases for appropriate articles published during the past 10 years and selected 6 articles. The studies reviewed applied factor analysis or cluster analysis to extract dietary patterns. For data analysis, we examined the association between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome risk factors using data of 3,168 adolescents (13 to 18 years) obtained from 4 consecutive Korean Nutrition Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007 to 2009).
Results
Our systematic review confirmed that western dietary patterns are positively associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors such as obesity and elevated triglycerides, while traditional dietary patterns were negatively associated. Data analysis found that the number of adolescents aged 16 to 18 years who had "Rice & Kimchi" dietary pattern decreased, while the number having western dietary patterns increased during the 1998 to 2009 time frame. There were no changes in the dietary patterns in adolescents aged 13 to 15 years. The risk of elevated serum triglycerides and reduced serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was high in the "Rice & Kimchi" dietary pattern compared to the other dietary pattern groups.
Conclusion
Because adolescents' dietary patterns are changing continuously and have long-term effects, further studies on the dietary patterns of adolescents and their health effects into adulthood are necessary.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2012.55.4.128
PMCID: PMC3346835  PMID: 22574073
Dietary pattern; Adolescent; Metabolic syndrome; KNHANES; Systematic review
14.  A Significant Increase in the Incidence of Central Precocious Puberty among Korean Girls from 2004 to 2010 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(11):e0141844.
Background
Few studies have explored the trends in central precocious puberty (CPP) in Asian populations. This study assessed the prevalence and annual incidence of CPP among Korean children.
Methods
Using data from the Korean Health Insurance Review Agency from 2004 to 2010, we reviewed the records of 21,351 children, including those registered with a diagnosis of CPP for the first time and those diagnosed with CPP who were treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs.
Results
The prevalence of CPP was 55.9 per 100,000 girls and 1.7 per 100,000 boys, respectively. The overall incidence of CPP was 15.3 per 100,000 girls, and 0.6 per 100,000 boys. The annual incidence of CPP in girls significantly increased from 3.3 to 50.4 per 100,000 girls; whereas in boys, it gradually increased from 0.3 to 1.2 per 100,000 boys. The annual incidence of CPP in girls consistently increased at all ages year by year, with greater increases at older ages (≥6 years of age), and smaller increases in girls aged < 6 years. In contrast, the annual incidence remained relatively constant in boys aged < 8 years, while a small increase was observed only in boys aged 8 years. The increase of annual incidence showed significant differences depending on age and gender (P <0.0001).
Conclusions
The annual incidence of CPP has substantially increased among Korean girls over the past 7 years. Continued monitoring of CPP trends among Korean children will be informative.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141844
PMCID: PMC4634943  PMID: 26539988
15.  Effects of early prepubertal exposure to bisphenol A on the onset of puberty, ovarian weights, and estrous cycle in female mice 
Objective
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used extensively to manufacture plastics and epoxy resin liners for food and beverage cans. BPA, with properties similar to estrogen, has endocrine-disrupting effects. In the present study, we examined the effects of early prepubertal BPA exposure on the onset of puberty and reproductive parameters such as estrous cycle and reproductive organ weights in female mice.
Methods
Female mice were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day (PND) 8 with BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 100 mg/kg) in sesame oil or with sesame oil alone. Body weight was measured from PND 10 to 70. Vaginal opening and estrous cycle were monitored from PND 20 to 29. Animals were sacrificed at PND 25, 30, and 70, and the ovary and uterus weights were measured.
Results
Early prepubertal exposure to BPA (10 and 100 mg/kg) significantly decreased body weight from PND 18 to 30. BPA treated mice at testing dose levels showed early opening of the vagina compared to the control group. The number of estrous cycle and days of estrus were significantly decreased in high dose (100 mg/kg) BPA treated mice. The ovary weight at PND 25 and 30 was significantly decreased in all BPA treatment groups.
Conclusion
Early prepubertal exposure to BPA accelerated the onset of puberty but decreased reproductive parameters in female mice.
doi:10.5653/cerm.2011.38.2.75
PMCID: PMC3283057  PMID: 22384422
Bisphenol A; Endocrine Disruptors; Puberty; Female; Mice
16.  Effects of human growth hormone on gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in mice 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2010;53(9):845-851.
Purpose
Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been widely used to treat short stature. However, there are some concerns that growth hormone treatment may induce skeletal maturation and early onset of puberty. In this study, we investigated whether rhGH can directly affect the neuronal activities of of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
Methods
We performed brain slice gramicidin-perforated current clamp recording to examine the direct membrane effects of rhGH on GnRH neurons, and a whole-cell voltage-clamp recording to examine the effects of rhGH on spontaneous postsynaptic events and holding currents in immature (postnatal days 13-21) and adult (postnatal days 42-73) mice.
Results
In immature mice, all 5 GnRH neurons recorded in gramicidin-perforated current clamp mode showed no membrane potential changes on application of rhGH (0.4, 1 µg/mL). In adult GnRH neurons, 7 (78%) of 9 neurons tested showed no response to rhGH (0.2-1 µg/mL) and 2 neurons showed slight depolarization. In 9 (90%) of 10 immature neurons tested, rhGH did not induce any membrane holding current changes or spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs). There was no change in sPSCs and holding current in 4 of 5 adult GnRH neurons.
Conclusion
These findings demonstrate that rhGH does not directly affect the GnRH neuronal activities in our experimental model.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2010.53.9.845
PMCID: PMC3010034  PMID: 21189970
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; Growth hormone; Patch clamp technique
17.  The Influence of Weight and Height Status on Psychological Problems of Elementary Schoolchildren through Child Behavior Checklist Analysis 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2009;50(3):340-344.
Purpose
This study aimed to evaluate weight and height status and their relationship with psychological problems among elementary schoolchildren.
Materials and Methods
A total of 405 schoolchildren (211 boys and 194 girls, aged: 10-13 years), living in Seoul, Korea, participated in this study. The participants were divided into 3 groups according to their weight and height standard deviation score. Psychological assessments were performed using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).
Results
In this study, 34.4% of boys and 32.1% of girls showed dissatisfaction with their weight, whereas 26.2% of boys and 30.2% of girls showed dissatisfaction with their height. The obese group showed higher weight dissatisfaction than the normal or underweight groups (p < 0.001). The short stature group showed higher dissatisfaction in their height than the normal group (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in total CBCL problems score according to weight or height status. The underweight and obese groups had higher score for social problems than normal weight group (p < 0.05 respectively). There were no significant differences in each CBCL problem score by height status. As a whole, the prevalence rate of a CBCL total problems score in the clinical range was 3 percent (12/405). These children showed no difference in terms of weight or height, compared with normal students. Among the factors related, only school performance was negatively correlated with the total problems score (p < 0.01).
Conclusion
Approximately one-third of elementary schoolchildren were dissatisfied with their height or weight. Although their total CBCL psychological problem scores were closely related with school performance, they did not show any significant relation with height or weight status. Contrary to the general view, our study suggests that psychological problems of elementary schoolchildren may be related more with their school performance than their body physique.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2009.50.3.340
PMCID: PMC2703755  PMID: 19568594
Height; weight; psychologic problems; elementary schoolchildren
18.  Role of NADH: quinone oxidoreductase-1 in the tight junctions of colonic epithelial cells 
BMB Reports  2014;47(9):494-499.
NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is known to be involved in the regulation of energy synthesis and metabolism, and the functional studies of NQO1 have largely focused on metabolic disorders. Here, we show for the first time that compared to NQO1-WT mice, NQO1-KO mice exhibited a marked increase of permeability and spontaneous inflammation in the gut. In the DSS-induced colitis model, NQO1-KO mice showed more severe inflammatory responses than NQO1-WT mice. Interestingly, the transcript levels of claudin and occludin, the major tight junction molecules of gut epithelial cells, were significantly decreased in NQO1-KO mice. The colons of NQO1-KO mice also showed high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, which are known to affect transcriptional regulation. Taken together, these novel findings indicate that NQO1 contributes to the barrier function of gut epithelial cells by regulating the transcription of tight junction molecules. [BMB Reports 2014;47(9): 494-499]
doi:10.5483/BMBRep.2014.47.9.196
PMCID: PMC4206724  PMID: 24393524
Barrier dysfunction of epithelial cells; Chromosome condensation; Claudin-1; Gut epithelial cell tight junction; Gut inflammation; Histone acetylation/deacetylation; NQO1 knockout mice; Occludin; Transcription
23.  N-ras Mutation Detection by Pyrosequencing in Adult Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia at a Single Institution 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2013;33(3):159-166.
Background
N-ras mutations are one of the most commonly detected abnormalities of myeloid origin. N-ras mutations result in a constitutively active N-ras protein that induces uncontrolled cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. We analyzed N-ras mutations in adult patients with AML at a particular institution and compared pyrosequencing analysis with a direct sequencing method for the detection of N-ras mutations.
Methods
We analyzed 90 bone marrow samples from 83 AML patients. We detected N-ras mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61 using the pyrosequencing method and subsequently confirmed all data by direct sequencing. Using these methods, we screened the N-ras mutation quantitatively and determined the incidence and characteristic of N-ras mutation.
Results
The incidence of N-ras mutation was 7.2% in adult AML patients. The patients with N-ras mutations showed significant higher hemoglobin levels (P=0.022) and an increased incidence of FLT3 mutations (P=0.003). We observed 3 cases with N-ras mutations in codon 12 (3.6%), 2 cases in codon 13 (2.4%), and 1 case in codon 61 (1.2%). All the mutations disappeared during chemotherapy.
Conclusions
There is a low incidence (7.2%) of N-ras mutations in AML patients compared with other populations. Similar data is obtained by both pyrosequencing and direct sequencing. This study showed the correlation between the N-ras mutation and the therapeutic response. However, pyrosequencing provides quantitative data and is useful for monitoring therapeutic responses.
doi:10.3343/alm.2013.33.3.159
PMCID: PMC3646189  PMID: 23667841
N-ras; AML; Pyrosequencing; Bone marrow
24.  Identification of a GDF5 Mutation in a Korean Patient with Brachydactyly Type C without Foot Involvement 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2013;33(2):150-152.
Brachydactyly type C (BDC) is characterized by shortening of the middle phalanges of the index, middle, and little fingers. Hyperphalangy of the index and middle finger and shortening of the first metacarpal can also be observed. BDC is a rare genetic condition associated with the GDF5 gene, and this condition has not been confirmed by genetic analysis so far in the Korean population. Herein, we present a case of a 6-yr-old girl diagnosed with BDC confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. The patient presented with shortening of the second and third digits of both hands. Sequence analysis of the GDF5 gene was performed and the pathogenic mutation, c.1312C>T (p.Arg438Cys), was identified. Interestingly, this mutation was previously described in a patient who presented with the absence of the middle phalanges in the second through fifth toes. However, our patient showed no involvement of the feet. Considering intrafamilial and interfamilial variability, molecular analysis of isolated brachydactyly is warranted to elucidate the genetic origin and establish a diagnosis.
doi:10.3343/alm.2013.33.2.150
PMCID: PMC3589643  PMID: 23483675
Brachydactyly; GDF5 gene; Mutational analysis
25.  Auscultatory Measured Normative Blood Pressure of Korean Adolescents: Using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2007 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(12):809-815.
Background and Objectives
In Korea, there hasn't been any previous literature that describes auscultatory blood pressure (BP) normative tables for adolescents. Using BP data, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), we created normative auscultatory BP percentile tables for Korean adolescents.
Subjects and Methods
A total of 3508 adolescents (boys 1852, girls 1656), aged 10-17 in 2001, 2005 and 2007 from the KNHANES database years, were included. Auscultatory BP measurement was performed, using a Baumanometer Mercury Gravity Sphygmomanometer.
Results
The mean systolic BP of boys was higher than that of girls in adolescents older than 13 years of age, and the mean diastolic BP of boys was higher than that of girls in those older than 15 years. Systolic and diastolic BP was correlated with weight, height and age. Age-specific normative auscultatory systolic and diastolic BP percentiles for boys and girls were completed. The graph that showed age-specific prehypertensive and hypertensive systolic and diastolic BP for boys and girls was presented. For adolescents, the height-specific auscultatory BP percentiles for boys and girls were completed. A graph that shows the height-specific prehypertensive and hypertensive BP for boys and girls was also made.
Conclusion
The auscultatory age-and height-specific BP percentiles for Korean adolescents are established. These can be useful in screening the prehypertension and hypertension of Korean adolescents in a clinical setting.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.12.809
PMCID: PMC3539046  PMID: 23323118
Blood pressure; Adolescent; Auscultation

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