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1.  Arsenic Trioxide as a Vascular Disrupting Agent: Synergistic Effect with Irinotecan on Tumor Growth Delay in a CT26 Allograft Model1 
Translational Oncology  2013;6(1):83-91.
The mechanism of action of arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been shown to be complex, influencing numerous signal transduction pathways and resulting in a vast range of cellular effects. Among these mechanisms of action, ATO has been shown to cause acute vascular shutdown and massive tumor necrosis in a murine solid tumor model like vascular disrupting agent (VDA). However, relatively little is understood about this VDA-like property and its potential utility in developing clinical regimens. We focused on this VDA-like action of ATO. On the basis of the endothelial cell cytotoxicity assay and tubulin polymerization assay, we observed that higher concentrations and longer treatment with ATO reduced the level of α- and β-tubulin and inhibited the polymerization of tubulin. The antitumor action and quantitative tumor perfusion studies were carried out with locally advanced murine CT26 colon carcinoma grown in female BALB/c mice. A single injection of ATO intraperitoneally displayed central necrosis of the tumor tissue by 24 hours. T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance image revealed a significant decrease in tumor enhancement in the ATO-treated group. Similar to other VDAs, ATO treatment alone did not delay the progression of tumor growth; however, ATO treatment after injection of other cytotoxic agent (irinotecan) showed significant additive antitumor effect compared to control and irinotecan alone therapy. In summary, our data demonstrated that ATO acts as a VDA by means of microtubule depolymerization. It exhibits significant vascular shutdown activity in CT26 allograft model and enhances antitumor activity when used in combination with another cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent.
PMCID: PMC3573657  PMID: 23418620
2.  KML001 Displays Vascular Disrupting Properties and Irinotecan Combined Antitumor Activities in a Murine Tumor Model 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e53900.
KML001 is sodium metaarsenite, and has shown cytotoxic activity in human tumor cell lines. The anti-cancer mechanism of KML001 involves cancer cell destruction due to DNA damage at the telomeres of cancer cell chromosomes. In this study, we assessed the vascular disrupting properties of KML001 and investigated whether KML001 as VDA is able to increase anti-tumor activity in irinotecan combined treatment. We used a murine model of the CT26 colon carcinoma cell line. CT26 isograft mice treated intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg KML001 displayed extensive central necrosis of tumor by 24 h. The vascular disrupting effects of KML001 were assessed by dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Gadopentetic acid-diethylene triaminepentaacetic acid contrast enhancement was markedly decreased in KML001-treated mice one day after treatment, whereas persistently high signal enhancement was observed in mice injected with saline. Rate constant Kep value representing capillary permeability was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in mice treated with KML001. Cytoskeletal changes of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with 10 uM KML001 were assessed by immune blotting and confocal imaging. KML001 degraded tubulin protein in HUVECs, which may be related to vascular disrupting properties of KML001. Finally, in the mouse CT26 isograft model, KML001 combined with irinotecan significantly delayed tumor growth as compared to control and irinotecan alone. These results suggest that KML001 is a novel vascular disrupting agent, which exhibits significant vascular shut-down activity and enhances anti-tumor activity in combination with chemotherapy. These data further suggest an avenue for effective combination therapy in treating solid tumors.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053900
PMCID: PMC3543270  PMID: 23326531
3.  Arsenic trioxide induces depolymerization of microtubules in an acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(2):105-112.
Background
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a well-known and effective treatment that can result in clinical remission for patients diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The biologic efficacy of As2O3 in APL and solid tumor cells has been explained through its actions on anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, and apoptotic signaling pathways. We theorize that As2O3 activates a pathway that disrupts microtubule dynamics forming abnormal, nonfunctioning mitotic spindles, thus preventing cellular division. In this study, we investigated how As2O3 induces apoptosis by causing microtubule dysfunction.
Methods
Cultured NB4 cells were treated with As2O3, paclitaxel, and vincristine. Flow cytometric analysis was then performed. An MTT assay was used to determine drug-mediated cytotoxicity. For tubulin polymerization assay, each polymerized or soluble tubulin was measured. Microtubule assembly-disassembly was measured using a tubulin polymerization kit. Cellular microtubules were also observed with fluorescence microscopy.
Results
As2O3 treatment disrupted tubulin assembly resulting in dysfunctional microtubules that cause death in APL cells. As2O3 markedly enhanced the amount of depolymerized microtubules. The number of microtubule posttranslational modifications on an individual tubulin decreased with As2O3 concentration. Immunocytochemistry revealed changes in the cellular microtubule network and formation of polymerized microtubules in As2O3-treated cells.
Conclusion
The microtubules alterations found with As2O3 treatment suggest that As2O3 increases the depolymerized forms of tubulin in cells and that this is potentially due to arsenite's negative effects on spindle dynamics.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2012.47.2.105
PMCID: PMC3389058  PMID: 22783356
Acute promyelocytic leukemia; Arsenic trioxide; Tubulin; Apoptosis; Antimitotic agents
4.  A Nuclear Localization of the Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus NV Protein Is Necessary for Optimal Viral Growth 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e22362.
The nonvirion (NV) protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the 32EGDL35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL in which the 32EGDL35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV) or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP) were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.). While treatment with poly I∶C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL were inhibited by poly I∶C. In addition, both rIHNV-ΔNV and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of 32EGDL35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022362
PMCID: PMC3141031  PMID: 21814578
5.  Identification and Functional Analysis of Salmon Annexin 1 Induced by a Virus Infection in a Fish Cell Line▿  
Journal of Virology  2007;81(24):13816-13824.
In this study, we investigated changes in protein expression of fish cells induced by infection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight proton motive force analysis and identified a novel type of salmon annexin 1 that is induced in fish cells by infection with IPNV. Northern blotting showed that this annexin is overexpressed in IPNV-infected cells compared to control cells, and further analysis revealed that it has a 1,509-bp full-length cDNA sequence with an open reading frame encoding 339 amino acids (GenBank accession no. AY944135). Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that this protein belongs to the annexin 1 subfamily. By applying RNA interference, the mRNA levels of salmon annexin 1 were suppressed and, under these conditions, apoptosis of IPNV-infected cells was significantly increased. While small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment did not affect the levels of the viral proteins significantly until 10 h postinfection, it reduced the titer of extracellular virus to 25% of that of a scrambled siRNA-treated control. These data provide evidence of an antiapoptotic function for salmon annexin 1 that is important for IPNV growth in cultured cells.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02822-06
PMCID: PMC2168874  PMID: 17881442
6.  Prognostic Factors of Response to Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Patients with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(3):417-420.
Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has become the treatment of choice for patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) who do not respond to medical treatment. The aim of this study was to identify factors predictive of outcome after LS for ITP. From May 1997 to December 2002, we performed 30 LS on patients with ITP. A positive response was defined as a postoperative platelet count greater than 50,000/µL and no requirement for maintenance therapy. Chi-square testing was performed to determine the predictive effects of the following variables: age, sex, preoperative response to steroids or immunoglobulin, duration of disease, antiplatelet antibody, platelet associated antibody, and antinuclear antibody. LS was successfully performed in all patients. For a mean follow-up interval of 24.3 months, response to LS was 73.3%. Splenectomy for steroid nonresponders resulted in an inferior complete response rate (10 of 18, 55.6%) as compared with those that experienced relapse after steroid treatment (11 of 12, 91.7%) (p=0.042). The other significant predictor of outcome by univariate analysis was the time between diagnosis and surgery (p=0.049). The other variables showed no significant correlation with successful splenectomy. We conclude that LS can be performed safely with a satisfactory remission rate in patients with ITP who do not respond to medical treatment, and that the factors most frequently associated with surgical success are a response to steroid and disease duration.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.3.417
PMCID: PMC2782196  PMID: 15953862
Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic; Laparoscopy; Splenectomy

Results 1-6 (6)