Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi has been used as traditional medicine for treating inflammatory diseases, hepatitis, tumors, and diarrhea in Asia. Hence, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and determined the molecular mechanism of action of flavonoids isolated from Korean S. baicalensis G. in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to examine cytotoxicity of the flavonoids at various concentrations of 10, 40, 70, and 100 µg/mL. No cytotoxicity was observed in RAW 264.7 cells at these concentrations. Furthermore, the flavonoids decreased production of inflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inhibited phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, to identify the differentially expressed proteins in RAW 264.7 cells of the control, LPS-treated, and flavonoid-treated groups, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were conducted. The identified proteins were involved in the inflammatory response and included PRKA anchor protein and heat shock protein 70 kD. These findings suggest that the flavonoids isolated from S. baicalensis G. might have anti-inflammatory effects that regulate the expression of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway via the MAPK signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.
Tight junctions (TJs) are a mode of cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial or endothelial cells, and serve as a physical barrier to maintenance of homeostasis in body by controlling paracellular transport. Claudins are the most important molecules of the TJs, but paradoxically these proteins are frequently over-expressed in cancers and their overexpression is implicated in the invasive potential of cancer. Hence, we investigated the effects of flavonoids extracted from Orostachys japonicus A. Berger (FEOJ) on TJs and the expression of claudins as well as cancer invasion along with in LnCaP human prostate cancer. FEOJ suppressed cancer cell motility and invasiveness at the concentrations where FEOJ did not show anti-proliferative activity. FEOJ increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) associated with tightening TJs, and suppressed expression of claudin proteins. Furthermore, FEOJ suppressed the activities of MMP-2 and -9 in a dose-dependent manner, which came from the activation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) by FEOJ. FEOJ suppressed migration and invasion by suppressing PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, this study suggest that FEOJ suppresses cancer migration and invasion by tightening TJs through the suppression of claudin expression, and by suppressing MMPs in LnCaP human prostate cancer cells, which at least in part results from the suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Orostachys japonicus; flavonoids; LnCaP cells; tight junctions; Akt
Recently we have demonstrated that anthocyanins from fruits of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (AIMs) have anticancer effects. Here, we investigate the effects of AIMs on cell proliferation and invasion as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which have been linked to cancer metastasis in human uterine cervical cancer HeLa cells. AIMs inhibited the invasion of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. AIMs inhibited MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner. AIMs inhibited the motility of HeLa cells in a wound healing test. AIMs still suppressed NF-κB activation induced by TNF. AIMs also inhibited EMT in HeLa cells. AIMs suppressed vimentin, N-cadherin, and β-catenin expression and induced E-cadherin. AIMs also suppressed expression of β-catenin and Snail, which was regulated by GSK-3. These effects of AIMs were also limited in the HeLa cells treated with TNF. In conclusion, this study indicates that AIMs have anticancer effects by suppressing NF-κB-regulated genes and EMT, which relates to suppression of IκBα phosphorylation and GSK-3 activity, respectively. However, the effects of AIMs were attenuated in the TNF-high condition.
Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenols that impart bright color to fruits, vegetables and plants and have a variety of protective properties, which have generally been attributed to their antioxidant capacity. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins related to neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we determined whether anthocyanins isolated from black soybean seed coats would inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglial cells. Our results showed that anthocyanins significantly inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, without significant cytotoxicity. Anthocyanins also downregulated excessive expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Moreover, anthocyanins inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) by reducing inhibitor of NF-κB alpha degradation as well as phosphorylating extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt. These findings suggest that anthocyanins may offer substantial therapeutic potential for treating inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation.
anthocyanins; BV2; anti-inflammatory activity; NF-κB; MAPK; Akt
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTL) is a distinctive lymphoma characterized by an infiltration of subcutaneous tissue by neoplastic cytotoxic T cells. There was no distinction between TCR alpha/beta phenotype and TCR gamma/delta phenotype, and anthracycline-based chemotherapy was usually used for both. Here, we report a patient with recurrent SPTL who achieved a second long-term complete remission by repeated cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment. From 2000 to 2001, the patient received anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy. However, the treatment did not induce long-term remission. In 2002, he received cyclosporine treatment for about 6 months. This resulted in a 5-year remission that ended in relapse in 2008. He received CsA treatment once again and attained a second long-term remission. This case suggests that re-treatment with CsA can be a good option for relapsed SPTL cases and can result in long-term remission.
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma; Cyclosporine; Treatment outcome
Lonicera japonica THUNB., which abundantly contains polyphenols, has been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years in East Asian countries because of the anti-inflammation properties. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of polyphenol components isolated from Korea L. japonica T. by nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. Polyphenols significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, as well as mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and IL-6. Moreover, polyphenols inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, phosphorylation/degradation of the inhibitor of κB, and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, whereas the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Janus N-terminal kinase were not affected. These results indicate that polyphenol components isolated from Korea L. japonica T. should have anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells through the decrease of proinflammatory mediators expression by suppressing NF-κB and p38 MAPK activity.
Aim of the Study. Citrus species is used in traditional medicine as medicinal herb in several Asian countries including Korea. Flavonioids became known as various properties, such as anti-oxidants, anti-inflammation and anti-cancer, and so forth. The present study, the anti-cancer effect of flavonioids isolated from Citrus aurantium L. in human gastric cancer AGS cells has been investigated. Materials and Methods. The anti-proliferative activity was assayed using MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis was done using flow cytometry and apoptosis detection was done using by hoechst fluorescent staining and Annexin V-propidium iodide double staining. Western blot was used to detect the expression of protein related with cell cycle and apoptosis. Results. Flavonoids isolated from Citrus aurantium L. have the effect of anti proliferation on AGS cells with IC50 value of 99 μg/mL. Flavonoids inhibited cell cycle progression in the G2/M phase and decrease expression level of cyclin B1, cdc 2, cdc 25c. Flavonoids induced apoptosis through activate caspase and inactivate PARP. Conclusions. Flavonoids isolated from Citrus aurantium L. induced G2/M phase arrest through the modulation of cell cycle related proteins and apoptosis through activation caspase. These finding suggest flavonoids isolated from Citrus aurantium L. were useful agent for the chemoprevention of gastric cancer.
Tetraarsenic hexaoxide (As4O6) has been used in Korean folk remedy for the treatment of cancer since the late 1980s, and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is currently used as a chemotherapeutic agent. However, evidence suggests that As4O6-induced cell death pathway was different from that of As2O3. Besides, the anticancer effects and mechanisms of As4O6 are not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the anticancer activities of As4O6 on apoptosis and autophagy in U937 human leukemic cells. The growth of U937 cells was inhibited by As4O6 treatment in a dose- and a time-dependent manner, and IC50 for As4O6 was less than 2 μM. As4O6 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis and Beclin-1-induced autophagy, both of which were significantly attenuated by Bcl-2 augmentation and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. This study suggests that As4O6 should induce Beclin-1-induced autophagic cell death as well as caspase-dependent apoptosis and that it might be a promising agent for the treatment of leukemia.
Agaricus blazei is widely accepted as a traditional medicinal mushroom, and it has been known to exhibit immunostimulatory and anti-cancer activity. However, the apoptotic mechanism in cancer cells is poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated whether A. blazei extract (ABE) exerts antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in human leukemic THP-1 cells. We observed that ABE-induced apoptosis is associated with the mitochondrial pathway, which is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and prolonged c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. In addition, the ABE treatment resulted in the accumulation of cytochrome c in the cytoplasm, an increase in caspase activity, and an upregulation of Bax and Bad. With those results in mind, we found that ABE decreases constitutive NF-κB activation and NF-κB-regulated gene products such as IAP-1 and -2. We concluded that ABE induces apoptosis with ROS-dependent JNK activation and constitutive activated NF-κB inhibition in THP-1 cells.
Citrus fruits have been used as an edible fruit and a traditional medicine since ancient times. In particular, the peels of immature citrus fruits are used widely in traditional herbal medicine in Korea, as they are believed to contain bioactive components exerting anti-inflammatory activity. This study examined whether the crude methanol extract of Citrus aurantium L. (CME) has a suppressive effect on inducible enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The cells were pretreated with the indicated concentrations of CME (5, 10, 20, and 50 μg/mL) and then treated with LPS (1 μg/mL). The results showed that CME (10, 20, and 50 μg/mL) inhibited the LPS- (1 μg/mL) induced mRNA and protein expression of iNOS in macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, the expression of COX-2 was inhibited at the mRNA and protein levels by CME in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, were markedly reduced by CME (10, 20, and 50 μg/mL). Moreover, CME clearly suppressed the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunits, which was correlated with its inhibitory effect on I-κB phosphorylation. These results suggest that CME has anti-inflammatory properties by modulating the expression of COX-2, iNOS, and proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells via the NF-κB pathway.
AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is highly conserved in eukaryotes, where it functions primarily as a sensor of cellular energy status. Recent studies indicate that AMPK activation strongly suppresses cell proliferation in non-malignant cells as well as in tumor cells. In this study, quercetin activated AMPK in MCF breast cancer cell lines and HT-29 colon cancer cells, and this activation of AMPK seemed to be closely related to a decrease in COX-2 expression. The application of a COX-2 inhibitor or cox-2-/- cells supported the idea that AMPK is an upstream signal of COX-2, and is required for the anti-proliferatory and pro-apoptotic effects of quercetin. The suppressive or growth inhibitory effects of quercetin on COX-2 were abolished by treating cancer cells with an AMPK inhibitor Compound C. These results suggest that AMPK is crucial to the anti-cancer effect of quercetin and that the AMPK-COX-2 signaling pathway is important in quercetin-mediated cancer control.
AMP-activated protein kinases; apoptosis; cyclooxygenase-2; growth inhibitors; HT-29 cells; quercetin
Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) has shown to be up-regulated in several cancers and to play a role in angiogenesis and invasion. Most studies regarding TP have focused on cancer cells. Recently, evidences suggest that TP in cancer-infiltrating inflammatory cells (CIICs) also affect the cancer cell behavior. To evaluate the significance of TP expression of CIICs in gastric cancer, we assessed TP expression of cancer cells and CIICs separately using immunohistochemical assay on 116 paraffin-embedded tissue samples from stomach cancer patients and investigated their clinical significance. When subjects were divided into 4 groups according to the TP expression: cancer/matrix (+/+), C/M (+/-), C/M (-/+), and C/M (-/-), intratumoral microvessel density scores were higher in the C/M (+/-) group than in the C/M (-/-) group (p=0.02). For lymph node metastasis and survival, there were no significant differences among the 4 groups. However, there were significant differences in survival (p=0.035) and LN metastasis (p=0.023) between the two groups divided by TP expression of CIICs alone irrespective of TP expression of cancer cells. Taken together, this study suggested the TP expression in CIICs could affect lymph node metastasis and patients' survival in gastric cancer.
Thymidine Phosphorylase; Inflammatory Cell; Matrix; Stomach Cancer
Heptaplatin (SKI-2053 R) is a new platinum analogue, with a better toxicity profile than cisplatin, and has antitumor activity even in cisplatin resistant cell lines. 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) has shown synergy with platinum compounds. This phase II trial was designed to determine the efficacy and toxicities of heptaplatin/ 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) for treating stomach cancer.
Materials and Methods
Thirty-two patients with advanced, measurable gastric adenocarcinomas were enrolled in this trial. The treatment consisted of heptaplatin, 400 mg/m2/day (1 hour IV infusion), on day 1 and 5-FU, 800 mg/m2/day (12 hours IV infusion), on days 1 to 5. The cycles were repeated every 3 weeks.
Of the 26 evaluable patients, 9 had partial responses and 1a complete response (overall response rate, 38%; 95% confidence interval, 19~57%). The median response duration was 23 weeks (range: 4~60 weeks). The median time to progression was 26 weeks (range: 3~68 weeks). The grades III-IV toxicities were mostly hematological toxicities: leucopenia was observed in 11 patients (35%) and thrombocytopenia 4 (13%). No definite neuropathy was observed. Grade I-II nephropathy was also noted: grade I high BUN/creatinine levels occurred in 5 patients (16%), grade II proteinuria 2 (6%), grade I proteinuria 5 (16%). Neutropenic fever developed in 5 patients (16%) and 1 died of pneumonia in a neutropenic state.
This study suggests that the regimen of Heptaplatin/5-FU should be effective and have a favorable toxicity profile for the patients suffering with advanced stomach cancer.
Stomach neoplasms; Heptaplatin (SKI-2053 R); 5-FU; Chemotherapy
We conducted a phase II study of docetaxel and ifosfamide chemotherapy for patients with platinum-resistant or refractory non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to evaluate the response and toxicity profiles as a salvage treatment.
Materials and Methods
Between July 2000 and July 2004, 40 patients who had previously received platinum-based regimen as the first-line or second-line therapy were enrolled in this study. The treatment consisted of a docetaxel 75 mg/m2 intravenous infusion on day 1 and intravenous ifosfamide 3 g/m2 with Mesna® uroprotectione on day 1 through 3. This regimen was repeated every 3 weeks.
One hundred thirty cycles of treatment were given, with a median of 3 cycles (range: 2~6 cycles). All the patients were evaluable for the response rate and toxicity profile. The major toxicity was myelosuppression. Grade 3~4 neutropenia occurred in 30 patients (75%) during treatment. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 16 patients (40%). Five of 40 patients (12.5%) had a partial response (95% confidence interval, 3.3~21.7%). The median time to disease progression was 2.65 months (range: 2.02~3.20 months), and the median survival was 5.24 months (range: 2.99~7.49 months).
Salvage chemotherapy with docetaxel and ifosfamide showed a low efficacy and a high proportion of severe neutropenia in patients with platinum-resistant or refractory advanced NSCLC.
Non-small cell lung cancer; Chemotherapy; Docetaxel; Ifosfamide; Salvage therapy
A 25-yr-old woman presented with a right pleural effusion. Destruction of 9th through 12th ribs, adjacent vertebral bodies, and transverse processes was noted on plain radiograph and a large low-attenuated, irregular shaped mass lesion with peripheral rim enhancement, destroying vertebral body and transverse process, was revealed on the computed tomographic scan. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal on T1- weighted image and iso- and low signal on T2-weighted image for the mass lesion replacing the vertebral bony cortex and marrow space. An open rib biopsy revealed the histopathological changes of Gorham's disease (essential osteolysis), even though only bloody fluid filling the empty space and rib and vertebral transverse process destruction were grossly observed on operation. Even though there was no definite response to radiotherapy and pleurodesis, the patient showed stable condition up to 20 months after diagnosis.
Cutaneous nocardiosis, which usually manifests in the form of pustules, abscesses, or subcutaneous nodules, is occasionally found in immunocompromised patients. A 59-yr-old Korean man with myasthenia gravis and thymoma developed nodular skin lesions on his trunk. Histopathologically, abscess formation with a dense infiltrate of neutrophils and many cytophagic histiocytes were observed. Numerous filamentous organisms, which turned out to be Nocardia asteroides by culture, were also found. After sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim therapy, all of the skin lesions rapidly decreased in size, with a marked diminution of the number of cytophagic histiocytes, and cleared up within four months. On reporting a case of cutaneous nocardiosis showing unusual histopathologic findings, we considered that reactive conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis of the cutaneous cytophagocytosis, and that nocardiosis could be one of the diseases showing reactive cytophagocytosis.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is an essential nutrient of most living tissues that readily acts as a strong reducing agent, which is abundant in fruits and vegetables. Although, it inhibits cell growth in many human cancer cells in vitro, treatment in cancer is still controversial. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of the inhibitory effect of vitamin C on AGS cell growth, and protein profiles in AGS cells after exposure to vitamin C treatment, by using proteomic tools.
Vitamin C showed a cytotoxic effect on AGS cells (IC50 300 μg/mL) and, 20 differentially expressed proteins (spot intensities which show ≥2 fold change and statistically significant, p<0.05 between the control and vitamin-C treated group) were successfully identified by assisted laser desorption/ ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Of the 20 proteins, six were up-regulated and fourteen were down-regulated. Specifically, 14-3-3σ, 14-3-3ϵ, 14-3-3δ, tropomyosin alpha-3 chain and tropomyosin alpha-4 chain were down-regulated and peroxiredoxin-4 and thioredoxin domain-containing proteins 5 were up-regulated. The identified proteins are mainly involved in cell mobility, antioxidant and detoxification, signal transduction and protein metabolism. Further, the expressions of 14-3-3 isoforms were verified with immuno-blotting analysis.
Our proteome results suggest that the apoptosis related proteins were involved in promoting and regulating cell death of AGS cells, and might be helpful to understand the molecular mechanism of vitamin C on AGS cell growth inhibition.
Vitamin C; Gastric cancer; AGS cells; Proteome analysis; 14-3-3 isoforms