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1.  Psoas Abscess Secondary to Renal Tuberculosis in a Middle-aged Woman 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(11):801-804.
A psoas muscle abscess is a relatively uncommon condition that can present with vague clinical features. With the decreasing prevalence of tuberculosis, psoas abscesses of tuberculous origin are currently rare in developed countries, but are typically caused by tuberculosis of the spine. Here, an unusual case of a psoas abscess secondary to renal tuberculosis in a middle-aged woman is presented. The abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage followed by nephrectomy and additional antituberculous medications.
PMCID: PMC3830976  PMID: 24255765
Abdominal pain; Psoas abscess; Renal tuberculosis
2.  An Aspergilloma Mistaken for a Pelviureteral Stone on Nonenhanced CT: A Fungal Bezoar Causing Ureteral Obstruction 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(3):216-218.
Fungus balls rarely cause upper urinary tract obstruction, and they are most often found in patients with diabetes mellitus or impaired immunity. The computed tomography (CT) findings of fungal bezoars of the urinary tract are nonspecific and have rarely been described, while in most cases, radiolucent filling defects are observed on excretory or retrograde urography. Here, an unusual case of an aspergilloma causing ureteral obstruction is presented; it was initially mistaken for a pelviureteral stone on nonenhanced CT.
PMCID: PMC2855446  PMID: 20414401
Aspergillosis; Spiral computed tomography; Ureteral obstruction
3.  Renocolic Fistula Secondary to a Perinephric Abscess: A Late Complication of a Forgotten Double J Stent 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(5):960-962.
Late complications of ureteral stents are frequent, and longer indwelling times are associated with an increased frequency of complications. Although there are reports of various complications of long-term indwelling ureteral stents, a renocolic fistula secondary to a perinephric abscess resulting from an indwelling ureteral stent has not been reported. Here, we present a fatal case of a renocolic fistula secondary to a perinephric abscess caused by an encrusted forgotten double J stent in a functionally solitary kidney.
PMCID: PMC2752785  PMID: 19795000
Complications; Catheters, Indwelling; Urinary Fistula
4.  Subject-specific Myoelectric Pattern Classification of Functional Hand Movements for Stroke Survivors 
In this study, we developed a robust subject-specific electromyography (EMG) pattern classification technique to discriminate intended manual tasks from muscle activation patterns of stroke survivors. These classifications will enable volitional control of assistive devices, thereby improving their functionality. Twenty subjects with chronic hemiparesis participated in the study. Subjects were instructed to perform six functional tasks while their muscle activation patterns were recorded by ten surface electrodes placed on the forearm and hand of the impaired limb. In order to identify intended functional tasks, a pattern classifier using linear discriminant analysis was applied to the EMG feature vectors. The classification accuracy was mainly affected by the impairment level of the subject. Mean classification accuracy was 71.3% for moderately impaired subjects (Chedoke Stage of Hand 4 and 5), and 37.9% for severely impaired subjects (Chedoke Stage of Hand 2 and 3). Most misclassification occurred between grip tasks of similar nature, for example, among pinch, key, and three-fingered grips, or between cylindrical and spherical grips. EMG signals from the intrinsic hand muscles significantly contributed to the inter-task variability of the feature vectors, as assessed by the inter-task squared Euclidean distance, thereby indicating the importance of intrinsic hand muscles in functional manual tasks. This study demonstrated the feasibility of the EMG pattern classification technique to discern the intent of stroke survivors. Future work should concentrate on the construction of a subject-specific EMG classification paradigm that carefully considers both functional and physiological impairment characteristics of each subject in the target task selection and electrode placement procedures.
PMCID: PMC4010155  PMID: 20876030
Stroke; Electromyography (EMG); Pattern classification; Hand; Functional task
5.  Triterpenoid Saponins Isolated from Platycodon grandiflorum Inhibit Hepatitis C Virus Replication 
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to significant adverse effects and emergence of resistant strains of currently developed anti-HCV agents, plant extracts have been considered to be potential sources of new bioactive compounds against HCV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional effects of triterpenoid saponins contained in the root extract of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) on viral enzyme activities and replication in both HCV replicon cells and cell culture grown HCV- (HCVcc-) infected cells. Inhibitory activities of triterpenoid saponins from PG were verified by NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase assay and were further confirmed in the context of HCV replication. Six triterpenoid saponins (platycodin D, platycodin D2, platycodin D3, deapioplatycodin D, deapioplatycodin D2, and platyconic acid A), PG saponin mixture (PGSM), were identified as active components exerting anti-HCV activity. Importantly, PGSM exerted synergistic anti-HCV activity in combination with either interferon-α or NS5A inhibitors. We demonstrated that combinatorial treatment of PGSM and IFN-α efficiently suppressed colony formation with significant reduction in drug resistant variant of HCV. These data suggest that triterpenoid saponin may represent a novel anti-HCV therapeutic agent.
PMCID: PMC3893781  PMID: 24489585
6.  Evaluation of circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium vivax to estimate its prevalence in the Republic of Korea: an observational study of incidence 
Malaria Journal  2013;12:448.
Plasmodium vivax re-emerged in 1993. Although the number of infections has been steadily decreasing, it is likely to continue to affect public health until it is eradicated. The aim of this study is to measure anti-circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antibody and compare malaria prevalence. As to understand the prevalence, an epidemiology study has to be conducted in the Republic of Korea.
A total of 1,825 and 1,959 blood samples were collected in 2010 and 2011, respectively, from the inhabitants of Ganghwa and Cheorwon counties. The antibody titers of the inhabitants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant protein purified from Escherichia coli transformed with a CSP gene-inserted pET-28a(+) expression vector. Microscopic examination was performed to identify malaria parasites.
The annual parasite incidence (API) in Ganghwa decreased from 4.28 in 2010 to 2.23 in 2011, and that in Cheorwon decreased from 1.88 in 2010 to 1.15 in 2011. The antibody-positive CSP rate in these areas also decreased from 18.14% (331/1825) in 2010 to 15.36% (301/1959) in 2011. Pearson analysis showed a strong correlation between the API and the antibody-positive CSP rate in these areas (r = 1.000, P < 0.01). The intensity of the immune responses of the inhabitants of Cheorwon, as measured by the mean optical density, decreased from 0.9186 ± 0.0472 in 2010 to 0.7035 ± 0.0457 in 2011 (P = 0.034), but increased in Ganghwa from 0.7649 ± 0.0192 in 2010 to 0.8237 ± 0.1970 in 2011 (P = 0.006). The immune response increased according to age (r = 0.686, P = 0.041).
The positive CSP-ELISA rate was closely related to the API in the study areas. This suggests that seroepidemiological studies based on CSP-ELISA may be helpful in estimating the malaria prevalence. Moreover, such studies can be used to establish and evaluate malaria control and eradication programmes in high-risk areas in Korea.
PMCID: PMC3878750  PMID: 24330352
7.  Whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer: a preliminary report 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2013;31(4):199-205.
To assess the clinical efficacy and toxicity of whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) for high-risk prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods
Patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed. The study included patients who had undergone WP-IMRT with image guidance using electronic portal imaging devices and/or cone-beam computed tomography. The endorectal balloon was used in 93% of patients. Patients received either 46 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 76 Gy to the prostate in 2 Gy daily fractions, or 44 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 72.6 Gy to the prostate in 2.2 Gy fractions.
The study cohort included 70 patients, of whom 55 (78%) had a Gleason score of 8 to 10 and 50 (71%) had a prostate-specific antigen level > 20 ng/mL. The androgen deprivation therapy was combined in 62 patients. The biochemical failure-free survival rate was 86.7% at 2 years. Acute any grade gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates were 47% and 73%, respectively. The actuarial rate of late grade 2 or worse toxicity at 2 years was 12.9% for GI, and 5.7% for GU with no late grade 4 toxicity.
WP-IMRT was well tolerated with no severe acute or late toxicities, resulting in at least similar biochemical control to that of the historic control group with a small field. The long-term efficacy and toxicity will be assessed in the future, and a prospective randomized trial is needed to verify these findings.
PMCID: PMC3912233  PMID: 24501707
Prostate neoplasms; Intensity-modulated radiotherapy; Complications
8.  Basal cell adenocarcinoma of the salivary gland: a morphological and immunohistochemical comparison with basal cell adenoma with and without capsular invasion 
Diagnostic Pathology  2013;8:171.
It is often difficult to diagnose salivary gland tumors that exhibit basaloid features differentially. The aim of this study was to identify additional morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics that can aid the diagnosis of basal cell adenocarcinoma (BCAC) of the salivary gland.
Methods and results
In total, 29 basal cell neoplasms [eight BCACs, 11 basal cell adenomas (BCAs) with capsular invasion, and 10 BCAs without capsular invasion] and 10 cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) were subjected to histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses for CK7, CK5/6, SMA, p63, calponin, p53, c-erbB2, CD117, β-catenin, EGFR, VEGF, Ki-67, and S100P protein expression. Compared to BCA without capsular invasion, the BCACs and BCAs with capsular invasion were more likely to be larger and have solid or cribriform patterns. Most BCACs and BCAs exhibited nuclear β-catenin expression. In all basal cell neoplasm cases, the clinical course after surgery with or without radiotherapy was indolent. β-catenin, CK5/6, CD117, and S100P protein were helpful for differentiating basal cell neoplasms from ACC.
BCAs with capsular invasion shared several pathological features with BCACs, including a large size and frequent cribriform patterns but the malignant potential of these tumors seems highly limited and should be reexamined. β-catenin immunostaining may aid the differential diagnosis between basal cell neoplasms and ACCs.
Virtual slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
PMCID: PMC4016524  PMID: 24143938
Salivary gland neoplasm; Basal cell adenocarcinoma; Basal cell adenoma; β-catenin; Capsular invasion
9.  Effect of Transurethral Resection With Hydrodistention for the Treatment of Ulcerative Interstitial Cystitis 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(10):682-688.
Many treatment options to help relieve the symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) are available, but none are effective. Because no reports of transurethral ulcer resection with hydrodistention are available, we assessed the effects of such combined surgery for ulcerative IC.
Materials and Methods
Between June 2006 and June 2011, 87 female patients with IC who underwent transurethral resection with hydrodistention and were followed up for at least 12 months were included. Improvements in patients' voiding symptoms and pain were analyzed retrospectively by using a 3-day micturition chart and a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the operation. The global response assessment (GRA) was used to assess treatment satisfaction.
The mean age of the 87 female patients was 59.1±10.1 years, and the mean follow-up period was 26.7±14.4 months. Mean maximum functional bladder capacity increased from 168.4±92.4 mL to 276.3±105.4 mL (1 month) and to 227.3±91.7 mL (12 months). The mean frequency of voiding decreased from 17.2±8.5 before to 10.6±5.3 after (1 month) surgery; however, it increased again to 13.3±4.8 at 12 months. The 10-point VAS score decreased from 9.1±0.8 to 1.2±0.3 (1 month); however, it increased again to 2.5±0.4 (3 months), 3.2±0.4 (6 months), and 5.3±0.5 (12 months) (p<0.001). Symptom improvement based on the GRA was observed in 83 of the 87 patients (95.4%) at 1 month and in 55 of 87 patients (63.2%) at 12 months.
Transurethral resection with hydrodistention is an effective treatment option for ulcerative IC because it provides improvements in voiding symptoms and pain.
PMCID: PMC3806992  PMID: 24175042
Interstitial cystitis; Treatment outcome
10.  Treatment results of breast cancer patients with locoregional recurrence after mastectomy 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2013;31(3):138-146.
To analyze the results of locoregional and systemic therapy in the breast cancer patients with locoregional recurrence (LRR) after mastectomy.
Materials and Methods
Seventy-one patients who received radiotherapy for isolated LRR after mastectomy between January 1999 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 71 patients, 59 (83.1%) underwent wide excision and radiotherapy and 12 (16.9%) received radiotherapy alone. Adjuvant hormonal therapy was given to 45 patients (63.4%). Oncologic outcomes including locoregional recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors were analyzed.
Median follow-up time was 49.2 months. Of the 71 patients, 5 (7%) experienced second isolated LRR, and 40 (56%) underwent distant metastasis (DM). The median DFS was 35.6 months, and the 3- and 5-year DFS were 49.1% and 28.6%, respectively. The median OS was 86.7 months, and the 5-year OS was 62.3%. Patients who received hormone therapy together showed better 5-year DFS and OS than the patients treated with locoregional therapy only (31.6% vs. 22.1%, p = 0.036; 66.5% vs. 55.2%, p = 0.022). In multivariate analysis, higher N stage at recurrence was a significant prognostic factor for DFS and OS. Disease free interval (≤30 months vs. >30 months) from mastectomy to LRR was also significant for OS. The patients who received hormone therapy showed superior DFS and showed trend to better OS.
DM was a major pattern of failure after the treatment of LRR after mastectomy. The role of systemic treatment for LRR after mastectomy should be investigated at prospective trials.
PMCID: PMC3797273  PMID: 24137559
Breast cancer; Locoregional recurrence; Mastectomy
11.  Impairment in Task-Specific Modulation of Muscle Coordination Correlates with the Severity of Hand Impairment following Stroke 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68745.
Significant functional impairment of the hand is commonly observed in stroke survivors. Our previous studies suggested that the inability to modulate muscle coordination patterns according to task requirements may be substantial after stroke, but these limitations have not been examined directly. In this study, we aimed to characterize post-stroke impairment in the ability to modulate muscle coordination patterns across tasks and its correlation with hand impairment. Fourteen stroke survivors, divided into a group with severe hand impairment (8 subjects) and a group with moderate hand impairment (6 subjects) according to their clinical functionality score, participated in the experiment. Another four neurologically intact subjects participated in the experiment to serve as a point of comparison. Activation patterns of nine hand and wrist muscles were recorded using surface electromyography while the subjects performed six isometric tasks. Patterns of covariation in muscle activations across tasks, i.e., muscle modules, were extracted from the muscle activation data. Our results showed that the degree of reduction in the inter-task separation of the multi-muscle activation patterns was indicative of the clinical functionality score of the subjects (mean value = 26.2 for severely impaired subjects, 38.1 for moderately impaired subjects). The values for moderately impaired subjects were much closer to those of the impaired subjects (mean value = 46.1). The number of muscle modules extracted from the muscle activation patterns of a subject across six tasks, which represents the degree of motor complexity, was found to be correlated with the clinical functionality score (R = 0.68). Greater impairment was also associated with a change in the muscle module patterns themselves, with greater muscle coactivation. A substantial reduction in the degrees-of-freedom of the multi-muscle coordination post-stroke was apparent, and the extent of the reduction, assessed by the stated metrics, was strongly associated with the level of clinical impairment.
PMCID: PMC3712930  PMID: 23874745
12.  Polymorphism of the parasite lactate dehydrogenase gene from Plasmodium vivax Korean isolates 
Malaria Journal  2013;12:166.
Assaying for the parasitic lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is widely used as a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), but the efficacy of its serological effectiveness in diagnosis, that is antibody detection ability, is not known. The genetic variation of Korean isolates was analysed, and recombinant protein pLDH was evaluated as a serodiagnostic antigen for the detection of Plasmodium vivax malaria.
Genomic DNA was purified, and the pLDH gene of P. vivax was amplified from blood samples from 20 patients. The samples came from five epidemic areas: Bucheon-si, Gimpo-si, and Paju-si of Gyeonggi Province, Gangwha-gun of Incheon metropolitan city, and Cheorwon-gun of Gangwon Province, South Korea, from 2010 to 2011. The antigenicity of the recombinant protein pLDH was tested by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Sequence analysis of 20 Korean isolates of P. vivax showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of 951 nucleotides encoded a deduced protein of 316 amino acids (aa). This ORF showed 100% identity with the P. vivax Belem strain (DQ060151) and P. vivax Hainan strain (FJ527750), 89.6% homology with Plasmodium falciparum FCC1_HN (DQ825436), 90.2% homology with Plasmodium berghei (AY437808), 96.8% homology with Plasmodium knowlesi (JF958130), and 90.2% homology with Plasmodium reichenowi (AB122147). A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 456 (T to C) was also observed in the isolate from Bucheon, but it did not change in the amino acid sequence. The expressed recombinant protein had a molecular weight of approximately 32 kDa, as analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Of the 40 P. vivax patients, 34 (85.0%) were positive by ELISA.
The pLDH genes of 19 isolates of P. vivax were identical, except one for SNP at nucleotide 456. This observation indicates that this gene is relatively stable. Based on these results, the relationship between antibody production against pLDH and the pattern of disease onset should be investigated further before using pLDH for serodiagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3665548  PMID: 23688062
13.  The application of PET-CT to post-mastectomy regional radiation therapy using a deformable image registration 
To evaluate the utility of the preoperative PET-CT using deformable image registration (DIR) in the treatment of patients with locally advanced breast cancer and to find appropriate radiotherapy technique for further adequate treatment of axillary nodal area.
Sixty-five breast cancer patients who had level II, III axillary or supraclavicular lymph node metastasis on 18F-FDG PET-CT and received postoperative radiotherapy after modified radical mastectomy were enrolled. One radiation oncologist contoured normal organs (axillary vessels, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head) and involved lymph nodes on PET-CT and simulation CT slices. After contouring, deformable image registration of PET-CT on simulation CT was carried out. To evaluate the performance of the DIR, Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Center of mass (COM) were used. We created two plans, one was the historically designed three field plan and the other was the modified plan based on the location of axillary lymph node, and we compared the doses that irradiated the axillary lymph nodes.
The DSCs for axillary artery, axillary vein, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head were 0.43 ± 0.15, 0.39 ± 0.20, 0.85 ± 0.10, 0.72 ± 0.20 and 0.77 ± 0.20, respectively. The distances between the COMs of axillary artery, axillary vein, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head in simulation CT and from PET-CT were 13.0 ±7.1, 20.2 ± 11.2, 4.4 ± 6.3, 3.7 ± 6.7, and 9.5 ± 25.0 mm, respectively. In the historically designed plan, only 57.7% of level II lymph nodes received more than 95% of prescribed dose and the coverage was improved to 70.0% with the modified plan (p < 0.01). For level III lymph nodes, the volumes received more than 95% of prescribed dose were similar in both plans (96.8 % vs 97.9%, p = 0.35).
Deformable image registration of PET-CT on simulation CT was helpful in the identification of the location of the preoperatively involved axillary lymph node. Historically designed three-field plan was not adequate to treat the axillary level II lymph node area. Novel treatment technique based on the location of axillary lymph node from PET-CT using DIR can result in more adequate coverage of nodal area.
PMCID: PMC3698158  PMID: 23621896
Breast cancer; Deformable image registration (DIR); Radiotherapy; PET-CT
14.  Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Cell Cycle Related Protein Expression in Tonsillar Squamous Cell Carcinomas of Korean Patients with Clinicopathologic Analysis 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(2):148-157.
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) has recently been characterized as a distinct subset with a favorable prognosis. The prevalence and clinicopathologic significance of HPV-related TSCC in Koreans are not well known.
HPV in situ hybridization (ISH) accompanied by p53, p16, pRb, and cyclin D1 immunohistochemical staining were performed on 89 resection cases of TSCC from 2000 through 2010.
HPV was detected by ISH in 59 of 89 cases (66.3%). HPV-positive TSCCs were more common in younger ages (p=0.005), and tumor sizes were smaller in the HPV-positive compared to the HPV-negative group (p=0.040). Positive HPV staining was significantly correlated with p16 expression (p<0.001), pRb inactivation (p=0.003), and cyclin D1 down-regulation (p<0.001) but not with p53 expression (p=0.334). Seventeen cases that showed p16-immunopositivity with HPV-negativity by ISH were retested by HPV typing; HPV DNA was not detected in all cases. There was no significant difference between HPV-positive and HPV-negative patients either in the disease-specific survival (DSS, p=0.857) or overall survival (p=0.910). Furthermore, pRb-inactivated cases showed better DSS (p=0.023), and p53-positive cases showed worse DSS (p=0.001).
Although high HPV prevalence was noted, it was not correlated with histopathologic findings or survival benefit. In addition to p53 expression, pRb inactivation along with p16 overexpression and down-regulation of cyclin D1 are thought to be important pathogenetic steps for developing TSCCs.
PMCID: PMC3647127  PMID: 23667374
Human papillomavirus; Tonsillar neoplasm; Carcinoma, squamous cell; Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16; Tumor suppressor protein p53
15.  Cases report of unicentric Castleman's disease: revisit of radiotherapy role 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2013;31(1):48-54.
Castleman's disease or angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. Complete surgical resection was recommended in unicentric Castleman's disease. Radiotherapy was considered alternative therapeutic option. However, there have been consistent favorable responses to radiotherapy. We also experienced two cases of uncentric Castleman's disease salvaged successfully with radiotherapy. This paper described these cases and reviewed the literature about Castleman's disease treated with radiotherapy. Reviewed cases showed that radiotherapy is a successful treatment option in unicentric Castleman's disease. Furthermore, our report confirms the radiotherapy role in uncentric Castleman's disease.
PMCID: PMC3633231  PMID: 23620869
Castleman's disease; Hyaline-vascular; Radiotherapy
16.  Computational Modeling with Fluid-Structure Interaction of the Severe M1 Stenosis Before and After Stenting 
Neurointervention  2013;8(1):23-28.
Image-based computational models with fluid-structure interaction (FSI) can be used to perform plaque mechanical analysis in intracranial artery stenosis. We described a process in FSI study applied to symptomatic severe intracranial (M1) stenosis before and after stenting.
Materials and Methods
Reconstructed 3D angiography in STL format was transferred to Magics for smoothing of vessel surface and trimming of branch vessels and to HyperMesh for generating tetra volume mesh from triangular surface-meshed 3D angiogram. Computational analysis of blood flow in the blood vessels was performed using the commercial finite element software ADINA Ver 8.5. The distribution of wall shear stress (WSS), peak velocity and pressure was analyzed before and after intracranial stenting.
The wall shear stress distributions from Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation with rigid wall assumption as well as FSI simulation before and after stenting could be compared. The difference of WSS between rigid wall and compliant wall model both in pre- and post-stent case is only minor except at the stenosis region. These WSS values were greatly reduced after stenting to 15~20 Pa at systole and 3~5 Pa at end-diastole in CFD simulation, which are similar in FSI simulations.
Our study revealed that FSI simulation before and after intracranial stenting was feasible despite of limited vessel wall dimension and could reveal change of WSS as well as flow velocity and wall pressure.
PMCID: PMC3601276  PMID: 23515355
Cerebral artery; Atherosclerosis; Stenting; Computational modeling; Fluid structure interaction
17.  Efficacy and tolerability of combined medication of two different antimuscarinics for treatment of adults with idiopathic overactive bladder in whom a single agent antimuscarinic therapy failed 
Recent studies have investigated a combination of two antimuscarinics for adult neurogenic bladder managed with clean intermittent catheterization or pediatric refractory overactive bladder (OAB). We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of this strategy in adults with idiopathic OAB.
We reviewed 49 patients with idiopathic OAB who received combined antimuscarinic medication. Patients had serially received different kinds of antimuscarinics as monotherapy, but wished to take combined medication due to a lack of sufficient subjective improvement in urgency, even with dosage escalation. Efficacy was measured by changes of episodes of urgency, daytime voiding, nocturia and mean voided volume before and after the addition of the second antimuscarinic.
The mean duration of combined medication was 9.3 months. After adding the second antimuscarinic, urgency per day decreased from 3.8 to 1.9 (p < 0.001) and daytime voiding decreased from 10.4 to 7.4 (p < 0.001). The number of nocturia episodes and the mean voided volume also improved, although there was no statistical significance. Efficacy did not differ between the 29 cases, with non-selective and non-selective drugs and 20 cases with non-selective and M3 selective drugs. Thirty-three (67.3%) patients reported to have benefited from combined medication. Maximal flow rate and post-void residual volume did not change in either of the sexes. Eleven (22.4%) patients discontinued the combination due to continued ineffectiveness and dry mouth.
This retrospective study suggests that combined medication can help adults with refractory idiopathic OAB. Combined medication was tolerated in most of our patients.
PMCID: PMC3650812  PMID: 23671514
18.  Postoperative radiotherapy for ependymoma 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2012;30(4):158-164.
To evaluated the patterns of failure, survival rate, treatment-related toxicity and prognostic factors in postoperative radiotherapy of patients with ependymoma.
Materials and Methods
Thirty patients who underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy for ependymoma between the period of June 1994 and June 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The age of patients ranged from 21 months to 66 years (median, 19 years). Seventeen patients had grade II ependymoma, and 13 had grade III anaplastic ependymoma according to the World Health Organization grading system. The postoperative irradiation was performed with 4 or 6 MV photon beam with median dose of 52.8 Gy (range, 45 to 63 Gy), and radiation field including 2 cm beyond the preoperative tumor volume. Median follow-up period was 51 months (range, 12 to 172 months).
Fourteen out of 30 (46.7%) patients experienced recurrence, and 12 of those died. Among those 14 patients who experienced recurrence, 11 were in-field and 3 were out-of-field recurrence. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 66.7% and 56.1%, respectively. On univariate analysis, tumor grade was a statistically significant prognostic factor for OS and PFS. There were two complications after surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, including short stature and facial palsy on the left side.
We observed good survival rates, and histologic grade was a prognostic factor affecting the OS and PFS. Almost all recurrence occurred in primary tumor site, thus we suggest further evaluation on intensity-modulated radiotherapy or stereotatic radiosurgery for high-risk patients such as who have anaplastic ependymoma.
PMCID: PMC3546283  PMID: 23346534
Ependymoma; Anaplastic ependymoma; Radiotherapy; Histologic grade; Stereotatic radiosurgery
19.  Prognostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with pathologically positive neck lymph node 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2012;30(4):173-181.
To evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative neck lymph node (LN) assessment with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients with pathologically positive LN.
Materials and Methods
In total, 47 OSCC patients with pathologically positive LN were retrospectively reviewed with preoperative 18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI. All patients underwent surgical resection, neck dissection and postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy between March 2002 and October 2010. Histologic correlation was performed for findings of 18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI.
Thirty-six (76.6%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed with neck LN metastasis by 18F-FDG PET and 32 (68.1%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed by CT/MRI. Follow-up ranged from 20 to 114 months (median, 56 months). Clinically negative nodal status evaluated by 18F-FDG PET or CT/MRI revealed a trend toward better clinical outcomes in terms of overall survival, disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, regional nodal recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates even though the trends were not statistically significant. However, there was no impact of neck node standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on clinical outcomes. Notably, SUVmax showed significant correlation with tumor size in LN (p < 0.01, R2 = 0.62). PET and CT/MRI status of LN also had significant correlation with the size of intranodal tumor deposit (p < 0.05, R2 = 0.37 and p < 0.01, R2 = 0.48, respectively).
18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI at the neck LNs might improve risk stratification in OSCC patients with pathologically positive neck LN in this study, even without significant prognostic value of SUVmax.
PMCID: PMC3546285  PMID: 23346536
Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma; Neck lymph node; Magnetic resonance imaging; X-ray computed tomography; 18F-FDG PET; Prognostic value
20.  Clinical Features and Disability Milestones in Multiple System Atrophy and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy 
Journal of Movement Disorders  2012;5(2):42-47.
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder that are known to display diverse clinical features and disease progression. We aim to characterize the clinical features and disease progression in patients with MSA and PSP by using a number of relevant disability milestones in Koreans. Forty-one patients with MSA and 14 patients with PSP had been enrolled. The mean age at onset of MSA-C, MSA-P and PSP was 56.7 ± 7.8, 62.5 ± 8.0, 68.9 ± 6.1 years respectively. The most commonly reported symptom at disease onset is disequilibrium/dizziness in MSA-C, tremor in MSA-P and frequent falling in PSP. The mean duration of reaching milestones after disease onset in MSA-C were as followings: 20.8 (urinary incontinence), 22.9 (frequent falling), 27.8 (wheelchair bound), 31.8 (dysarthria) and 35.8 months (diagnosis). The mean duration of reaching milestones after disease onset were 22.0 (urinary incontinence), 32.6 (frequent falling and diagnosis), 41.2 (dysarthria), 61.4 months (wheelchair bound) in MSA-P and 16.8 (dysarthria), 21.6 (diagnosis), 21.7 (frequent falling), 24.0 months (wheel chair bound) in PSP. In the case of MSA, dizziness may occur for the first time. Thus, when the patient complains of non-specific dizziness, a follow-up examination to distinguish it from MSA can be helpful. There was a trend for patients with MSA-C to reach more disability milestones than in MSA-P and PSP before diagnosis. It may explain why patients with MSA-C are required more detail history taking and neurologic examination at an earlier stage.
PMCID: PMC4027659  PMID: 24868413
Multiple system atrophy; Progressive supranuclear palsy; Milestone
21.  N-type graphene induced by dissociative H2 adsorption at room temperature 
Scientific Reports  2012;2:690.
Studies of the interaction between hydrogen and graphene have been increasingly required due to the indispensable modulation of the electronic structure of graphene for device applications and the possibility of using graphene as a hydrogen storage material. Here, we report on the behaviour of molecular hydrogen on graphene using the gate voltage-dependent resistance of single-, bi-, and multi-layer graphene sheets as a function of H2 gas pressure up to 24 bar from 300 K to 345 K. Upon H2 exposure, the charge neutrality point shifts toward the negative gate voltage region, indicating n-type doping, and distinct Raman signature changes, increases in the interlayer distance of multi-layer graphene, and a decrease in the d-spacing occur, as determined by TEM. These results demonstrate the occurrence of dissociative H2 adsorption due to the existence of vacancy defects on graphene.
PMCID: PMC3457033  PMID: 23012645
22.  Clinical Analysis of Femur Shaft Insufficiency Fractures 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2012;4(3):227-233.
To characterize the recently issued femur shaft insufficiency fracture in terms of a patient's own epidemiological status.
Fourteen patients were treated for insufficiency fracture from July 2002 to June 2008, excluding cases including the risk factors of insufficiency fracture. All patients were female, and their mean age was 75.6 years (range, 65 to 89 years). The mean follow-up period was 50.6 months (range, 14 to 86 months).
The mean body weight of the Koreans in the same age group was 58.1 ± 9.7 kg, and the mean height was 155.5 ± 8.8 cm. The mean body weight of our insufficiency fracture patients was 45.7 kg and it was statistically significantly lower than that of the Koreans in the same age group (p < 0.001). The mean height was 147.3 cm and it was significantly shorter than the mean height of the Koreans in the same age group (p = 0.002). In regard to menopausal time, the mean menopausal time of the Koreans was 48.0 ± 4.2 years, it was 44 years in our study, as menopause occurred statistically significantly earlier (p = 0.017). The patients with insufficiency fracture showed statistically lower weight, shorter stature and an earlier menopausal period than that of the general population.
In early menopausal, underweight, and short patients prescribed osteoporosis medication for an extended period of time, if predromal symptom is present, it is necessary to suspect insufficiency fracture of the femur.
PMCID: PMC3425654  PMID: 22949955
Femur shaft; Insufficiency fracture; Epidemiologic status
23.  Low-dose external beam radiotherapy as a postoperative treatment for patients with diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(3):256-260.
Background and purpose
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative disorder involving synovial membranes, and patients with PVNS have a variable prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes after synovectomy plus low-dose external beam radiotherapy for diffuse PVNS of the knee.
We reviewed the medical records of 23 patients who underwent postoperative radiotherapy between 1998 and 2007. 19 patients had primary disease and 4 had recurrent disease with an average of 2.5 prior surgeries. After synovectomy (17 arthroscopic surgeries; 6 open), all 23 patients received 4-MV or 6-MV external beam radiotherapy with a median dose of 20 (12–34) Gy in 10 fractions.
At a median follow-up of 9 (0.8–12) years, 4 patients had recurrent disease, with a median disease-free interval of 5 years. Of these 4 patients, 3 received salvage synovectomy and regained local control. Univariate analysis showed that age, sex, history of trauma, and total dose of radiation were not predictive of local control. 22 patients reported excellent or good joint function, and 1 who refused salvage synovectomy had poor joint function. None of the patients experienced grade 3 or higher radiation-related toxicity or radiation-induced secondary malignancies.
Postoperative external beam radiotherapy is an effective and acceptable modality to prevent local recurrence and preserve joint function in patients with diffuse PVNS of the knee. Low-dose (20 Gy) radiotherapy appears to be as effective as moderate-dose treatment (around 35 Gy).
PMCID: PMC3369151  PMID: 22489888
24.  Yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan plus busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (BuCyE) versus BuCyE alone as a conditioning regimen for non-Hodgkin lymphoma 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(2):119-125.
Radioimmunotherapy agents have a highly significant role in autologous stem cell transplantation as they improve tolerability and increase the efficacy of the conditioning regimen.
We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy and toxicity of yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) combined with intravenous busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (Z-BuCyE) compared with those of BuCyE alone followed by autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The efficacy, toxicity, and engraftment characteristics were compared between 19 patients who received Z-BuCyE and 19 historical controls who received BuCyE.
The 2 treatment groups shared similar baseline characteristics. The median time to platelet engraftment (>20×109/L) and neutrophil engraftment (>0.5×109/L) did not significantly differ between the Z-BuCyE group (12 days and 10 days, respectively) and the BuCyE group (12 days and 10 days, respectively). No significant differences were observed between the groups with respect to toxicities and treatment-related mortality. The median follow-up period was 30.4 months, and median event-free survival was generally better in the Z-BuCyE group (12.5 months) vs. the BuCyE group (6.2 months, P=0.236). No significant difference in overall survival between the groups was noted.
Adding ibritumomab tiuxetan to BuCyE high-dose chemotherapy may benefit patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell NHL with no risk of additional toxicity.
PMCID: PMC3389060  PMID: 22783358
Yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan; BuCyE; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
25.  Metastatic Carcinomas to the Oral Cavity and Oropharynx 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2012;46(3):266-271.
Metastases to the oral/oropharynx are very rare and their diagnosis is challenging.
We reviewed pathologic data for malignant tumors of the oral/oropharynx that were diagnosed at the Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea from 1995 until 2010.
Twenty-nine cases of oral/oropharyngeal metastases were retrieved, comprising 2.0% of 1,445 malignancies. The most common primary sites were the liver and lung, followed by the stomach, colon, breast, prostate, and kidney. The gingiva was the most common metastatic site, followed by the tonsil/pillar, mandible, tongue, tongue base, palate mucosa, mouth floor, and buccal mucosa. Intervals between detection of primary tumors and metastases were variable, from -1 month to 104 months. Ten patients with lung (7 cases), liver, stomach, and kidney carcinomas manifested with oral/oropharyngeal metastases as the first sign of systemic metastases. The majority of patients had died within one year of the onset of an oral/oropharyngeal metastasis, but exceptionally long-lived cases were also present. The survival periods of patients with lung cancers were longer than those of patients with non-pulmonary tumors.
An awareness of the incidence, common primary sites, metastatic subsites, and metastatic courses or patterns of oral/oropharyngeal metastases is helpful in the diagnosis of metastatic carcinomas.
PMCID: PMC3479763  PMID: 23110013
Mouth; Neoplasms; Metastasis; Oropharynx

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