Fungus balls rarely cause upper urinary tract obstruction, and they are most often found in patients with diabetes mellitus or impaired immunity. The computed tomography (CT) findings of fungal bezoars of the urinary tract are nonspecific and have rarely been described, while in most cases, radiolucent filling defects are observed on excretory or retrograde urography. Here, an unusual case of an aspergilloma causing ureteral obstruction is presented; it was initially mistaken for a pelviureteral stone on nonenhanced CT.
Aspergillosis; Spiral computed tomography; Ureteral obstruction
Late complications of ureteral stents are frequent, and longer indwelling times are associated with an increased frequency of complications. Although there are reports of various complications of long-term indwelling ureteral stents, a renocolic fistula secondary to a perinephric abscess resulting from an indwelling ureteral stent has not been reported. Here, we present a fatal case of a renocolic fistula secondary to a perinephric abscess caused by an encrusted forgotten double J stent in a functionally solitary kidney.
Complications; Catheters, Indwelling; Urinary Fistula
To analyze the results of locoregional and systemic therapy in the breast cancer patients with locoregional recurrence (LRR) after mastectomy.
Materials and Methods
Seventy-one patients who received radiotherapy for isolated LRR after mastectomy between January 1999 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 71 patients, 59 (83.1%) underwent wide excision and radiotherapy and 12 (16.9%) received radiotherapy alone. Adjuvant hormonal therapy was given to 45 patients (63.4%). Oncologic outcomes including locoregional recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors were analyzed.
Median follow-up time was 49.2 months. Of the 71 patients, 5 (7%) experienced second isolated LRR, and 40 (56%) underwent distant metastasis (DM). The median DFS was 35.6 months, and the 3- and 5-year DFS were 49.1% and 28.6%, respectively. The median OS was 86.7 months, and the 5-year OS was 62.3%. Patients who received hormone therapy together showed better 5-year DFS and OS than the patients treated with locoregional therapy only (31.6% vs. 22.1%, p = 0.036; 66.5% vs. 55.2%, p = 0.022). In multivariate analysis, higher N stage at recurrence was a significant prognostic factor for DFS and OS. Disease free interval (≤30 months vs. >30 months) from mastectomy to LRR was also significant for OS. The patients who received hormone therapy showed superior DFS and showed trend to better OS.
DM was a major pattern of failure after the treatment of LRR after mastectomy. The role of systemic treatment for LRR after mastectomy should be investigated at prospective trials.
Breast cancer; Locoregional recurrence; Mastectomy
Significant functional impairment of the hand is commonly observed in stroke survivors. Our previous studies suggested that the inability to modulate muscle coordination patterns according to task requirements may be substantial after stroke, but these limitations have not been examined directly. In this study, we aimed to characterize post-stroke impairment in the ability to modulate muscle coordination patterns across tasks and its correlation with hand impairment. Fourteen stroke survivors, divided into a group with severe hand impairment (8 subjects) and a group with moderate hand impairment (6 subjects) according to their clinical functionality score, participated in the experiment. Another four neurologically intact subjects participated in the experiment to serve as a point of comparison. Activation patterns of nine hand and wrist muscles were recorded using surface electromyography while the subjects performed six isometric tasks. Patterns of covariation in muscle activations across tasks, i.e., muscle modules, were extracted from the muscle activation data. Our results showed that the degree of reduction in the inter-task separation of the multi-muscle activation patterns was indicative of the clinical functionality score of the subjects (mean value = 26.2 for severely impaired subjects, 38.1 for moderately impaired subjects). The values for moderately impaired subjects were much closer to those of the impaired subjects (mean value = 46.1). The number of muscle modules extracted from the muscle activation patterns of a subject across six tasks, which represents the degree of motor complexity, was found to be correlated with the clinical functionality score (R = 0.68). Greater impairment was also associated with a change in the muscle module patterns themselves, with greater muscle coactivation. A substantial reduction in the degrees-of-freedom of the multi-muscle coordination post-stroke was apparent, and the extent of the reduction, assessed by the stated metrics, was strongly associated with the level of clinical impairment.
Assaying for the parasitic lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is widely used as a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), but the efficacy of its serological effectiveness in diagnosis, that is antibody detection ability, is not known. The genetic variation of Korean isolates was analysed, and recombinant protein pLDH was evaluated as a serodiagnostic antigen for the detection of Plasmodium vivax malaria.
Genomic DNA was purified, and the pLDH gene of P. vivax was amplified from blood samples from 20 patients. The samples came from five epidemic areas: Bucheon-si, Gimpo-si, and Paju-si of Gyeonggi Province, Gangwha-gun of Incheon metropolitan city, and Cheorwon-gun of Gangwon Province, South Korea, from 2010 to 2011. The antigenicity of the recombinant protein pLDH was tested by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Sequence analysis of 20 Korean isolates of P. vivax showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of 951 nucleotides encoded a deduced protein of 316 amino acids (aa). This ORF showed 100% identity with the P. vivax Belem strain (DQ060151) and P. vivax Hainan strain (FJ527750), 89.6% homology with Plasmodium falciparum FCC1_HN (DQ825436), 90.2% homology with Plasmodium berghei (AY437808), 96.8% homology with Plasmodium knowlesi (JF958130), and 90.2% homology with Plasmodium reichenowi (AB122147). A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 456 (T to C) was also observed in the isolate from Bucheon, but it did not change in the amino acid sequence. The expressed recombinant protein had a molecular weight of approximately 32 kDa, as analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Of the 40 P. vivax patients, 34 (85.0%) were positive by ELISA.
The pLDH genes of 19 isolates of P. vivax were identical, except one for SNP at nucleotide 456. This observation indicates that this gene is relatively stable. Based on these results, the relationship between antibody production against pLDH and the pattern of disease onset should be investigated further before using pLDH for serodiagnosis.
To evaluate the utility of the preoperative PET-CT using deformable image registration (DIR) in the treatment of patients with locally advanced breast cancer and to find appropriate radiotherapy technique for further adequate treatment of axillary nodal area.
Sixty-five breast cancer patients who had level II, III axillary or supraclavicular lymph node metastasis on 18F-FDG PET-CT and received postoperative radiotherapy after modified radical mastectomy were enrolled. One radiation oncologist contoured normal organs (axillary vessels, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head) and involved lymph nodes on PET-CT and simulation CT slices. After contouring, deformable image registration of PET-CT on simulation CT was carried out. To evaluate the performance of the DIR, Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Center of mass (COM) were used. We created two plans, one was the historically designed three field plan and the other was the modified plan based on the location of axillary lymph node, and we compared the doses that irradiated the axillary lymph nodes.
The DSCs for axillary artery, axillary vein, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head were 0.43 ± 0.15, 0.39 ± 0.20, 0.85 ± 0.10, 0.72 ± 0.20 and 0.77 ± 0.20, respectively. The distances between the COMs of axillary artery, axillary vein, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head in simulation CT and from PET-CT were 13.0 ±7.1, 20.2 ± 11.2, 4.4 ± 6.3, 3.7 ± 6.7, and 9.5 ± 25.0 mm, respectively. In the historically designed plan, only 57.7% of level II lymph nodes received more than 95% of prescribed dose and the coverage was improved to 70.0% with the modified plan (p < 0.01). For level III lymph nodes, the volumes received more than 95% of prescribed dose were similar in both plans (96.8 % vs 97.9%, p = 0.35).
Deformable image registration of PET-CT on simulation CT was helpful in the identification of the location of the preoperatively involved axillary lymph node. Historically designed three-field plan was not adequate to treat the axillary level II lymph node area. Novel treatment technique based on the location of axillary lymph node from PET-CT using DIR can result in more adequate coverage of nodal area.
Breast cancer; Deformable image registration (DIR); Radiotherapy; PET-CT
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) has recently been characterized as a distinct subset with a favorable prognosis. The prevalence and clinicopathologic significance of HPV-related TSCC in Koreans are not well known.
HPV in situ hybridization (ISH) accompanied by p53, p16, pRb, and cyclin D1 immunohistochemical staining were performed on 89 resection cases of TSCC from 2000 through 2010.
HPV was detected by ISH in 59 of 89 cases (66.3%). HPV-positive TSCCs were more common in younger ages (p=0.005), and tumor sizes were smaller in the HPV-positive compared to the HPV-negative group (p=0.040). Positive HPV staining was significantly correlated with p16 expression (p<0.001), pRb inactivation (p=0.003), and cyclin D1 down-regulation (p<0.001) but not with p53 expression (p=0.334). Seventeen cases that showed p16-immunopositivity with HPV-negativity by ISH were retested by HPV typing; HPV DNA was not detected in all cases. There was no significant difference between HPV-positive and HPV-negative patients either in the disease-specific survival (DSS, p=0.857) or overall survival (p=0.910). Furthermore, pRb-inactivated cases showed better DSS (p=0.023), and p53-positive cases showed worse DSS (p=0.001).
Although high HPV prevalence was noted, it was not correlated with histopathologic findings or survival benefit. In addition to p53 expression, pRb inactivation along with p16 overexpression and down-regulation of cyclin D1 are thought to be important pathogenetic steps for developing TSCCs.
Human papillomavirus; Tonsillar neoplasm; Carcinoma, squamous cell; Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16; Tumor suppressor protein p53
Castleman's disease or angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. Complete surgical resection was recommended in unicentric Castleman's disease. Radiotherapy was considered alternative therapeutic option. However, there have been consistent favorable responses to radiotherapy. We also experienced two cases of uncentric Castleman's disease salvaged successfully with radiotherapy. This paper described these cases and reviewed the literature about Castleman's disease treated with radiotherapy. Reviewed cases showed that radiotherapy is a successful treatment option in unicentric Castleman's disease. Furthermore, our report confirms the radiotherapy role in uncentric Castleman's disease.
Castleman's disease; Hyaline-vascular; Radiotherapy
Image-based computational models with fluid-structure interaction (FSI) can be used to perform plaque mechanical analysis in intracranial artery stenosis. We described a process in FSI study applied to symptomatic severe intracranial (M1) stenosis before and after stenting.
Materials and Methods
Reconstructed 3D angiography in STL format was transferred to Magics for smoothing of vessel surface and trimming of branch vessels and to HyperMesh for generating tetra volume mesh from triangular surface-meshed 3D angiogram. Computational analysis of blood flow in the blood vessels was performed using the commercial finite element software ADINA Ver 8.5. The distribution of wall shear stress (WSS), peak velocity and pressure was analyzed before and after intracranial stenting.
The wall shear stress distributions from Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation with rigid wall assumption as well as FSI simulation before and after stenting could be compared. The difference of WSS between rigid wall and compliant wall model both in pre- and post-stent case is only minor except at the stenosis region. These WSS values were greatly reduced after stenting to 15~20 Pa at systole and 3~5 Pa at end-diastole in CFD simulation, which are similar in FSI simulations.
Our study revealed that FSI simulation before and after intracranial stenting was feasible despite of limited vessel wall dimension and could reveal change of WSS as well as flow velocity and wall pressure.
Cerebral artery; Atherosclerosis; Stenting; Computational modeling; Fluid structure interaction
Recent studies have investigated a combination of two antimuscarinics for adult neurogenic bladder managed with clean intermittent catheterization or pediatric refractory overactive bladder (OAB). We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of this strategy in adults with idiopathic OAB.
We reviewed 49 patients with idiopathic OAB who received combined antimuscarinic medication. Patients had serially received different kinds of antimuscarinics as monotherapy, but wished to take combined medication due to a lack of sufficient subjective improvement in urgency, even with dosage escalation. Efficacy was measured by changes of episodes of urgency, daytime voiding, nocturia and mean voided volume before and after the addition of the second antimuscarinic.
The mean duration of combined medication was 9.3 months. After adding the second antimuscarinic, urgency per day decreased from 3.8 to 1.9 (p < 0.001) and daytime voiding decreased from 10.4 to 7.4 (p < 0.001). The number of nocturia episodes and the mean voided volume also improved, although there was no statistical significance. Efficacy did not differ between the 29 cases, with non-selective and non-selective drugs and 20 cases with non-selective and M3 selective drugs. Thirty-three (67.3%) patients reported to have benefited from combined medication. Maximal flow rate and post-void residual volume did not change in either of the sexes. Eleven (22.4%) patients discontinued the combination due to continued ineffectiveness and dry mouth.
This retrospective study suggests that combined medication can help adults with refractory idiopathic OAB. Combined medication was tolerated in most of our patients.
To evaluated the patterns of failure, survival rate, treatment-related toxicity and prognostic factors in postoperative radiotherapy of patients with ependymoma.
Materials and Methods
Thirty patients who underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy for ependymoma between the period of June 1994 and June 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The age of patients ranged from 21 months to 66 years (median, 19 years). Seventeen patients had grade II ependymoma, and 13 had grade III anaplastic ependymoma according to the World Health Organization grading system. The postoperative irradiation was performed with 4 or 6 MV photon beam with median dose of 52.8 Gy (range, 45 to 63 Gy), and radiation field including 2 cm beyond the preoperative tumor volume. Median follow-up period was 51 months (range, 12 to 172 months).
Fourteen out of 30 (46.7%) patients experienced recurrence, and 12 of those died. Among those 14 patients who experienced recurrence, 11 were in-field and 3 were out-of-field recurrence. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 66.7% and 56.1%, respectively. On univariate analysis, tumor grade was a statistically significant prognostic factor for OS and PFS. There were two complications after surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, including short stature and facial palsy on the left side.
We observed good survival rates, and histologic grade was a prognostic factor affecting the OS and PFS. Almost all recurrence occurred in primary tumor site, thus we suggest further evaluation on intensity-modulated radiotherapy or stereotatic radiosurgery for high-risk patients such as who have anaplastic ependymoma.
Ependymoma; Anaplastic ependymoma; Radiotherapy; Histologic grade; Stereotatic radiosurgery
To evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative neck lymph node (LN) assessment with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients with pathologically positive LN.
Materials and Methods
In total, 47 OSCC patients with pathologically positive LN were retrospectively reviewed with preoperative 18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI. All patients underwent surgical resection, neck dissection and postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy between March 2002 and October 2010. Histologic correlation was performed for findings of 18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI.
Thirty-six (76.6%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed with neck LN metastasis by 18F-FDG PET and 32 (68.1%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed by CT/MRI. Follow-up ranged from 20 to 114 months (median, 56 months). Clinically negative nodal status evaluated by 18F-FDG PET or CT/MRI revealed a trend toward better clinical outcomes in terms of overall survival, disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, regional nodal recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates even though the trends were not statistically significant. However, there was no impact of neck node standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on clinical outcomes. Notably, SUVmax showed significant correlation with tumor size in LN (p < 0.01, R2 = 0.62). PET and CT/MRI status of LN also had significant correlation with the size of intranodal tumor deposit (p < 0.05, R2 = 0.37 and p < 0.01, R2 = 0.48, respectively).
18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI at the neck LNs might improve risk stratification in OSCC patients with pathologically positive neck LN in this study, even without significant prognostic value of SUVmax.
Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma; Neck lymph node; Magnetic resonance imaging; X-ray computed tomography; 18F-FDG PET; Prognostic value
Studies of the interaction between hydrogen and graphene have been increasingly required due to the indispensable modulation of the electronic structure of graphene for device applications and the possibility of using graphene as a hydrogen storage material. Here, we report on the behaviour of molecular hydrogen on graphene using the gate voltage-dependent resistance of single-, bi-, and multi-layer graphene sheets as a function of H2 gas pressure up to 24 bar from 300 K to 345 K. Upon H2 exposure, the charge neutrality point shifts toward the negative gate voltage region, indicating n-type doping, and distinct Raman signature changes, increases in the interlayer distance of multi-layer graphene, and a decrease in the d-spacing occur, as determined by TEM. These results demonstrate the occurrence of dissociative H2 adsorption due to the existence of vacancy defects on graphene.
To characterize the recently issued femur shaft insufficiency fracture in terms of a patient's own epidemiological status.
Fourteen patients were treated for insufficiency fracture from July 2002 to June 2008, excluding cases including the risk factors of insufficiency fracture. All patients were female, and their mean age was 75.6 years (range, 65 to 89 years). The mean follow-up period was 50.6 months (range, 14 to 86 months).
The mean body weight of the Koreans in the same age group was 58.1 ± 9.7 kg, and the mean height was 155.5 ± 8.8 cm. The mean body weight of our insufficiency fracture patients was 45.7 kg and it was statistically significantly lower than that of the Koreans in the same age group (p < 0.001). The mean height was 147.3 cm and it was significantly shorter than the mean height of the Koreans in the same age group (p = 0.002). In regard to menopausal time, the mean menopausal time of the Koreans was 48.0 ± 4.2 years, it was 44 years in our study, as menopause occurred statistically significantly earlier (p = 0.017). The patients with insufficiency fracture showed statistically lower weight, shorter stature and an earlier menopausal period than that of the general population.
In early menopausal, underweight, and short patients prescribed osteoporosis medication for an extended period of time, if predromal symptom is present, it is necessary to suspect insufficiency fracture of the femur.
Femur shaft; Insufficiency fracture; Epidemiologic status
Background and purpose
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative disorder involving synovial membranes, and patients with PVNS have a variable prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes after synovectomy plus low-dose external beam radiotherapy for diffuse PVNS of the knee.
We reviewed the medical records of 23 patients who underwent postoperative radiotherapy between 1998 and 2007. 19 patients had primary disease and 4 had recurrent disease with an average of 2.5 prior surgeries. After synovectomy (17 arthroscopic surgeries; 6 open), all 23 patients received 4-MV or 6-MV external beam radiotherapy with a median dose of 20 (12–34) Gy in 10 fractions.
At a median follow-up of 9 (0.8–12) years, 4 patients had recurrent disease, with a median disease-free interval of 5 years. Of these 4 patients, 3 received salvage synovectomy and regained local control. Univariate analysis showed that age, sex, history of trauma, and total dose of radiation were not predictive of local control. 22 patients reported excellent or good joint function, and 1 who refused salvage synovectomy had poor joint function. None of the patients experienced grade 3 or higher radiation-related toxicity or radiation-induced secondary malignancies.
Postoperative external beam radiotherapy is an effective and acceptable modality to prevent local recurrence and preserve joint function in patients with diffuse PVNS of the knee. Low-dose (20 Gy) radiotherapy appears to be as effective as moderate-dose treatment (around 35 Gy).
Radioimmunotherapy agents have a highly significant role in autologous stem cell transplantation as they improve tolerability and increase the efficacy of the conditioning regimen.
We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy and toxicity of yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) combined with intravenous busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (Z-BuCyE) compared with those of BuCyE alone followed by autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The efficacy, toxicity, and engraftment characteristics were compared between 19 patients who received Z-BuCyE and 19 historical controls who received BuCyE.
The 2 treatment groups shared similar baseline characteristics. The median time to platelet engraftment (>20×109/L) and neutrophil engraftment (>0.5×109/L) did not significantly differ between the Z-BuCyE group (12 days and 10 days, respectively) and the BuCyE group (12 days and 10 days, respectively). No significant differences were observed between the groups with respect to toxicities and treatment-related mortality. The median follow-up period was 30.4 months, and median event-free survival was generally better in the Z-BuCyE group (12.5 months) vs. the BuCyE group (6.2 months, P=0.236). No significant difference in overall survival between the groups was noted.
Adding ibritumomab tiuxetan to BuCyE high-dose chemotherapy may benefit patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell NHL with no risk of additional toxicity.
Yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan; BuCyE; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Metastases to the oral/oropharynx are very rare and their diagnosis is challenging.
We reviewed pathologic data for malignant tumors of the oral/oropharynx that were diagnosed at the Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea from 1995 until 2010.
Twenty-nine cases of oral/oropharyngeal metastases were retrieved, comprising 2.0% of 1,445 malignancies. The most common primary sites were the liver and lung, followed by the stomach, colon, breast, prostate, and kidney. The gingiva was the most common metastatic site, followed by the tonsil/pillar, mandible, tongue, tongue base, palate mucosa, mouth floor, and buccal mucosa. Intervals between detection of primary tumors and metastases were variable, from -1 month to 104 months. Ten patients with lung (7 cases), liver, stomach, and kidney carcinomas manifested with oral/oropharyngeal metastases as the first sign of systemic metastases. The majority of patients had died within one year of the onset of an oral/oropharyngeal metastasis, but exceptionally long-lived cases were also present. The survival periods of patients with lung cancers were longer than those of patients with non-pulmonary tumors.
An awareness of the incidence, common primary sites, metastatic subsites, and metastatic courses or patterns of oral/oropharyngeal metastases is helpful in the diagnosis of metastatic carcinomas.
Mouth; Neoplasms; Metastasis; Oropharynx
The malaria aldolase is widely used as rapid diagnostic test (RDT), but the efficacy in aspect of its serological effectiveness in diagnosis is not known. The genetic variation of Korean isolates was analysed and recombinant aldolase was evaluated as a serological antigen in Plasmodium vivax malaria.
Genomic DNA was purified and the aldolase gene of P. vivax from 25 patients’ blood samples was amplified. The samples came from 5 epidemic areas; Bucheon-si, Gimpo-si, Paju-si of Gyeonggido, Gangwha-gun of Incheon metropolitan city, and Cheorwon of Gangwon-do, South Korea. The antigenicity of the recombinant aldolase was tested by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Sequence analysis of 25 Korean isolates of P. vivax showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of 1,110 nucleotides encoded a deduced protein of 369 amino acids (aa). This ORF showed 100% homology with the P. vivax Sal I strain (XM_00165894) and P. vivax WDK strain (AF247063), 87.4% homology with Plasmodium falciparum (AF179421), 90.6% homology with Plasmodium chabaudi (AF247060), 89.5% homology with Plasmodium vinckei (AF247061), and 96.7% homology with Plasmodium knowlesi. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 180 (G to A, n = 5) was also observed in the isolates. The expressed recombinant protein had a molecular weight of approximately 31 kDa (monomeric form) and 62 kDa (dimeric form) as analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Among 109 P. vivax patients, 32 (29.4%) had positive in an enzyme-linked absorbance assay (ELISA). This result showed significant correlation between ELISA and an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (P < 0.0001).
The aldolase gene from Korean isolates of P. vivax showed one SNP at nucleotide position 180; this SNP mutant was discovered in only the western part of Han River, and included the regions of Ganghwa, Gimpo, and Bucheon. Based on the results, the relationship between antibody production against aldolase and the pattern of disease onset should be more investigated before using aldolase for serodiagnosis.
Antimuscarinic therapy remains one of the most common forms of therapy for overactive bladder (OAB) in children. However, few clinical studies on the outcomes of antimuscarinics in children with OAB have been published. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of propiverine, which is frequently prescribed for the treatment of pediatric OAB.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed children with OAB treated with propiverine within the past 5 years. The response rates were compared between the non-urge incontinence (non-UI) and urge incontinence (UI groups). The cumulative response rate by treatment duration was also compared between the two groups.
Among a total of 68 children, 50 children (73.5%) experienced UI. The overall response rate was 86.8%. Functional bladder capacity after treatment was 150 ml, which represented an increase compared with the value (140 ml) before treatment. The voiding frequency per day decreased from 14.0 to 8.5 times. The overall response rate (88.0%) in the non-UI group was not significantly different from that seen in the UI group (83.3%; p>0.05). In non-UI children, the cumulative response rates were 36.0%, 54.0%, 68.0%, 74.0%, 76.0%, and 78.0% at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks, respectively. The cumulative response rates in the UI children were 11.1%, 33.3%, 44.4%, 50.0%, 50.0%, and 55.6%, respectively during the same respective time periods. Adverse effects were identified in only two (2.9%) patients, and neither case was severe.
Propiverine is effective and well tolerated as a treatment for children suffering from OAB with or without UI.
Children; Incontinence; Overactive bladder; Propiverine
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) rarely relapses in extracranial sites, and no specialized guidelines for follow-up evaluation have been proposed.
We analyzed 65 patients with newly diagnosed PNCSL to evaluate the pattern of relapse and prognostic factors.
Of the 65 patients analyzed, 55 had only parenchymal brain disease, and 10 had both intracranial and extracranial lesions. As a first-line treatment, 29 patients received chemotherapy only (CTx), 13 received chemotherapy followed by whole brain radiotherapy (CTx-WBRT), 18 received chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (CTx-ASCT), 2 received palliative WBRT, and 3 received best supportive care. The overall response rate to the initial treatment was 75.8%, with specific response rates of 62.1% to CTx, 84.6% to CTx-WBRT, and 100% to CTx-ASCT. The complete response (CR) rate was higher with CTx-ASCT than in the absence of ASCT (77.8% vs. 43.2%; P=0.025). After a median follow-up of 18.8 months, the median failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) were 13.0 and 36.1 months, respectively. No systemic relapse without a CNS lesion was noted. Multivariate analysis showed that ASCT was predictive of better FFS but not of OS. Age and the Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center prognostic score were predictive of survival.
We observed no systemic relapse without a CNS lesion, suggesting that regular systematic evaluation of extracranial sites may not always be necessary. Age was prognostic of survival irrespective of treatment scheme. ASCT may improve CR rate and FFS.
Primary CNS lymphoma; Relapse; Prognostic factor
The blood flow dynamics of a stenosed, subject-specific, carotid bifurcation were numerically simulated using the spectral element method. Pulsatile inlet conditions were based on in vivo color Doppler ultrasound measurements of blood velocity. The results demonstrated the transitional or weakly turbulent state of the blood flow, which featured rapid velocity and pressure fluctuations in the post-stenotic region of the internal carotid artery during systole and laminar flow during diastole. High-frequency vortex shedding was greatest downstream of the stenosis during the deceleration phase of systole. Velocity fluctuations had a frequency within the audible range of 100–300 Hz. Instantaneous wall shear stress within the stenosis was relatively high during systole (~25-45 Pa) compared to that in a healthy carotid. In addition, high spatial gradients of wall shear stress were present due to flow separation on the inner wall. Oscillatory flow reversal and low pressure were observed distal to the stenosis in the internal carotid artery. This study predicts the complex flow field, the turbulence levels and the distribution of the biomechanical stresses present in vivo within a stenosed carotid artery.
Carotid artery bifurcation; Stenosis; Spectral element method; Hemodynamics; Turbulence; Wall shear stress
To describe two cases of thoracic paraplegia due to a thoracic spinal cord tumor (meningioma) that was not detected during lumbar spinal decompressive surgery for lumbar canal stenosis and a complaint of claudication. The follow-up period ranged from 1 year and 6 months to 1 year and 8 months. The neurological deficit due to thoracic meningioma after surgery for lumbar canal stensois was decreased after mass excision. So, careful physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging can reveal another thoracic spine compressive lesion such as meningioma. Additional thoracic decompressive surgery can provide partial amelioration of each patient's neurological condition. Surgeons should know that a silent meningioma can aggrevate neurological symptoms after lower lumbar spine surgery and should inform their patient before surgery.
Thoracic paraplegia; Meningioma; Lumbar surgery
In this study, we measured the extent of ten levels of classified symptoms by 300 (male and female) patients visiting the hair loss clinics of "S" hospitals in Gangbuk and Gangnam between January 2009 and June 2011 by analyzing the patients' chief complaints.
The method of measurement was based on a symptom questionnaire possessing 51 categories. Through the statistical analysis of data mining techniques, decision trees, and logistic regression, we derived a logistic regression model and decision tree model that improved both the response rate and significant hair loss-related characteristics of the questionnaire.
The results of this study indicate that dry hair, seborrheic scalps and skin, tobacco and/or coffee addiction, anxiety, nausea, indigestion, and facial flushing correlate to hair loss.
We anticipate that the subjective symptoms of hair loss can provide a foundation for preventing secondary diseases and provide clinical data information during the period of treatment. This can contribute to the improvement of patient satisfaction after customized treatment.
Alopecia; Questionnaires; Signs and Symptoms; Regression; Decision Trees
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of aqueous extract
from Platycodon grandiflorum (BC703) on thioacetamide (TA)-induced
hepatotoxicity in mice. We found that BC703 significantly decreased mortality and the
change in serum transaminase following TA administration. The group treated with BC703 at
doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg produced significant hepatoprotective effects against
TA-induced liver damage by decreasing the activities of serum enzymes, nitric oxide and
lipid peroxidation in dose-dependent manners. Histopathological studies further
substantiated the protective effect of BC703. These results show the hepatoprotective
activity of aqueous extract from Platycodon grandiflorum on
thioacetamide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.
fulminant hepatic failure; hepatotoxicity; Platycodon grandilorum; thioacetamide
To evaluate the treatment outcome and prognostic factor after postoperative radiotherapy in retroperitoneal sarcoma.
Materials and Methods
Forty patients were treated with surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy for retroperitoneal sarcoma from August 1990 to August 2008. Treatment volume was judged by the location of initial tumor and surgical field, and 45-50 Gy of radiation was basically delivered and additional dose was considered to the high-risk area.
The median follow-up period was 41.4 months (range, 3.9 to 140.6 months). The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 51.8% and disease free survival was 31.5%. The 5-year locoregional recurrence free survival was 61.9% and distant metastasis free survival was 50.6%. In univariate analysis, histologic type (p = 0.006) was the strongest prognostic factor for the OS and histologic grade (p = 0.044) or resection margin (p = 0.032) had also effect on the OS. Histologic type (p = 0.004) was unique significant prognostic factor for the actuarial local control.
Retroperitoneal sarcoma still remains as a poor prognostic disease despite the combined modality treatment including surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Selective dose-escalation of radiotherapy or combination of effective chemotherapeutic agent must be considered to improve the treatment result especially for the histopathologic type showing poor prognosis.
Sarcoma; Retroperitoneal; Radiotherapy; Postoperative; Outcome