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1.  Psoas Abscess Secondary to Renal Tuberculosis in a Middle-aged Woman 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(11):801-804.
A psoas muscle abscess is a relatively uncommon condition that can present with vague clinical features. With the decreasing prevalence of tuberculosis, psoas abscesses of tuberculous origin are currently rare in developed countries, but are typically caused by tuberculosis of the spine. Here, an unusual case of a psoas abscess secondary to renal tuberculosis in a middle-aged woman is presented. The abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage followed by nephrectomy and additional antituberculous medications.
PMCID: PMC3830976  PMID: 24255765
Abdominal pain; Psoas abscess; Renal tuberculosis
2.  Cases report of unicentric Castleman's disease: revisit of radiotherapy role 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2013;31(1):48-54.
Castleman's disease or angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. Complete surgical resection was recommended in unicentric Castleman's disease. Radiotherapy was considered alternative therapeutic option. However, there have been consistent favorable responses to radiotherapy. We also experienced two cases of uncentric Castleman's disease salvaged successfully with radiotherapy. This paper described these cases and reviewed the literature about Castleman's disease treated with radiotherapy. Reviewed cases showed that radiotherapy is a successful treatment option in unicentric Castleman's disease. Furthermore, our report confirms the radiotherapy role in uncentric Castleman's disease.
PMCID: PMC3633231  PMID: 23620869
Castleman's disease; Hyaline-vascular; Radiotherapy
3.  Prognostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with pathologically positive neck lymph node 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2012;30(4):173-181.
To evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative neck lymph node (LN) assessment with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients with pathologically positive LN.
Materials and Methods
In total, 47 OSCC patients with pathologically positive LN were retrospectively reviewed with preoperative 18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI. All patients underwent surgical resection, neck dissection and postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy between March 2002 and October 2010. Histologic correlation was performed for findings of 18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI.
Thirty-six (76.6%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed with neck LN metastasis by 18F-FDG PET and 32 (68.1%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed by CT/MRI. Follow-up ranged from 20 to 114 months (median, 56 months). Clinically negative nodal status evaluated by 18F-FDG PET or CT/MRI revealed a trend toward better clinical outcomes in terms of overall survival, disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, regional nodal recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates even though the trends were not statistically significant. However, there was no impact of neck node standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on clinical outcomes. Notably, SUVmax showed significant correlation with tumor size in LN (p < 0.01, R2 = 0.62). PET and CT/MRI status of LN also had significant correlation with the size of intranodal tumor deposit (p < 0.05, R2 = 0.37 and p < 0.01, R2 = 0.48, respectively).
18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI at the neck LNs might improve risk stratification in OSCC patients with pathologically positive neck LN in this study, even without significant prognostic value of SUVmax.
PMCID: PMC3546285  PMID: 23346536
Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma; Neck lymph node; Magnetic resonance imaging; X-ray computed tomography; 18F-FDG PET; Prognostic value
4.  Treatment outcome of nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2011;29(3):174-180.
To evaluate the radiotherapy treatment outcome of patients in stage IE and IIE nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
Materials and Methods
From August 1999 to August 2009, 46 patients with stage IE and IIE nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma were treated by definitive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. 33 patients were treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (CT + RT) and they received 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. 13 patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and they received 40 Gy in 20 fractions.
The median follow-up period was 4.6-137.6 months (median, 50.2 months) for all patients. The 4-year overall survival was 68.6% and 4-year disease free survival (DFS) was 61.9%. The 4-year locoregional recurrence free survival was 65.0%, and 4-year distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) was 66.2%. For patients treated with CT + RT, 15 patients (45.5%) achieved complete response after chemotherapy, and 13 patients (39.4%) achieved partial response. 13 patients (81.8%) achieved complete response after radiotherapy, and 6 patients (18.2%) achieved partial response. For patients treated with CCRT, 11 patients (84.6%) achieved complete response, and one patient (7.7%) achieved partial response. In univariate analysis, presence of cervical lymph node metastasis was only significant prognostic factor for DFS and DMFS.
This study did not show satisfactory overall survival rate and disease free survival rate of definitive radiotherapy and chemotherapy for stage IE and IIE nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma. For patients with cervical lymph node metastasis, further investigation of new chemotherapy regimens is necessary to reduce the distant metastasis.
PMCID: PMC3429900  PMID: 22984668
Nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Concurrent chemoradiotherapy
5.  An Aspergilloma Mistaken for a Pelviureteral Stone on Nonenhanced CT: A Fungal Bezoar Causing Ureteral Obstruction 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(3):216-218.
Fungus balls rarely cause upper urinary tract obstruction, and they are most often found in patients with diabetes mellitus or impaired immunity. The computed tomography (CT) findings of fungal bezoars of the urinary tract are nonspecific and have rarely been described, while in most cases, radiolucent filling defects are observed on excretory or retrograde urography. Here, an unusual case of an aspergilloma causing ureteral obstruction is presented; it was initially mistaken for a pelviureteral stone on nonenhanced CT.
PMCID: PMC2855446  PMID: 20414401
Aspergillosis; Spiral computed tomography; Ureteral obstruction
6.  Renocolic Fistula Secondary to a Perinephric Abscess: A Late Complication of a Forgotten Double J Stent 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(5):960-962.
Late complications of ureteral stents are frequent, and longer indwelling times are associated with an increased frequency of complications. Although there are reports of various complications of long-term indwelling ureteral stents, a renocolic fistula secondary to a perinephric abscess resulting from an indwelling ureteral stent has not been reported. Here, we present a fatal case of a renocolic fistula secondary to a perinephric abscess caused by an encrusted forgotten double J stent in a functionally solitary kidney.
PMCID: PMC2752785  PMID: 19795000
Complications; Catheters, Indwelling; Urinary Fistula
7.  Mdm2 and p53 Expression in Radiation-Induced Sarcomas of the Head and Neck: Comparison with De Novo Sarcomas 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2014;48(5):346-350.
The pathogenesis of radiation-induced sarcomas (RISs) is not well known. In RIS, TP53 mutations are frequent, but little is known about Mdm2-p53 interaction, which is a recent therapeutic target of sarcomas.
We studied the immunohistochemical expression of Mdm2 and p53 of 8 RISs. The intervals between radiation therapy and diagnosis of secondary sarcomas ranged from 3 to 17 years.
Mdm2 expression was more common in de novo sarcomas than RISs (75% vs 37.5%), and p53 expression was more common in RISs than in de novo cases (75% vs 37.5%). While half of the RISs were Mdm2(–)/p53(+), none of de novo cases showed such combination; while half of de novo sarcomas were Mdm2(+)/p53(–), which are a candidate group of Mdm2 inhibitors, only 1 RIS showed such a combination. Variable immunoprofiles observed in both groups did not correlate with tumor types, except that all of 2 myxofibrosarcomas were Mdm2(+)/p53(+).
In conclusion, we speculated that both radiation-induced and de novo sarcomagenesis are not due to a unique genetic mechanism. Mdm2-expression without p53 overexpression in 1 case of RIS decreases the future possibility of applying Mdm2 inhibitors on a subset of these difficult tumors.
PMCID: PMC4215959  PMID: 25366069
Cancer, radiation induced; Head and neck neoplasms; Sarcoma; Mdm2 protein, human; Tumor suppressor protein p53
8.  Effect of beach chair position on bispectral index values during arthroscopic shoulder surgery 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(4):235-239.
Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring reduces the cases of intraoperative awareness. Several factors can alter BIS readings without affecting the depth of anesthesia. We conducted a study to assess the impact of beach chair position (sitting position) on BIS readings.
General anesthesia was administered to 30 patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Patients were kept in neutral position (supine) for 10 minutes and BIS readings, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and end-tidal sevoflurane were recorded. Patients were then shifted to beach chair position. After 15 minutes, data were recorded.
A significant decrease in BIS values (P < 0.01) associated with a position change from neutral position to beach chair position was evident.
BIS values are significantly decreased in the beach chair position compared with the neutral position and might affect interpretation of the depth of anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC4216784  PMID: 25368780
Bispectral index; Sitting position
9.  Clarithromycin-Based Standard Triple Therapy Can Still Be Effective for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Some Parts of the Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(9):1240-1246.
We evaluated the antibiotic resistance rates and eradication rates of clarithromycin based triple therapy from 2005 to 2010 retrospectively. In addition, we investigated the mechanism of clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Korean patients. Two hundred and twelve strains of H. pylori were isolated from 204 patients. H. pylori ATCC 43504 was used as the standard strain. The eradication rates of H. pylori from 2005 to 2010 were 89.3%, 82.6%, 86.3%, 87.7%, 81.8%, and 84.2%, respectively. Total eradication rate was 84.9%. DNA sequences of the 23S RNA gene in clarithromycin-resistant strains were determined. The resistance rates of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin were 9.0%, 8.5%, 36.3%, 0%, 14.2%, 14.2%, and 14.2%, respectively. The multidrug resistance rate of H. pylori was 16.5%. Sequence analysis of clarithromycin-resistant strains showed an A2144G mutation in 8 of 14 strains (57.1%), a T2183C mutation in 5 of 14 strains (35.7%), and double mutations of both A2144G and T2183C in 1 of 14 strains (7.1%). In the present study, triple therapy may still be an effective eradication therapy for H. pylori infections in Korea. The A2144G and T2183C mutations are mainly present in clarithromycin-resistant isolates.
Graphical Abstract
PMCID: PMC4168177  PMID: 25246742
Helicobacter pylori; Clarithromycin Resistance; Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
10.  Treatment of primary testicular diffuse large B cell lymphoma without prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy: a single center experience 
Blood research  2014;49(3):170-176.
Primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare but aggressive extranodal lymphoma, and its relapse in the central nervous system (CNS) is a major concern during treatment. Despite this, the role of intrathecal prophylaxis in primary testicular DLBCL remains controversial.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 14 patients with primary testicular DLBCL diagnosed between November 2000 and June 2012, and analyzed the CNS relapse rate in patients treated without intrathecal prophylaxis. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
The median age at diagnosis was 57 years (range, 41-79 years). Unilateral testicular involvement was observed in 13 patients. Nine patients had stage I, 1 had stage II, and 4 had stage IV disease. The international prognostic index was low or low-intermediate risk in 12 patients and high-intermediate risk in 2 patients. Thirteen patients underwent orchiectomy. All the patients received systemic chemotherapy without intrathecal prophylaxis, and prophylactic radiotherapy was administered to the contralateral testis in 12 patients. The median follow-up period of surviving patients was 39 months (range, 10-139 months). Median overall survival was not reached and the median progression-free survival was 3.8 years. Four patients experienced relapse, but CNS relapse was observed in only one patient (7.1%) with stage IV disease, 27 months after a complete response.
Even without intrathecal prophylaxis, the rate of relapse in the CNS was lower in the Korean patients with primary testicular DLBCL compared to prior reports.
PMCID: PMC4188782  PMID: 25325036
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma; Intrathecal prophylaxis; Primary testicular lymphoma
11.  Effects of total body irradiation-based conditioning on allogeneic stem cell transplantation for pediatric acute leukemia: a single-institution study 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2014;32(3):198-207.
To evaluate the effects of total body irradiation (TBI), as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), in pediatric acute leukemia patients.
Materials and Methods
From January 2001 to December 2011, 28 patients, aged less than 18 years, were treated with TBI-based conditioning for allo-SCT in our institution. Of the 28 patients, 21 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 75%) and 7 were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 25%). TBI was completed 4 days or 1 day before stem cell infusion. Patients underwent radiation therapy with bilateral parallel opposing fields and 6-MV X-rays. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival outcomes.
The 2-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 66% and 56%, respectively (71.4% and 60.0% in AML patients vs. 64.3% and 52.4% in ALL patients, respectively). Treatment related mortality rate were 25%. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was a major complication; other complications included endocrine dysfunction and pulmonary complications. Common complications from TBI were nausea (89%) and cataracts (7.1%).
The efficacy and toxicity data in this study of TBI-based conditioning to pediatric acute leukemia patients were comparable with previous studies. However, clinicians need to focus on the acute and chronic complications related to allo-SCT.
PMCID: PMC4194303  PMID: 25324992
Total body irradiation; Acute lymphoid leukemia; Acute myeloid leukemia; Child; Stem cell transplantation
12.  A dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and non-coplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer 
To compare dosimetric parameters of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and non-coplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer with regard to the coverage of planning target volume (PTV) and the sparing of organs at risk (OAR).
Ten patients with nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer were re-planned by VMAT (two-arc) plan and non-coplanar IMRT (7-, 11-, and 15-beam) plans. Planning objectives were to deliver 60 Gy in 30 fractions to 95% of PTV, with maximum doses (Dmax) of <50 Gy to the optic nerves, optic chiasm, and brainstem, <40 Gy to the eyes and <10 Gy to the lenses. The target mean dose (Dmean) to the parotid glands was <25 Gy, and no constraints were applied to the lacrimal glands. Planning was optimized to minimized doses to OAR without compromising coverage of the PTV. VMAT and three non-coplanar IMRT (7-, 11-, and 15-beam) plans were compared using the heterogeneity and conformity indices (HI and CI) of the PTV, Dmax and Dmean of the OAR, treatment delivery time, and monitor units (MUs).
The HI and CI of VMAT plan were superior to those of the 7-, 11-, and 15-beam non-coplanar IMRT. VMAT and non-coplanar IMRT (7-, 11-, and 15-beam) showed equivalent sparing effects for the optic nerves, optic chiasm, brainstem, and parotid glands. For the eyes and lenses, VMAT achieved equivalent or better sparing effects when compared with the non-coplanar IMRT plans. VMAT showed lower MUs and reduced treatment delivery time when compared with non-coplanar IMRT.
In 10 patients with nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer, a VMAT plan provided better homogeneity and conformity for PTV than non-coplanar IMRT plans, with a shorter treatment delivery time, while achieving equal or better OAR-sparing effects and using fewer MUs.
PMCID: PMC4261880  PMID: 25175383
Paranasal sinus cancer; Nasal cavity cancer; Volumetric modulated arc therapy; Non-coplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy; Planning target volume; Organs at risk
13.  Abbreviated chemotherapy for limited-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after complete resection 
Blood research  2014;49(2):115-119.
Abbreviated chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or full cycles of chemotherapy is recommended as a standard treatment for limited-stage (LS) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). After complete resection of tumors, however, Burkitt and childhood B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma show favorable outcomes, even after abbreviated chemotherapy of only 2 or 3 cycles. We investigated the effectiveness of abbreviated chemotherapy in patients with LS DLBCL after complete tumor resection.
We retrospectively reviewed 18 patients with LS DLBCL who underwent complete tumor resection followed by either 3 or 4 cycles of chemotherapy between March 2002 and May 2010.
With a median follow-up period of 57.9 months (range, 31.8-130.2 months), no patients experienced disease relapse or progression; however, 1 patient experienced secondary acute myeloid leukemia during follow-up. The 5-year progression-free survival rate and overall survival rate were 93.3% and 94.1%, respectively.
These results warrant further investigation into abbreviated chemotherapy as an alternative treatment for patients who have undergone complete resection of LS DLBCL.
PMCID: PMC4090332  PMID: 25025013
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Limited Stage; Resection; Abbreviated chemotherapy
14.  Postoperative radiation therapy following the incomplete resection of a non-small cell lung cancer 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2014;32(2):70-76.
To review the results of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for residual non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following surgical resection and evaluate multiple clinicopathologic prognostic factors.
Materials and Methods
A total of 58 patients, who completed scheduled PORT for positive resection margin, among 658 patients treated with PORT from January 2001 to November 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Radiation therapy was started at 4 to 6 weeks after surgery. Chemotherapy was also administered to 35 patients, either sequentially or concurrently with PORT.
The median age of patients was 63 years (range, 40 to 82 years). The postoperative pathological stage I NSCLC was diagnosed in 10 (17.2%), stage II in 18 (31.0%), and stage III in 30 patients (51.7%). Squamous cell carcinoma was identified in 43, adenocarcinoma in 10, large cell in 1, others in 4 patients. Microscopic residual disease (R1) was diagnosed in 55 patients (94.8%), and the remaining three patients were diagnosed with gross residual disease (R2). The median dose of PORT was 59.4 Gy (range, 50.0 to 64.8 Gy). Chemotherapy was administered to 35 patients (60%), and the median follow-up time was 22.0 months (range, 6.0 to 84.0 months). The 3-year locoregional relapse-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 82.1% and 52.9%, respectively. The median overall survival was 23.8 months (range, 6.0 to 84.1 months), and the 3-year overall survival rate was 58.2%. Chemotherapy did not influence the failure pattern or survival outcome.
PORT is an effective modality for improving local tumor control in incompletely resected NSCLC patients. Major failure pattern was distant metastasis despite chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC4104222  PMID: 25061575
Non-small-cell lung carcinoma; R1 resection; Microscopic residual disease; Postoperative radiotherapy
15.  Subject-specific Myoelectric Pattern Classification of Functional Hand Movements for Stroke Survivors 
In this study, we developed a robust subject-specific electromyography (EMG) pattern classification technique to discriminate intended manual tasks from muscle activation patterns of stroke survivors. These classifications will enable volitional control of assistive devices, thereby improving their functionality. Twenty subjects with chronic hemiparesis participated in the study. Subjects were instructed to perform six functional tasks while their muscle activation patterns were recorded by ten surface electrodes placed on the forearm and hand of the impaired limb. In order to identify intended functional tasks, a pattern classifier using linear discriminant analysis was applied to the EMG feature vectors. The classification accuracy was mainly affected by the impairment level of the subject. Mean classification accuracy was 71.3% for moderately impaired subjects (Chedoke Stage of Hand 4 and 5), and 37.9% for severely impaired subjects (Chedoke Stage of Hand 2 and 3). Most misclassification occurred between grip tasks of similar nature, for example, among pinch, key, and three-fingered grips, or between cylindrical and spherical grips. EMG signals from the intrinsic hand muscles significantly contributed to the inter-task variability of the feature vectors, as assessed by the inter-task squared Euclidean distance, thereby indicating the importance of intrinsic hand muscles in functional manual tasks. This study demonstrated the feasibility of the EMG pattern classification technique to discern the intent of stroke survivors. Future work should concentrate on the construction of a subject-specific EMG classification paradigm that carefully considers both functional and physiological impairment characteristics of each subject in the target task selection and electrode placement procedures.
PMCID: PMC4010155  PMID: 20876030
Stroke; Electromyography (EMG); Pattern classification; Hand; Functional task
16.  Triterpenoid Saponins Isolated from Platycodon grandiflorum Inhibit Hepatitis C Virus Replication 
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to significant adverse effects and emergence of resistant strains of currently developed anti-HCV agents, plant extracts have been considered to be potential sources of new bioactive compounds against HCV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional effects of triterpenoid saponins contained in the root extract of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) on viral enzyme activities and replication in both HCV replicon cells and cell culture grown HCV- (HCVcc-) infected cells. Inhibitory activities of triterpenoid saponins from PG were verified by NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase assay and were further confirmed in the context of HCV replication. Six triterpenoid saponins (platycodin D, platycodin D2, platycodin D3, deapioplatycodin D, deapioplatycodin D2, and platyconic acid A), PG saponin mixture (PGSM), were identified as active components exerting anti-HCV activity. Importantly, PGSM exerted synergistic anti-HCV activity in combination with either interferon-α or NS5A inhibitors. We demonstrated that combinatorial treatment of PGSM and IFN-α efficiently suppressed colony formation with significant reduction in drug resistant variant of HCV. These data suggest that triterpenoid saponin may represent a novel anti-HCV therapeutic agent.
PMCID: PMC3893781  PMID: 24489585
17.  Evaluation of circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium vivax to estimate its prevalence in the Republic of Korea: an observational study of incidence 
Malaria Journal  2013;12:448.
Plasmodium vivax re-emerged in 1993. Although the number of infections has been steadily decreasing, it is likely to continue to affect public health until it is eradicated. The aim of this study is to measure anti-circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antibody and compare malaria prevalence. As to understand the prevalence, an epidemiology study has to be conducted in the Republic of Korea.
A total of 1,825 and 1,959 blood samples were collected in 2010 and 2011, respectively, from the inhabitants of Ganghwa and Cheorwon counties. The antibody titers of the inhabitants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant protein purified from Escherichia coli transformed with a CSP gene-inserted pET-28a(+) expression vector. Microscopic examination was performed to identify malaria parasites.
The annual parasite incidence (API) in Ganghwa decreased from 4.28 in 2010 to 2.23 in 2011, and that in Cheorwon decreased from 1.88 in 2010 to 1.15 in 2011. The antibody-positive CSP rate in these areas also decreased from 18.14% (331/1825) in 2010 to 15.36% (301/1959) in 2011. Pearson analysis showed a strong correlation between the API and the antibody-positive CSP rate in these areas (r = 1.000, P < 0.01). The intensity of the immune responses of the inhabitants of Cheorwon, as measured by the mean optical density, decreased from 0.9186 ± 0.0472 in 2010 to 0.7035 ± 0.0457 in 2011 (P = 0.034), but increased in Ganghwa from 0.7649 ± 0.0192 in 2010 to 0.8237 ± 0.1970 in 2011 (P = 0.006). The immune response increased according to age (r = 0.686, P = 0.041).
The positive CSP-ELISA rate was closely related to the API in the study areas. This suggests that seroepidemiological studies based on CSP-ELISA may be helpful in estimating the malaria prevalence. Moreover, such studies can be used to establish and evaluate malaria control and eradication programmes in high-risk areas in Korea.
PMCID: PMC3878750  PMID: 24330352
18.  Whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer: a preliminary report 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2013;31(4):199-205.
To assess the clinical efficacy and toxicity of whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) for high-risk prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods
Patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed. The study included patients who had undergone WP-IMRT with image guidance using electronic portal imaging devices and/or cone-beam computed tomography. The endorectal balloon was used in 93% of patients. Patients received either 46 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 76 Gy to the prostate in 2 Gy daily fractions, or 44 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 72.6 Gy to the prostate in 2.2 Gy fractions.
The study cohort included 70 patients, of whom 55 (78%) had a Gleason score of 8 to 10 and 50 (71%) had a prostate-specific antigen level > 20 ng/mL. The androgen deprivation therapy was combined in 62 patients. The biochemical failure-free survival rate was 86.7% at 2 years. Acute any grade gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates were 47% and 73%, respectively. The actuarial rate of late grade 2 or worse toxicity at 2 years was 12.9% for GI, and 5.7% for GU with no late grade 4 toxicity.
WP-IMRT was well tolerated with no severe acute or late toxicities, resulting in at least similar biochemical control to that of the historic control group with a small field. The long-term efficacy and toxicity will be assessed in the future, and a prospective randomized trial is needed to verify these findings.
PMCID: PMC3912233  PMID: 24501707
Prostate neoplasms; Intensity-modulated radiotherapy; Complications
19.  Radiation-induced liver disease after stereotactic body radiotherapy for small hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical and dose-volumetric parameters 
To investigate the clinical and dose–volumetric parameters that predict the risk of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) for patients with small, unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).
Between March 2007 and December 2009, 92 patients with HCC treated with SBRT were reviewed for RILD within 3 months of completing treatment. RILD was evaluated according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. A dose of 10–20 Gy (median, 15 Gy) per fraction was given over 3–4 consecutive days for a total dose of 30–60 Gy (median, 45 Gy). The following clinical and dose–volumetric parameters were examined: age, gender, Child-Pugh class, presence of hepatitis B virus, gross tumor volume, normal liver volume, radiation dose, fraction size, mean dose to the normal liver, and normal liver volumes receiving from < 5 Gy to < 60 Gy (in increments of 5 Gy).
Seventeen (18.5%) of the 92 patients developed grade 2 or worse RILD after SBRT (49 patients in grade 1, 11 in grade 2, and 6 in ≥ grade 3). On univariate analysis, Child-Pugh class was identified as a significant clinical parameter, while normal liver volume and normal liver volumes receiving from < 15 Gy to < 60 Gy were the significant dose–volumetric parameters. Upon multivariate analysis, only Child-Pugh class was a significant parameter for predicting grade 2 or worse RILD.
The Child-Pugh B cirrhosis was found to have a significantly greater susceptibility to the development of grade 2 or worse RILD after SBRT in patients with small, unresectable HCC. Additional efforts aimed at testing other models to predict the risk of RILD in a large series of HCC patients treated with SBRT are needed.
PMCID: PMC3816573  PMID: 24160910
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Stereotactic body radiotherapy; Radiation-induced liver disease
20.  Basal cell adenocarcinoma of the salivary gland: a morphological and immunohistochemical comparison with basal cell adenoma with and without capsular invasion 
Diagnostic Pathology  2013;8:171.
It is often difficult to diagnose salivary gland tumors that exhibit basaloid features differentially. The aim of this study was to identify additional morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics that can aid the diagnosis of basal cell adenocarcinoma (BCAC) of the salivary gland.
Methods and results
In total, 29 basal cell neoplasms [eight BCACs, 11 basal cell adenomas (BCAs) with capsular invasion, and 10 BCAs without capsular invasion] and 10 cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) were subjected to histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses for CK7, CK5/6, SMA, p63, calponin, p53, c-erbB2, CD117, β-catenin, EGFR, VEGF, Ki-67, and S100P protein expression. Compared to BCA without capsular invasion, the BCACs and BCAs with capsular invasion were more likely to be larger and have solid or cribriform patterns. Most BCACs and BCAs exhibited nuclear β-catenin expression. In all basal cell neoplasm cases, the clinical course after surgery with or without radiotherapy was indolent. β-catenin, CK5/6, CD117, and S100P protein were helpful for differentiating basal cell neoplasms from ACC.
BCAs with capsular invasion shared several pathological features with BCACs, including a large size and frequent cribriform patterns but the malignant potential of these tumors seems highly limited and should be reexamined. β-catenin immunostaining may aid the differential diagnosis between basal cell neoplasms and ACCs.
Virtual slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
PMCID: PMC4016524  PMID: 24143938
Salivary gland neoplasm; Basal cell adenocarcinoma; Basal cell adenoma; β-catenin; Capsular invasion
21.  Effect of Transurethral Resection With Hydrodistention for the Treatment of Ulcerative Interstitial Cystitis 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(10):682-688.
Many treatment options to help relieve the symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) are available, but none are effective. Because no reports of transurethral ulcer resection with hydrodistention are available, we assessed the effects of such combined surgery for ulcerative IC.
Materials and Methods
Between June 2006 and June 2011, 87 female patients with IC who underwent transurethral resection with hydrodistention and were followed up for at least 12 months were included. Improvements in patients' voiding symptoms and pain were analyzed retrospectively by using a 3-day micturition chart and a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the operation. The global response assessment (GRA) was used to assess treatment satisfaction.
The mean age of the 87 female patients was 59.1±10.1 years, and the mean follow-up period was 26.7±14.4 months. Mean maximum functional bladder capacity increased from 168.4±92.4 mL to 276.3±105.4 mL (1 month) and to 227.3±91.7 mL (12 months). The mean frequency of voiding decreased from 17.2±8.5 before to 10.6±5.3 after (1 month) surgery; however, it increased again to 13.3±4.8 at 12 months. The 10-point VAS score decreased from 9.1±0.8 to 1.2±0.3 (1 month); however, it increased again to 2.5±0.4 (3 months), 3.2±0.4 (6 months), and 5.3±0.5 (12 months) (p<0.001). Symptom improvement based on the GRA was observed in 83 of the 87 patients (95.4%) at 1 month and in 55 of 87 patients (63.2%) at 12 months.
Transurethral resection with hydrodistention is an effective treatment option for ulcerative IC because it provides improvements in voiding symptoms and pain.
PMCID: PMC3806992  PMID: 24175042
Interstitial cystitis; Treatment outcome
22.  Treatment results of breast cancer patients with locoregional recurrence after mastectomy 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2013;31(3):138-146.
To analyze the results of locoregional and systemic therapy in the breast cancer patients with locoregional recurrence (LRR) after mastectomy.
Materials and Methods
Seventy-one patients who received radiotherapy for isolated LRR after mastectomy between January 1999 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 71 patients, 59 (83.1%) underwent wide excision and radiotherapy and 12 (16.9%) received radiotherapy alone. Adjuvant hormonal therapy was given to 45 patients (63.4%). Oncologic outcomes including locoregional recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors were analyzed.
Median follow-up time was 49.2 months. Of the 71 patients, 5 (7%) experienced second isolated LRR, and 40 (56%) underwent distant metastasis (DM). The median DFS was 35.6 months, and the 3- and 5-year DFS were 49.1% and 28.6%, respectively. The median OS was 86.7 months, and the 5-year OS was 62.3%. Patients who received hormone therapy together showed better 5-year DFS and OS than the patients treated with locoregional therapy only (31.6% vs. 22.1%, p = 0.036; 66.5% vs. 55.2%, p = 0.022). In multivariate analysis, higher N stage at recurrence was a significant prognostic factor for DFS and OS. Disease free interval (≤30 months vs. >30 months) from mastectomy to LRR was also significant for OS. The patients who received hormone therapy showed superior DFS and showed trend to better OS.
DM was a major pattern of failure after the treatment of LRR after mastectomy. The role of systemic treatment for LRR after mastectomy should be investigated at prospective trials.
PMCID: PMC3797273  PMID: 24137559
Breast cancer; Locoregional recurrence; Mastectomy
23.  Impairment in Task-Specific Modulation of Muscle Coordination Correlates with the Severity of Hand Impairment following Stroke 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68745.
Significant functional impairment of the hand is commonly observed in stroke survivors. Our previous studies suggested that the inability to modulate muscle coordination patterns according to task requirements may be substantial after stroke, but these limitations have not been examined directly. In this study, we aimed to characterize post-stroke impairment in the ability to modulate muscle coordination patterns across tasks and its correlation with hand impairment. Fourteen stroke survivors, divided into a group with severe hand impairment (8 subjects) and a group with moderate hand impairment (6 subjects) according to their clinical functionality score, participated in the experiment. Another four neurologically intact subjects participated in the experiment to serve as a point of comparison. Activation patterns of nine hand and wrist muscles were recorded using surface electromyography while the subjects performed six isometric tasks. Patterns of covariation in muscle activations across tasks, i.e., muscle modules, were extracted from the muscle activation data. Our results showed that the degree of reduction in the inter-task separation of the multi-muscle activation patterns was indicative of the clinical functionality score of the subjects (mean value = 26.2 for severely impaired subjects, 38.1 for moderately impaired subjects). The values for moderately impaired subjects were much closer to those of the impaired subjects (mean value = 46.1). The number of muscle modules extracted from the muscle activation patterns of a subject across six tasks, which represents the degree of motor complexity, was found to be correlated with the clinical functionality score (R = 0.68). Greater impairment was also associated with a change in the muscle module patterns themselves, with greater muscle coactivation. A substantial reduction in the degrees-of-freedom of the multi-muscle coordination post-stroke was apparent, and the extent of the reduction, assessed by the stated metrics, was strongly associated with the level of clinical impairment.
PMCID: PMC3712930  PMID: 23874745
24.  Polymorphism of the parasite lactate dehydrogenase gene from Plasmodium vivax Korean isolates 
Malaria Journal  2013;12:166.
Assaying for the parasitic lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is widely used as a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), but the efficacy of its serological effectiveness in diagnosis, that is antibody detection ability, is not known. The genetic variation of Korean isolates was analysed, and recombinant protein pLDH was evaluated as a serodiagnostic antigen for the detection of Plasmodium vivax malaria.
Genomic DNA was purified, and the pLDH gene of P. vivax was amplified from blood samples from 20 patients. The samples came from five epidemic areas: Bucheon-si, Gimpo-si, and Paju-si of Gyeonggi Province, Gangwha-gun of Incheon metropolitan city, and Cheorwon-gun of Gangwon Province, South Korea, from 2010 to 2011. The antigenicity of the recombinant protein pLDH was tested by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Sequence analysis of 20 Korean isolates of P. vivax showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of 951 nucleotides encoded a deduced protein of 316 amino acids (aa). This ORF showed 100% identity with the P. vivax Belem strain (DQ060151) and P. vivax Hainan strain (FJ527750), 89.6% homology with Plasmodium falciparum FCC1_HN (DQ825436), 90.2% homology with Plasmodium berghei (AY437808), 96.8% homology with Plasmodium knowlesi (JF958130), and 90.2% homology with Plasmodium reichenowi (AB122147). A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 456 (T to C) was also observed in the isolate from Bucheon, but it did not change in the amino acid sequence. The expressed recombinant protein had a molecular weight of approximately 32 kDa, as analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Of the 40 P. vivax patients, 34 (85.0%) were positive by ELISA.
The pLDH genes of 19 isolates of P. vivax were identical, except one for SNP at nucleotide 456. This observation indicates that this gene is relatively stable. Based on these results, the relationship between antibody production against pLDH and the pattern of disease onset should be investigated further before using pLDH for serodiagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3665548  PMID: 23688062
25.  The application of PET-CT to post-mastectomy regional radiation therapy using a deformable image registration 
To evaluate the utility of the preoperative PET-CT using deformable image registration (DIR) in the treatment of patients with locally advanced breast cancer and to find appropriate radiotherapy technique for further adequate treatment of axillary nodal area.
Sixty-five breast cancer patients who had level II, III axillary or supraclavicular lymph node metastasis on 18F-FDG PET-CT and received postoperative radiotherapy after modified radical mastectomy were enrolled. One radiation oncologist contoured normal organs (axillary vessels, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head) and involved lymph nodes on PET-CT and simulation CT slices. After contouring, deformable image registration of PET-CT on simulation CT was carried out. To evaluate the performance of the DIR, Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Center of mass (COM) were used. We created two plans, one was the historically designed three field plan and the other was the modified plan based on the location of axillary lymph node, and we compared the doses that irradiated the axillary lymph nodes.
The DSCs for axillary artery, axillary vein, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head were 0.43 ± 0.15, 0.39 ± 0.20, 0.85 ± 0.10, 0.72 ± 0.20 and 0.77 ± 0.20, respectively. The distances between the COMs of axillary artery, axillary vein, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head in simulation CT and from PET-CT were 13.0 ±7.1, 20.2 ± 11.2, 4.4 ± 6.3, 3.7 ± 6.7, and 9.5 ± 25.0 mm, respectively. In the historically designed plan, only 57.7% of level II lymph nodes received more than 95% of prescribed dose and the coverage was improved to 70.0% with the modified plan (p < 0.01). For level III lymph nodes, the volumes received more than 95% of prescribed dose were similar in both plans (96.8 % vs 97.9%, p = 0.35).
Deformable image registration of PET-CT on simulation CT was helpful in the identification of the location of the preoperatively involved axillary lymph node. Historically designed three-field plan was not adequate to treat the axillary level II lymph node area. Novel treatment technique based on the location of axillary lymph node from PET-CT using DIR can result in more adequate coverage of nodal area.
PMCID: PMC3698158  PMID: 23621896
Breast cancer; Deformable image registration (DIR); Radiotherapy; PET-CT

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