PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (154)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
more »
Year of Publication
more »
1.  A Case of Catamenial Hemoptysis Treated by Bronchial Artery Embolization 
Catamenial hemoptysis is a rare condition, characterized by recurrent hemoptysis associated with the presence of intrapulmonary or endobronchial endometrial tissue. Therapeutic strategies proposed for intrapulmonary endometriosis with catamenial hemoptysis consist of medical treatments and surgery. Bronchial artery embolization is a well-established modality in the management of massive or recurrent hemoptysis, but has seldom been used for the treatment of catamenial hemoptysis. We report a case of catamenial hemoptysis associated with pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis, which was successfully treated by a bronchial artery embolization.
doi:10.4046/trd.2014.76.5.233
PMCID: PMC4050071  PMID: 24920950
Endometriosis; Hemoptysis; Embolization, Therapeutic
2.  Genetic Variations of ABCC2 Gene Associated with Adverse Drug Reactions to Valproic Acid in Korean Epileptic Patients 
Genomics & Informatics  2013;11(4):254-262.
The multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2, ABCC2) gene may determine individual susceptibility to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the central nervous system (CNS) by limiting brain access of antiepileptic drugs, especially valproic acid (VPA). Our objective was to investigate the effect of ABCC2 polymorphisms on ADRs caused by VPA in Korean epileptic patients. We examined the association of ABCC2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype frequencies with VPA related to adverse reactions. In addition, the association of the polymorphisms with the risk of VPA related to adverse reactions was estimated by logistic regression analysis. A total of 41 (24.4%) patients had shown VPA-related adverse reactions in CNS, and the most frequent symptom was tremor (78.0%). The patients with CNS ADRs were more likely to have the G allele (79.3% vs. 62.7%, p = 0.0057) and the GG genotype (61.0% vs. 39.7%, p = 0.019) at the g.-1774delG locus. The frequency of the haplotype containing g.-1774Gdel was significantly lower in the patients with CNS ADRs than without CNS ADRs (15.8% vs. 32.3%, p = 0.0039). Lastly, in the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of the GG genotype at the g.-1774delG locus was identified as a stronger risk factor for VPA related to ADRs (odds ratio, 8.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 70.17). We demonstrated that ABCC2 polymorphisms may influence VPA-related ADRs. The results above suggest the possible usefulness of ABCC2 gene polymorphisms as a marker for predicting response to VPA-related ADRs.
doi:10.5808/GI.2013.11.4.254
PMCID: PMC3897854  PMID: 24465238
drug toxicity; epilepsy; genetic polymorphism; MRP2; valproic acid
3.  The Prevalence and Therapeutic Effect of Constipation in Pediatric Overactive Bladder 
Purpose
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a manifestation of urgency, regardless of urge incontinence, due to involuntary bladder contraction during the storage period. There is a close association between constipation and OAB, but constipation cannot be readily diagnosed. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of constipation in OAB and the consequent therapeutic effects according to the diagnostic criteria for constipation.
Methods
We collected clinical data from 40 children (mean age, 71±22 months) with chief complaints of urgency, frequency, and incontinence. A voiding questionnaire and a 2-day voiding diary were collected, and urinalysis, the Bristol stool scale, and plain abdominal radiography were performed. Constipation was defined as conditions satisfying at least one of the following criteria: Rome III diagnostic criteria, Bristol stool scale types I/II, or a Leech score higher than 8 points as determined by plain radiography. Lower urinary tract symptoms, defecation symptoms, and the bladder volume of patients were examined, and the therapeutic outcomes by constipation diagnostic criteria were evaluated.
Results
Of the 40 OAB patients, 25 had constipation. Among them, 6 had reduced functional bladder capacity (24%; P>0.05). Regarding treatment, in patients who satisfied only one diagnostic criterion, the symptoms improved in 76.9%, 76.9%, and 69.6% of patients meeting the Rome III criteria, Bristol stool scale, and Leech score, respectively (P<0.05). Among the 8 patients satisfying all three criteria, 75% responded to treatment (P<0.05).
Conclusions
The prevalence of constipation in OAB is high. Constipated patients recruited by use of the Rome III criteria, Bristol scale, and Leech score alone and together showed similar outcomes on OAB improvement after the treatment of constipation, which implies that each criterion has the same strength and can be applied comprehensively and generally.
doi:10.5213/inj.2011.15.4.206
PMCID: PMC3256305  PMID: 22259734
Overactive urinary bladder; Pediatrics; Constipation
4.  HPV Vaccine Information-Seeking Behaviors among US Physicians: Government, Media, or Colleagues? 
Vaccine  2011;29(32):5090-5093.
The multiple information sources available may pose a challenge to physicians in providing accurate human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine information to patients. The purpose of this study was to describe physicians' HPV vaccine information-seeking behaviors and assess if these behaviors differ by physician specialty and sociodemographic characteristics. In 2009, 1,008 Family Physicians (FPs), Pediatricians (Peds), and Obstetric/Gynecologists (OBGYNs) completed a survey to assess their HPV vaccine information-seeking behaviors and vaccination practices. The largest proportion obtained HPV vaccine information from professional organizations (50.0%), followed by the Advisory Council on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (36.0%), and medical conferences (33.1%). Peds and FPs were more likely to obtain vaccine information from the ACIP (p-values < 0.05). OBGYNs, non-White/Caucasian physicians and those aged 40–49 were more likely to obtain vaccine information from internet websites (p-values < 0.05). There is a need for targeted HPV vaccine communication approaches based on sociodemographic and physician specialty characteristics.
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.04.134
PMCID: PMC3138888  PMID: 21619906
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines; information-seeking; physicians; health communication; United States
5.  Whole-Genome Analysis in Korean Patients with Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;55(3):660-668.
Purpose
The underlying cause of myasthenia gravis (MG) is unknown, although it likely involves a genetic component. However, no common genetic variants have been unequivocally linked to autoimmune MG. We sought to identify the genetic variants associated with an increased or decreased risk of developing MG in samples from a Korean Multicenter MG Cohort.
Materials and Methods
To determine new genetic targets related to autoimmune MG, a whole genome-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) analysis was conducted using an Axiom™ Genome-Wide ASI 1 Array, comprising 598375 SNPs and samples from 109 MG patients and 150 neurologically normal controls.
Results
In total, 641 SNPs from five case-control associations showed p-values of less than 10-5. From regional analysis, we selected seven candidate genes (RYR3, CACNA1S, SLAMF1, SOX5, FHOD3, GABRB1, and SACS) for further analysis.
Conclusion
The present study suggests that a few genetic polymorphisms, such as in RYR3, CACNA1S, and SLAMF1, might be related to autoimmune MG. Our findings also encourage further studies, particularly confirmatory studies with larger samples, to validate and analyze the association between these SNPs and autoimmune MG.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.3.660
PMCID: PMC3990093  PMID: 24719132
Myasthenia gravis; whole genome-based SNP analysis; RYR3; CACNA1S; SLAMF1
6.  A Prospective Study of Epicardial Adipose Tissue and Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(12):1762-1767.
Increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may be closely associated with the development of metabolic abnormalities. We investigated whether EAT predicts the incident metabolic syndrome in a community-based, middle-aged population. The study subjects were comprised of 354 adults (134 men and 220 women) aged 40 to 70 yr without metabolic syndrome. Baseline EAT thickness, measured by echocardiography, was compared between subjects who developed new-onset metabolic syndrome at follow-up survey and those who did not. After an average of 2.2 yr of follow-up, 32 men (23.9%) and 37 women (16.8%) developed metabolic syndrome. Median EAT thickness at baseline was significantly higher in male subjects who developed metabolic syndrome than those who did not (1.52 mm vs 2.37 mm, P<0.001). The highest quartile of EAT thickness (≥2.55 mm) was associated with increased risk of progression to metabolic syndrome (Odds ratio [OR], 3.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-8.66) after adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol intake, regular exercise, total energy intake, high sensitive C-reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in men. A significant association of EAT with incident metabolic syndrome was not seen in women (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.54-2.90). In conclusion, increased EAT thickness is an independent predictor for incident metabolic syndrome in men.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.12.1762
PMCID: PMC3857372  PMID: 24339706
Metabolic Syndrome; Adipose Tissue; Pericardium
7.  Self-Help Booklets for Preventing Postpartum Smoking Relapse: A Randomized Trial 
American journal of public health  2012;102(11):10.2105/AJPH.2012.300653.
Objectives
We tested a series of self-help booklets designed to prevent postpartum smoking relapse.
Methods
We recruited 700 women in months 4-8 of pregnancy, who had quit smoking for their pregnancy. We randomized the women to receive either (a) 10 Forever Free for Baby and Me relapse-prevention booklets, mailed until 8 months postpartum (FFB), or (b) two existing smoking cessation materials, as a Usual Care Control (UCC). Assessments were completed at baseline and 1, 8, and 12 months postpartum.
Results
We received baseline questionnaires from 504 women meeting inclusion criteria. We found a main effect for treatment at 8 months, with FFB yielding higher abstinence rates (69.6%) than UCC (58.5%). Treatment effect was moderated by annual household income and age. Among lower-income women (<$30,000), treatment effects were found at 8 and 12 months postpartum, with respective abstinence rates of 72.2% and 72.1% for FFB and 53.6% and 50.5% for UCC. No effects were found for higher-income women.
Conclusions
Self-help booklets appear to be efficacious and offer a low-cost modality for providing relapse-prevention assistance to low-income pregnant and postpartum women.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300653
PMCID: PMC3477952  PMID: 22994170
8.  Association between CDH13 Variants and Cardiometabolic and Vascular Phenotypes in a Korean Population 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(6):1305-1312.
Purpose
Although some CDH13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be determinants of blood adiponectin levels, the clinical implications of CDH13 variants are not yet completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of SNPs of CDH13 on metabolic and vascular phenotypes.
Materials and Methods
We included 238 hypertensive subjects and 260 age- and sex-matched controls. Seven tagging-SNPs were identified in the CDH13 gene by whole gene sequencing. The association between these SNP variants and the risk of hypertension, metabolic traits, and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was examined.
Results
Minor allele carriers of rs12444338 had a lower risk of hypertension, but the association turned out just marginal after adjusting confoudners. Blood glucose levels were higher in the minor allele carriers of c.1407C>T (p=0.01), whereas low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were greater in those of rs6565105 (p=0.02). The minor allele of rs1048612 was associated with a higher body mass index (p=0.01). In addition, the mean carotid IMT was significantly associated with rs12444338 (p=0.02) and rs1048612 (p=0.02).
Conclusion
These results provide evidence that CDH13 variants are associated with metabolic traits and carotid atherosclerosis in Koreans. This study shows the multifaceted effects of CDH13 variants on cardiometabolic risk.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.6.1305
PMCID: PMC3809859  PMID: 24142632
CDH13 protein; human; hypertension; atherosclerosis; glucose; cholesterol
9.  TAA repeat variation in the GRIK2 gene does not influence age at onset in Huntington's disease 
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat whose length is the major determinant of age at onset but remaining variation appears to be due in part to the effect of genetic modifiers. GRIK2, which encodes GluR6, a mediator of excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, has been suggested in several studies to be a modifier gene based upon a 3′ untranslated region TAA trinucleotide repeat polymorphism. Prior to investing in detailed studies of the functional impact of this polymorphism, we sought to confirm its effect on age at onset in a much larger dataset than in previous investigations. We genotyped the HD CAG repeat and the GRIK2 TAA repeat in DNA samples from 2,911 Huntington's disease subjects with known age at onset, and tested for a potential modifier effect of GRIK2 using a variety of statistical approaches. Unlike previous reports, we detected no evidence of an influence of the GRIK2 TAA repeat polymorphism on age at motor onset. Similarly, the GRIK2 polymorphism did not show significant modifier effect on psychiatric and cognitive age at onset in HD. Comprehensive analytical methods applied to a much larger sample than in previous studies do not support a role for GRIK2 as a genetic modifier of age at onset of clinical symptoms in Huntington's disease.
doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.06.120
PMCID: PMC3752397  PMID: 22771793
Huntington's disease (HD); Age at onset; GRIK2; Genetic modifier
10.  The Adaptive Nature of the Bone-Periodontal Ligament-Cementum Complex in a Ligature-Induced Periodontitis Rat Model 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:876316.
The novel aspect of this study involves illustrating significant adaptation of a functionally loaded bone-PDL-cementum complex in a ligature-induced periodontitis rat model. Following 4, 8, and 15 days of ligation, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and RANKL), a mineral resorption indicator (TRAP), and a cell migration and adhesion molecule for tissue regeneration (fibronectin) within the complex were localized and correlated with changes in PDL-space (functional space). At 4 days of ligation, the functional space of the distal complex was widened compared to controls and was positively correlated with an increased expression of TNF-α. At 8 and 15 days, the number of RANKL(+) cells decreased near the mesial alveolar bone crest (ABC) but increased at the distal ABC. TRAP(+) cells on both sides of the complex significantly increased at 8 days. A gradual change in fibronectin expression from the distal PDL-secondary cementum interfaces through precementum layers was observed when compared to increased and abrupt changes at the mesial PDL-cementum and PDL-bone interfaces in ligated and control groups. Based on our results, we hypothesize that compromised strain fields can be created in a diseased periodontium, which in response to prolonged function can significantly alter the original bone and apical cementum formations.
doi:10.1155/2013/876316
PMCID: PMC3713652  PMID: 23936854
11.  A case of colon perforation due to enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma 
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is an extremely rare disease, which is often related to gluten-sensitive enteropathy. It is an uncommon intestinal lymphoma with very poor prognosis and high mortality rate. In the absence of specific symptoms or radiological findings, it is difficult to diagnose early. Major complications of EATL have been known as intestinal perforation or obstruction, and only 5 cases of EATL are reported in South Korea. In this study, we report a case of 71-year-old male with symptoms of diarrhea, which later it progressed into cancer perforation of the colon. The initial colonoscopic findings were normal and computed tomography scan demonstrated a segmental wall thickening of the distal ascending colon with nonspecific multiple small lymphnodes, along the ileocolic vessels, but no signs of mass or obstruction. The histologic findings of resected specimen confirmed EATL type II. Patient expired two weeks after the operation. Therefore, we emphasize the need of random biopsy in the presence of normal mucosa appearance on colonoscopy for the early diagnosis of EATL.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i11.1841
PMCID: PMC3607762  PMID: 23555174
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma type II; Intestinal perforation; Gastrointestinal lymphoma; Celiac disease
12.  Men’s Responses to HPV Test Results: Development of a Theory-Based Survey 
Objective
To develop and perform psychometric testing on an instrument designed to assess cognitive/ emotional responses among men receiving HPV testing.
Methods
Men enrolled in an HPV natural history study (N=139) completed a computer-assisted survey instrument based on Leventhal’s parallel processing/common-sense model. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Mplus.
Results
Reliability analyses resulted in Cronbach α of 0.72 (knowledge), 0.86 (perceived threat), 0.83 (self-efficacy), and 0.55 (response efficacy). A revised measurement model exhibited evidence of construct validity, as indicated by acceptable model fit statistics.
Conclusion
To our knowledge, this is the only validated instrument assessing men’s reactions to an HPV test result.
PMCID: PMC3495067  PMID: 19320621
HPV; behavioral; instrument development; theoretical framework
13.  Missed Clinical Opportunities: Provider Recommendations for HPV Vaccination for 11-12 Year Old Girls is Limited 
Vaccine  2011;29(47):8634-8641.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of physician recommendation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in early (ages 11-12), middle (13-17), and late adolescent/young adult (18-26) female patients by physician specialty, and to identify factors associated with recommendation in early adolescents.
Methods
A 38-item survey was conducted April 2009 through August 2009 among a nationally representative random sample of 1,538 Family Physicians, Pediatricians, and Obstetricians and Gynecologists obtained from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. A multivariable model was used to assess factors associated with frequency of physician recommendation of HPV vaccination (“always”=76-100% of the time vs. other=0-75%) within the past 12 months.
Results
Completed surveys were received from 1,013 physicians, including 500 Family Physicians, 287 Pediatricians, and 226 Obstetricians and Gynecologists (response rate = 67.8%). Across the specialties, 34.6% of physicians reported they “always” recommend the HPV vaccine to early adolescents, 52.7% to middle adolescents, and 50.2% to late adolescents/young adults. The likelihood of “always” recommending the HPV vaccine was highest among Pediatricians for all age groups (P < .001). Physician specialty, age, ethnicity, reported barriers, and Vaccines for Children provider status were significantly associated with “always” recommending HPV vaccination for early adolescents.
Conclusions
Findings suggest missed clinical opportunities for HPV vaccination, and perceived barriers to vaccination may drive decisions about recommendation. Results suggest the need for age and specialty targeted practice and policy level interventions to increase HPV vaccination among US females.
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.09.006
PMCID: PMC3200426  PMID: 21924315
human papillomavirus; HPV vaccine; cancer vaccine; cervix cancer; physician
14.  EGFR Polymorphism as a Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Advanced Lung Cancer Patients Treated with EGFR-TKI 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(6):1128-1135.
Purpose
Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been confirmed as predictors of the efficacy of treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We investigated whether polymorphisms of the EGFR gene were associated with clinical outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with EGFR-TKI.
Materials and Methods
A polymorphic dinucleotide repeat in intron 1 [CA simple sequence repeat in intron 1(CA-SSR1)] in intron 1 and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP-216) in the promoter region of the EGFR gene were evaluated in 71 NSCLC patients by restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and clinical outcomes of treatment with EGFR-TKIs was evaluated.
Results
SNP-216G/T polymorphisms were associated with the efficacy of EGFR-TKI. The response rate for the SNP-216G/T tended to be higher than that for G/G (62.5% vs. 27.4%, p=0.057). The SNP-216G/T genotype was also associated with longer progression-free survival compared with the GG genotype (16.7 months vs. 5.1 months, p=0.005). However, the length of CA-SSR1 was not associated with the efficacy of EGFR-TKI.
Conclusion
SNP-216G/T polymorphism was a potential predictor of clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-TKI.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.6.1128
PMCID: PMC3481391  PMID: 23074112
Polymorphism; lung cancer; EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor
15.  Clinicopathologic significance of expression of nuclear factor-κB RelA and its target gene products in gastric cancer patients 
AIM: To assess the prognostic significance of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its target genes in gastric cancer.
METHODS: The tumor tissues of 115 patients with gastric cancer were immunohistochemically evaluated using monoclonal antibodies against NF-κB RelA. Preoperative serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed via enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) were measured via immunotrubidimetry.
RESULTS: Positive rate of NF-κB RelA was 42.6%. NF-κB RelA expression in tumor tissues was also related to serum levels of IL-6 (P = 0.044) and CRP (P = 0.010). IL-6, SAA, CRP were related to depth of invasion, VEGF and SAA were correlated with lymph node metastasis. IL-6, VEGF, SAA and CRP were related to the stage. Univariate analysis demonstrated that immunostaining of NF-κB RelA, levels of IL-6, VEGF, SAA were significantly related with both disease free survival and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis verified that NF-κB RelA [hazard ratio (HR): 3.40, P = 0.024] and SAA (HR: 3.39, P = 0.045) were independently associated with OS.
CONCLUSION: Increased expression of NF-κB RelA and high levels of serum SAA were associated with poor OS in gastric cancer patients.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i34.4744
PMCID: PMC3442213  PMID: 23002344
Nuclear factor-κB; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Interleukin-6; C-reactive protein; Serum amyloid A; Stomach; Carcinoma
16.  Predictive Value of In Vitro Adenosine Triphosphate-Based Chemotherapy Response Assay in Advanced Gastric Cancer Patients Who Received Oral 5-Fluorouracil after Curative Resection 
Purpose
To assess the usefulness of adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) results in advanced gastric cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.
Materials and Methods
Sixty-two patients underwent curative surgical resection between January, 2006 and December, 2008. Their highly purified surgical specimens were evaluated by ATP-CRAs. Of the 62, 49 had successful assay results and they received either oral 5-fluorouracil or other chemotherapies. We retrospectively analyzed data for 24 patients who were treated with oral 5-fluorouracil and whose assays were successful.
Results
The median observation time was 24.6 months (range, 10.1 to 40.9 months). The median treatment time was 11.2 months (range, 1.2 to 17.7 months). The median age was 66 years (range, 30 to 81 years). Patients were grouped into sensitive- and resistant-groups according to adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response results for fluorouracil. The sensitive-group showed a significantly longer time to relapse (not reached in the sensitive-group vs. 24.8 months in the resistant-group, p=0.043) and longer overall survival compared to the resistant-group (not reached in the sensitive-group vs. 35.7 months in the resistant-group, p=0.16, statistically insignificant).
Conclusion
Patients who receive curative surgical resection significantly benefit from sensitive adjuvant chemotherapy according to ATP-CRA results for time to relapse.
doi:10.4143/crt.2011.43.2.117
PMCID: PMC3138915  PMID: 21811428
Adenosine triphosphate; Chemotherapy response assay; Gastric cancer; Fluorouracil; Adjuvant chemotherapy
17.  Strategies for Assessing Community Challenges and Strengths for Cancer Disparities Participatory Research and Outreach 
Health promotion practice  2009;11(6):876-887.
Interventions involving community–academic partnerships must be driven by a participatory approach that is informed by a comprehensive understanding of the perspectives of communities or focus populations. Often research agendas of academics are different from perceived priority needs of community members. Successful and sustainable interventions are made possible with initial open dialogue among all collaborators so that roles are clearly defined and concerns are addressed. This article describes approaches used in the development of a participatory assessment of health and social issues as defined by community and academic partners, current findings, and lessons learned. The assessment is one initial activity of the Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) to guide network directions through 2010. The TBCCN is one of 25 programs nationwide addressing cancer disparities through sustainable community-based participatory research, outreach, and screening activities.
doi:10.1177/1524839909335803
PMCID: PMC2888920  PMID: 19515858
health disparities; community–academic partnerships; community networks program; community assessment; community-based participatory research
18.  Analysis of Group Randomized Trials with Multiple Binary Endpoints and Small Number of Groups 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(10):e7265.
The group randomized trial (GRT) is a common study design to assess the effect of an intervention program aimed at health promotion or disease prevention. In GRTs, groups rather than individuals are randomized into intervention or control arms. Then, responses are measured on individuals within those groups. A number of analytical problems beset GRT designs. The major problem emerges from the likely positive intraclass correlation among observations of individuals within a group. This paper provides an overview of the analytical method for GRT data and applies this method to a randomized cancer prevention trial, where multiple binary primary endpoints were obtained. We develop an index of extra variability to investigate group-specific effects on response. The purpose of the index is to understand the influence of individual groups on evaluating the intervention effect, especially, when a GRT study involves a small number of groups. The multiple endpoints from the GRT design are analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model and the stepdown Bonferroni method of Holm.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007265
PMCID: PMC2760209  PMID: 19844579
19.  Genome-wide SNP identification and QTL mapping for black rot resistance in cabbage 
BMC Plant Biology  2015;15:32.
Background
Black rot is a destructive bacterial disease causing large yield and quality losses in Brassica oleracea. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for black rot resistance, we performed whole-genome resequencing of two cabbage parental lines and genome-wide SNP identification using the recently published B. oleracea genome sequences as reference.
Results
Approximately 11.5 Gb of sequencing data was produced from each parental line. Reference genome-guided mapping and SNP calling revealed 674,521 SNPs between the two cabbage lines, with an average of one SNP per 662.5 bp. Among 167 dCAPS markers derived from candidate SNPs, 117 (70.1%) were validated as bona fide SNPs showing polymorphism between the parental lines. We then improved the resolution of a previous genetic map by adding 103 markers including 87 SNP-based dCAPS markers. The new map composed of 368 markers and covers 1467.3 cM with an average interval of 3.88 cM between adjacent markers. We evaluated black rot resistance in the mapping population in three independent inoculation tests using F2:3 progenies and identified one major QTL and three minor QTLs.
Conclusion
We report successful utilization of whole-genome resequencing for large-scale SNP identification and development of molecular markers for genetic map construction. In addition, we identified novel QTLs for black rot resistance. The high-density genetic map will promote QTL analysis for other important agricultural traits and marker-assisted breeding of B. oleracea.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-015-0424-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12870-015-0424-6
PMCID: PMC4323122  PMID: 25644124
Cabbage; Whole-genome resequencing; Genetic linkage map; Black rot; QTL
20.  Disease Awareness and Management Behavior of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Questionnaire Survey of 313 Patients 
Annals of Dermatology  2015;27(1):40-47.
Background
Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) should be relatively well informed about the disorder to control their condition and prevent flare-ups. Thus far, there is no accurate information about the disease awareness levels and therapeutic behavior of AD patients.
Objective
To collect data on patients' knowledge about AD and their behavior in relation to seeking information about the disease and its treatment.
Methods
We performed a questionnaire survey on the disease awareness and self-management behavior of AD patients. A total of 313 patients and parents of patients with AD who had visited the The Catholic University of Korea, Catholic Medical Center between November 2011 and October 2012 were recruited. We compared the percentage of correct answers from all collected questionnaires according to the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients.
Results
Although dermatologists were the most frequent disease information sources and treatment providers for the AD patients, a significant proportion of participants obtained information from the Internet, which carries a huge amount of false medical information. A considerable number of participants perceived false online information as genuine, especially concerning complementary and alternative medicine treatments of AD, and the adverse effects of steroids. Some questions on AD knowledge had significantly different answers according to sex, marriage status, educational level, type of residence and living area, disease duration, disease severity, and treatment history with dermatologists.
Conclusion
Dermatologists should pay more attention to correcting the common misunderstandings about AD to reduce unnecessary social/economic losses and improve treatment compliance.
doi:10.5021/ad.2015.27.1.40
PMCID: PMC4323601
Awareness; Complementary therapies; Dermatitis; atopic; Disease management; Information seeking behavior
21.  Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:323090.
While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna), and a fish (Oryzias latipes) based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203). According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50) of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish.
doi:10.1155/2015/323090
PMCID: PMC4310303  PMID: 25654094
22.  Physicians’ Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Recommendations, 2009 and 2011 
Background
Physician recommendation is a key predictor of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake. Understanding factors associated with recommendation is important for efforts to increase current suboptimal vaccine uptake.
Purpose
This study aimed to examine physician recommendations to vaccinate female patients aged 11–26 years, in 2009 and 2011, at 3 and 5 years postvaccine licensure, respectively. A second aim was to identify trends in factors associated with vaccine recommendation for ages 11 and 12 years.
Methods
Nationally representative samples of physicians practicing family medicine, pediatrics, and obstetrics and gynecology were randomly selected from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile (n=1538 in 2009, n=1541 in 2011). A mailed survey asked physicians about patient and clinical practice characteristics; immunization support; and frequency of HPV vaccine recommendation (“always” = >75% of the time vs other). Analyses were conducted in 2012.
Results
Completed surveys were received from 1013 eligible physicians (68% response rate) in 2009 and 928 (63%) in 2011. The proportion of physicians who reported “always” recommending HPV vaccine increased significantly from 2009 to 2011 for patients aged 11 or 12 years (35% vs 40%, respectively; p=0.03), but not for patients aged 13–17 years (53% vs 55%; p= 0.28) or 18–26 years (50% vs 52%; p=0.52). Physician specialty, age, and perceived issues/barriers to vaccination were associated with vaccine recommendation for patients aged 11 or 12 in both years.
Conclusions
Results suggest a modest increase in recommendations for HPV vaccination of girls aged 11 or 12 years over a 2-year period; however, recommendations remain suboptimal for all age groups despite national recommendations for universal immunization.
doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.07.009
PMCID: PMC3895928  PMID: 24355675
23.  Three-month Treatment Response and Exacerbation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 
The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between acute exacerbation and Forced Expiratory Volume 1 second (FEV1) improvement after treatment with combined long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 137 COPD patients were classified as responders or nonresponders according to FEV1 improvement after 3 months of LABA/ICS treatment in fourteen referral hospitals in Korea. Exacerbation occurrence in these two subgroups was compared over a period of 1 yr. Eighty of the 137 COPD patients (58.4%) were classified as responders and 57 (41.6%) as nonresponders. Acute exacerbations occurred in 25 patients (31.3%) in the responder group and in 26 patients (45.6%) in the nonresponder group (P=0.086). FEV1 improvement after LABA/ICS treatment was a significant prognostic factor for fewer acute exacerbations in a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for age, sex, FEV1, smoking history, 6 min walk distance, body mass index, exacerbation history in the previous year, and dyspnea scale.Three-month treatment response to LABA/ICS might be a prognostic factor for the occurrence of acute exacerbation in COPD patients.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2015.30.1.54
PMCID: PMC4278027  PMID: 25552883
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Forced Expiratory Volume; Disease Progression
24.  Alcohol Drinking Increased the Risk of Advanced Colorectal Adenomas 
Intestinal Research  2015;13(1):74-79.
Background/Aims
Age, sex, gene and life style are modulating risks for colon cancer. Although alcohol intake may impact on colorectal adenoma, clear association has not been established yet. We aimed to investigate effects of alcohol consumption on the characteristics of colorectal adenoma.
Methods
Patients who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy of colorectal adenoma in the department of gastroenterology of Eulji hospital through 2005 to 2012, having both blood tests and ultrasound or abdominal CT examination were enrolled. The alcohol drinking patients were subdivided into normal or abnormal laboratory group, and alcoholic liver diseases group.
Results
212 patients with colorectal adenoma were analyzed; advanced adenoma and multiple adenoma were found in 68 (32.0%) and 79 (37.2%) patients. When compared to the nondrinker group (120/212 patients), the alcohol drinker group (92/212 patients) represented significantly high odds ratios (ORs) for advanced adenoma (OR, 2.697; P=0.002), and multiple adenoma (OR, 1.929; P=0.039). Among alcohol drinker (92 patients), the ORs of advanced adenoma were 6.407 (P=0.003) in alcoholic liver diseases group (17 patients), 3.711 (P=0.002) in the alcohol drinker with abnormal lab (24 patients), and 2.184 (P=0.034), in the alcohol drinker with normal lab (51 patients) compared to nondrinker group.
Conclusions
This study showed that alcohol drinking may influence on the development of advanced colorectal adenoma and multiplicity. Especially in the group with alcoholic liver diseases and with abnormal lab presented significantly higher ORs of advanced adenoma.
doi:10.5217/ir.2015.13.1.74
PMCID: PMC4316226
Advanced colorectal adenoma; Alcohol drinking; Risk; Liver diseases, alcoholics
25.  Prognostic Value of Glioma Cancer Stem Cell Isolation in Survival of Primary Glioblastoma Patients 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:838950.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported to be critical in the initiation, maintenance, and progression of cancers. The expression of stem cell markers, such as podoplanin (PDPN), CD133, and nestin, may have been correlated with malignant progression. However, the effects of CSCs and stem cell markers on clinical outcomes in cancer patients remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the prognostic roles of glioma CSCs (gCSCs) isolation and stem cell markers in patients with primary glioblastoma (pGBM). A cohort of 39 patients with pGBM was separated into two groups, those positive or negative for gCSCs, and the correlation between gCSC and patient survival was evaluated. We observed significantly different cumulative survival (P = 0.045) when comparing patients positive for gCSCs patients and negative for gCSC. Among the patients positive for gCSCs, we observed no significant differences in survival between those whose gCSCs were each positive or negative for PDPN, CD133, or nestin. This study strongly supports the prognostic value of gCSCs isolation on the survival of patients with pGBM.
doi:10.1155/2014/838950
PMCID: PMC4279114  PMID: 25580136

Results 1-25 (154)