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1.  Effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and the expression of its receptor on various malignant cells 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(3):219-224.
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is extensively used to improve neutrophil count during anti-cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of G-CSF on several leukemic cell lines and screened for the expression of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) in various malignant cells.
We examined the effects of the most commonly used commercial forms of G-CSF (glycosylated lenograstim and nonglycosylated filgrastim) on various leukemic cell lines by flow cytometry. Moreover, we screened for the expression of G-CSFR mRNA in 38 solid tumor cell lines by using real-time PCR.
G-CSF stimulated proliferation (40-80% increase in proliferation in treated cells as compared to that in control cells) in 3 leukemic cell lines and induced differentiation of AML1/ETO+ leukemic cells. Among the 38 solid tumor cell lines, 5 cell lines (hepatoblastoma, 2 breast carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, and melanoma cell lines) showed G-CSFR mRNA expression.
The results of the present study show that therapeutic G-CSF might stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of malignant cells with G-CSFR expression, suggesting that prescreening for G-CSFR expression in primary tumor cells may be necessary before using G-CSF for treatment.
PMCID: PMC3464340  PMID: 23071478
G-CSF; Differentiation; Proliferation; Solid tumor; AML
2.  Increased risk of atherothrombotic events associated with cytochrome P450 3A5 polymorphism in patients taking clopidogrel 
Clopidogrel is a prodrug requiring metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) isoenzymes, including CYP3A5, in order to be active. It is controversial whether clopidogrel interacts with CYP3A inhibitors. We investigated the influence of CYP3A5 polymorphism on the drug interaction of clopidogrel.
In phase 1 of the study, we administered clopidogrel to 16 healthy volunteers who had the CYP3A5 non-expressor genotype (*3 allele) and 16 who had the CYP3A5 expressor genotype (*1 allele) with and without pretreatment with itraconazole, a potent CYP3A inhibitor. A platelet aggregation test was performed at baseline, 4 hours, 24 hours and 6 days after clopidogrel administration. In phase 2, we compared clinical outcomes of 348 patients treated with clopidogrel after successful coronary angioplasty with bare-metal stent implantation according to their CYP3A5 genotype; the primary end point was a composite of atherothrombotic events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and non-hemorrhagic stroke) within 1 and 6 months after stent implantation.
In phase 1, the change in platelet aggregation after clopidogrel administration and pretreatment with itraconazole was greater among the subjects with the CYP3A5 expressor genotype than among those with the non-expressor genotype: 24.9% (standard deviation [SD] 13.9%) v. 6.2% (SD 13.5%) at 4 hours (p < 0.001); 27.7% (SD 16.5%) v. 2.5% (SD 8.3%) at 24 hours (p < 0.001); and 33.5% (SD 18.6%) v. 17.8% (SD 13.8%) at day 7 (p < 0.01). In phase 2, atherothrombotic events occurred more frequently within 6 months after stent implantation among the patients with the non-expressor genotype than among those with the expressor genotype (14/193 v. 3/155; p = 0.023). Multivariable analysis showed that the CYP3A5 polymorphism was a predictor of atherothrombotic events in clopidogrel users.
People with the CYP3A5 non-expressor genotype are vulnerable to drug interactions between clopidogrel and CYP3A inhibitors. This phenomenon may be associated with worse outcomes in patients with the non-expressor genotype who are given clopidogrel after coronary angioplasty and implantation of bare-metal stents.
PMCID: PMC1471813  PMID: 16754899
3.  MYD88 L265P Mutations Are Correlated with 6q Deletion in Korean Patients with Waldenström Macroglobulinemia 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:363540.
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a malignant lymphoplasma-proliferative disorder with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. A recent whole-genome study identified MYD88 L265P as the key mutation in WM. We investigated MYD88 mutations in conjunction with cytogenetic study in 22 consecutive Korean WM patients. Conventional G-banding and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed at regions including 6q21 using bone marrow (BM) aspirates. Sixteen patients were subjected to Sanger sequencing-based MYD88 mutation study. Five patients (28%) showed cytogenetic aberrations in G-banding. The incidence of 6q21 deletion was 17% by conventional G-banding and 37% by FISH. Ten patients (45%) showed cytogenetic aberrations using FISH: 6q deletion in eight (37%) and IGH rearrangement in four (18%). Two patients had both the 6q deletion and IGH rearrangement, and two had only the IGH rearrangement. Eleven patients (69%) presented with the MYD88 L265P mutation. MYD88 mutations were significantly associated with the presence of 6q deletions (P = 0.037). Six patients with the 6q deletion for whom sequencing was possible were found to harbor MYD88 mutations. The MYD88 L265P mutation was also associated with increased lymphocyte burden in BM biopsy. This is the first report of high frequency MYD88 L265P mutations in Korean WM patients.
PMCID: PMC4033400  PMID: 24895570
4.  The application of an in situ karyotyping technique for mesenchymal stromal cells: a validation and comparison study with classical G-banding 
The cytogenetic analysis of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is essential for verifying the safety and stability of MSCs. An in situ technique, which uses cells grown on coverslips for karyotyping and minimizes cell manipulation, is the standard protocol for the chromosome analysis of amniotic fluids. Therefore, we applied the in situ karyotyping technique in MSCs and compared the quality of metaphases and karyotyping results with classical G-banding and chromosomal abnormalities with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Human adipose- and umbilical cord-derived MSC cell lines (American Type Culture Collection PCS-500-011, PCS-500-010) were used for evaluation. The quality of metaphases was assessed by analyzing the chromosome numbers in each metaphase, the overlaps of chromosomes and the mean length of chromosome 1. FISH was performed in the interphase nuclei of MSCs for 6q, 7q and 17q abnormalities and for the enumeration of chromosomes via oligo-FISH in adipose-derived MSCs. The number of chromosomes in each metaphase was more variable in classical G-banding. The overlap of chromosomes and the mean length of chromosome 1 as observed via in situ karyotyping were comparable to those of classical G-banding (P=0.218 and 0.674, respectively). Classical G-banding and in situ karyotyping by two personnel showed normal karyotypes for both cell lines in five passages. No numerical or structural chromosomal abnormalities were found by the interphase-FISH. In situ karyotyping showed equivalent karyotype results, and the quality of the metaphases was not inferior to classical G-banding. Thus, in situ karyotyping with minimized cell manipulation and the use of less cells would be useful for karyotyping MSCs.
PMCID: PMC3880460  PMID: 24357832
fluorescence in situ hybridization; in situ culture; karyotype; mesenchymal stromal cells
5.  Clinical significance of cytogenetic aberrations in bone marrow of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: prognostic significance and relevance to histologic involvement 
Although knowledge of the genetics of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been increasing, little is known about the characteristics and prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities and the clinical utility of cytogenetic studies performed on bone marrow (BM) specimens. To investigate the significance of isolated cytogenetic aberrations in the absence of histologic BM involvement, we assessed the implication of cytogenetic staging and prognostic stratification by a retrospective multicenter analysis of newly diagnosed DLBCL patients.
We analyzed cytogenetic and clinical data from 1585 DLBCL patients whose BM aspirates had been subjected to conventional karyotyping for staging. If available, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data were also collected from patients.
Histologic BM involvement were found in 259/1585 (16.3%) patients and chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 192 (12.1%) patients (54 patients with single abnormalities and 138 patients with 2 or more abnormalities). Isolated cytogenetic aberrations (2 or more abnormalities) without histologic involvement were found in 21 patients (1.3%). Two or more cytogenetic abnormalities were associated with inferior overall survival (OS) compared with a normal karyotype or single abnormality in both patients with histologic BM involvement (5-year OS, 16.5% vs. 52.7%; P < 0.001) and those without BM involvement (31.8% vs. 66.5%; P < 0.001). This result demonstrated that BM cytogenetic results have a significant prognostic impact that is independent of BM histology. The following abnormalities were most frequently observed: rearrangements involving 14q32, 19q13, 19p13, 1p, 3q27, and 8q24; del(6q); dup(1q); and trisomy 18. In univariate analysis, several specific abnormalities including abnormalities at 16q22-q24, 6p21-p25, 12q22-q24, and -17 were associated with poor prognosis. Multivariate analyses performed for patients who had either chromosomal abnormalities or histologic BM involvement, revealed IPI high risk, ≥ 2 cytogenetic abnormalities, and several specific chromosomal abnormalities, including abnormalities at 19p13, 12q22-q24, 8q24, and 19q13 were significantly associated with a worse prognosis.
We suggest that isolated cytogenetic aberrations can be regarded as BM involvement and cytogenetic evaluation of BM improves staging accuracy along with prognostic information for DLBCL patients.
PMCID: PMC3851800  PMID: 24220305
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Cytogenetics; Chromosomal abnormalities; Bone marrow involvement; Prognosis
6.  TNFα Mediated IL-6 Secretion Is Regulated by JAK/STAT Pathway but Not by MEK Phosphorylation and AKT Phosphorylation in U266 Multiple Myeloma Cells 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:580135.
IL-6 and TNFα were significantly increased in the bone marrow aspirate samples of patients with active multiple myeloma (MM) compared to those of normal controls. Furthermore, MM patients with advanced aggressive disease had significantly higher levels of IL-6 and TNFα than those with MM in plateau phase. TNFα increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) production from MM cells. However, the detailed mechanisms involved in signaling pathways by which TNFα promotes IL-6 secretion from MM cells are largely unknown. In our study, we found that TNFα treatments induce MEK and AKT phosphorylation. TNFα-stimulated IL-6 production was abolished by inhibition of JAK2 and IKKβ or by small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting TNF receptors (TNFR) but not by MEK, p38, and PI3K inhibitors. Also, TNFα increased phosphorylation of STAT3 (ser727) including c-Myc and cyclin D1. Three different types of JAK inhibitors decreased the activation of the previously mentioned pathways. In conclusion, blockage of JAK/STAT-mediated NF-κB activation was highly effective in controlling the growth of MM cells and, consequently, an inhibitor of TNFα-mediated IL-6 secretion would be a potential new therapeutic agent for patients with multiple myeloma.
PMCID: PMC3787550  PMID: 24151609
7.  A Case Report of Fanconi Anemia Diagnosed by Genetic Testing Followed by Prenatal Diagnosis 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2012;32(5):380-384.
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder affecting multiple body systems. Genetic testing, including prenatal testing, is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of many clinical conditions. However, genetic testing is complicated for FA because there are often many genes that are associated with its development, and large deletions, duplications, or sequence variations are frequently found in some of these genes. This study describes successful genetic testing for molecular diagnosis, and subsequent prenatal diagnosis, of FA in a patient and his family in Korea. We analyzed all exons and flanking regions of the FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG genes for mutation identification and subsequent prenatal diagnosis. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was performed to detect large deletions or duplications in the FANCA gene. Molecular analysis revealed two mutations in the FANCA gene: a frameshift mutation c.2546delC and a novel splice-site mutation c.3627-1G>A. The FANCA mutations were separately inherited from each parent, c.2546delC was derived from the father, whereas c.3627-1G>A originated from the mother. The amniotic fluid cells were c.3627-1G>A heterozygotes, suggesting that the fetus was unaffected. This is the first report of genetic testing that was successfully applied to molecular diagnosis of a patient and subsequent prenatal diagnosis of FA in a family in Korea.
PMCID: PMC3427829  PMID: 22950077
Fanconi anemia; FANCA; Molecular diagnosis; Prenatal diagnosis
8.  Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Elderly Patients: A Single Institution's Experience 
We investigated the clinical characteristics and prognosis of elderly patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
We reviewed the clinical data, laboratory findings, bone marrow findings, and cytogenetic analysis of elderly patients (≥ 60 years) with ALL, and data of an additional 101 younger adult patients (< 60 years) with ALL were reviewed for comparison.
Twenty-six elderly patients (≥ 60 years) and 101 younger adult patients (< 60 years) with ALL were retrospectively enrolled. The median follow-up duration was 6.0 months (range, 0.4 to 113.2) in the elderly patients and 21.7 months (range, 1.0 to 122.7) in the adult patients. In total, 34.6% (9 patients) of the elderly patients and 24.8% (25 patients) of the adult patients had Philadelphia chromosome positive ALL. The overall complete remission (CR) rate was much higher in the younger than in the elderly patients (94.1% vs. 57.7%, p < 0.001). The median overall survival (OS) of the younger patients (< 60 years) was 26.3 months, whereas that of the elderly patients (≥ 60 years) was 10.3 months (p = 0.003). In the elderly patients with ALL, T cell lineage and the presence of lymphadenopathy were significant prognostic factors for OS in a univariate analysis (p = 0.033 and 0.041, respectively).
The outcomes of Korean elderly patients with ALL were poor, and the shorter OS was mainly due to the low CR rate. T-cell lineage and the presence of lymphadenopathy were significant prognostic factors in Korean elderly patients with ALL.
PMCID: PMC3192206  PMID: 22016594
Leukemia, lymphoid; Aged; Prognosis; Philadelphia chromosome
9.  The Relationship between the Presence of Chromosomal Instability and Prognosis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung: Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Analysis of Paraffin-embedded Tissue from 47 Korean Patients 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(6):863-867.
To evaluate the prognostic importance of chromosomal instability (CIN) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, the relationship between CIN detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and survival in SCC patients was examined. Forty-seven surgical specimens of lung SCC were analyzed. To identify tumors with CIN, p16 and multi-target DNA FISH assays for c-myc, chromosome 6, EGFR, and chromosome 5 (LAVysion, Vysis) were performed on nuclei extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor tissues. Survival rates were compared in terms of age, T factor, N factor, CIN, and smoking status. A sample was defined as CIN-positive if at least four of the five chromosomes were positive. Among the 47 specimens, 9 (19%) were CIN-positive. The overall survival rate was 66%. Overall survival rates were estimated as 33.3% for CIN-positive patients and 76.7% for CIN-negative patients (Hazard ratio 3.47; 95% Confidence interval, 1.25-9.67; P=0.017). In multivariate analysis, the presence of CIN was a predictive factor for survival. CIN-positive based on FISH can be prognostic factor of lung SCC.
PMCID: PMC2877246  PMID: 20514306
Chromosomal Instability; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence; Lung Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
10.  Sexual Activity and Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection Among Young Adults After Introduction of a Vaccination Program in an Area of High Endemicity 
Journal of Epidemiology  2009;19(5):213-218.
In areas where hepatitis is endemic, little is known about the sexual transmission of HBV after introduction of an HBV vaccination program.
We used a self-administered questionnaire and serological tests for HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-HCV to examine the role of sexual activity, as well as sociodemographic status, lifestyle habits, and a history of vaccinations, transfusions, and surgery, in the transmission of HBV and HCV in Korea. The subjects were 865 female and 541 male university students (median age, 19 years; age range, 16–25).
Overall seropositivity was 8.1% for HBsAg, 69.3% for anti-HBs, 21.3% for anti-HBc, and 0.4% for anti-HCV. Regarding HBV, 8% of the subjects were chronic carriers or had recently been infected, 22.8% were never exposed and nonvaccinated, 16.6% were exposed noncarriers, and 52.7% had most likely been vaccinated. We found a significant association between HBsAg seropositivity and history of sexual intercourse (Odds Ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.8). Students without serologic evidence of immunization against HBV were more likely to have become HBsAg-positive after becoming sexually active.
Our findings suggest that sexual transmission does occur among adolescents and young adults who have not been vaccinated, whereas vaccination protects individuals from becoming an HBV carrier after becoming sexually active.
PMCID: PMC3924123  PMID: 19652445
hepatitis B virus; hepatitis C virus; sexual transmission; vaccination; endemic area
11.  Simvastatin inhibits induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in rat alveolar macrophages exposed to cigarette smoke extract 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(4):277-287.
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) may play an important role in emphysematous change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. We previously reported that simvastatin, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, attenuates emphysematous change and MMP-9 induction in the lungs of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. However, it remained uncertain how cigarette smoke induced MMP-9 and how simvastatin inhibited cigarette smoke-induced MMP-9 expression in alveolar macrophages (AMs), a major source of MMP-9 in the lungs of COPD patients. Presently, we examined the related signaling for MMP-9 induction and the inhibitory mechanism of simvastatin on MMP-9 induction in AMs exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). In isolated rat AMs, CSE induced MMP-9 expression and phosphorylation of ERK and Akt. A chemical inhibitor of MEK1/2 or PI3K reduced phosphorylation of ERK or Akt, respectively, and also inhibited CSE-mediated MMP-9 induction. Simvastatin reduced CSE-mediated MMP-9 induction, and simvastatin-mediated inhibition was reversed by farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). Similar to simvastatin, inhibition of FPP transferase or GGPP transferase suppressed CSE-mediated MMP-9 induction. Simvastatin attenuated CSE-mediated activation of RAS and phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, p65, IκB, and nuclear AP-1 or NF-κB activity. Taken together, these results suggest that simvastatin may inhibit CSE-mediated MMP-9 induction, primarily by blocking prenylation of RAS in the signaling pathways, in which Raf-MEK-ERK, PI3K/Akt, AP-1, and IκB-NF-κB are involved.
PMCID: PMC2679231  PMID: 19299917
macrophages, alveolar; matrix metalloproteinases-9; pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; pulmonary emphysema; simvastatin; smoking
12.  Biochemical characteristics of a Korean patient with mucolipidosis III (pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy). 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2003;18(5):722-726.
We performed a biochemical study on the patient with mucolipidosis III (ML-III, pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy) in Korea. Confluent fibroblasts from the patient and from normal controls were cultured for 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hr, respectively. Lysosomal enzyme activities in culture media after different incubation times and in plasma, leuko-cytes, and fibroblasts were determined. Most of the leukocyte lysosomal enzymes were within normal limits or slightly lowered; however, plasma lysosomal enzyme activities such as those of hexosaminidase and arylsulfatase A were markedly increased. Numerous phase-dense inclusions were present in the cytoplasm of cultured fibroblasts. Lysosomal enzyme activities of fibroblasts were markedly decreased except for beta-glucosidase. The rates of increase of the lysosomal enzyme activities with incubation time were greater in the culture medium of the patient than in normal control, whereas no difference in the beta-glucosidase activity of the culture media of the patient and the control was found. This study describes the first case of ML-III in Korea, with its typical biochemical characteristics, i.e., a problem with targeting and transporting of lysosomal enzymes which results in a marked increase in plasma lysosomal enzyme activities and a high ratio of extracellular to intracellular lysosomal enzyme activities in cultured fibroblasts.
PMCID: PMC3055120  PMID: 14555827

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