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1.  Outcome of intertrochanteric fractures treated by intramedullary nail with two integrated lag screws: A study in Asian population 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2015;49(4):436-441.
Background:
The incidence of intertrochanteric fracture has increased during recent years as life expectancy has also increased. Currently, orthopedic surgeons use various fixation methods for intertrochanteric fractures like, intramedullary (IM) nailing or dynamic hip screws and plates. The intramedullary (IM) nail with two integrated lag screws has been used recently in intertrochanteric fractures to overcome Z-affect phenomenon. However, no study is available in an Asian population. This prospective study was undertaken to document the clinical and radiologic outcomes of the IM nail with two integrated lag screws and its limitations in Asian patients.
Materials and Methods:
Osteosynthesis was performed using InterTAN nail in 100 patients with an intertrochanteric fractures followed up for at least 1 year after surgery. We evaluated the recovery rates to prefracture status, time to bony union and the incidence of complications.
Results:
Seventy four patients were available for at least 1 year followup examinations. Forty-five patients (60.8%) recovered prefracture status. Mean time to bony union was 18.3 ± 8.6 weeks. Intraoperative technical problems related to an unavoidable superior positioning of the lag screw occurred in five cases. Postoperative complications requiring reoperation occurred in three patients; two cases of varus collapse with cut out and one case of periprosthetic fracture.
Conclusions:
The IM nail with two integrated lag screws showed favorable outcomes in Asian patients with an intertrochanteric fracture even though several complications that were not previously reported with this nail were found. The proper selection of patients and careful insertion of two lag screws should be mandatory in Asian patients.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.159647
PMCID: PMC4510798
Hip; intertrochanteric fracture; intramedullary nail; proximal femur; Hip fracture; intertrochanteric fracture; fracture fixation; intramedullary nailing; osteosynthesis fracture
2.  On school violence in Korean middle school, prevention and reaction measures 
This study is aiming to explore the practical and realistic measure in more variable way, which enables us to manage the problems about school violence we are currently facing as well as to overcome limitations in the current situation where we react only with punishments, mainly in the form of the law enforcement, supported by the police. This study was conducted on male and female students (n= 424) and teachers (n= 136) attending at the seven middle schools located in Seoul. The frequency analysis, one way ANOVA F-test, t -test, the multiple regression analysis were applied. Students recognize’ harmful environmental cleanup’ as an important variable or factor to reduce school violence. Also, both teachers and students are aware that ‘regular survey on school violence’ could reduce school violence. In conclusion, it is considered that as an effective and viable prevention measure against school violence, more attention and affection efforts need to be activated and addressed, on the part of home, school, and government, which will enable our young generations of students to be brought up, and take up the future of our country.
doi:10.12965/jer.150184
PMCID: PMC4378348  PMID: 25830143
Korea; School violence; Prevention; Consideration; Attention
3.  Incidence and Mortality after Proximal Humerus Fractures Over 50 Years of Age in South Korea: National Claim Data from 2008 to 2012 
Journal of Bone Metabolism  2015;22(1):17-21.
Background
There has been lack of epidemiology of proximal humerus fracture using nationwide database in Asia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of proximal humerus fracture and its mortality following proximal humerus fracture in Korean over 50 years of age.
Methods
The Korean National Health Insurance data were evaluated to determine the incidence and mortality of proximal humerus fracture aged 50 years or older from 2008 through 2012.
Results
Proximal humerus fracture increased by 40.5% over 5 year of study. The incidence of fracture increased from 104.7/100,000 in 2008 to 124.7/100,000 in 2012 in women and from 45.3/100,000 in 2008 to 52.0/100,000 in 2012 in men, respectively. One year mortality rate after proximal humerus fracture was 8.0% in 2008 and 7.0% in 2012. One year mortality rate were 10.8% for men and 7.0% for women in 2008 and 8.5% for men and 6.4% for women in 2012.
Conclusions
Our study showed that the proximal humerus fracture in elderly was recently increasing and associated with high mortality in Korea. Considering proximal humerus fracture was associated with an increased risk of associated fractures and an increased mortality risk, public health strategy to prevent the proximal humerus fracture in elderly will be mandatory.
doi:10.11005/jbm.2015.22.1.17
PMCID: PMC4357632  PMID: 25774360
Humeral fractures; Incidence; Mortality; Osteoporotic fractures
4.  Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Followed by Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma 
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is one of the most common lymphomas and accounts for about 7% of all newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The clinical course of MALT lymphoma is relatively indolent and, in the majority of cases (50%), the lymphoma arises within the stomach. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), an uncommon variant of extranodal NHL, can affect any part of the neuraxis, including the eyes, brain, leptomeninges, or spinal cord. Herein, we present a rare case of PCNSL, which occurred one year after radiochemotherapy of gastric MALT lymphoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of left facial palsy. One year ago, he underwent antibiotic eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori, local stomach fractional radiotherapy, and chemotherapy for gastric MALT lymphoma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a strong enhancing solid mass in the right frontal lobe. The tumor was completely removed, and the histological diagnosis of PCNSL developing from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was made. Although elucidating the correlation between the first gastric MALT lymphoma and the second PCNSL seemed difficult, we have postulated and discussed some possible pathogeneses, together with a review of literature.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.6.377
PMCID: PMC3424181  PMID: 22949970
MALT Lymphoma; Diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma
5.  Intraparenchymal Myeloid Sarcoma and Subsequent Spinal Myeloid Sarcoma for Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia 
Myeloid sarcoma is a solid, extramedullary tumor composed of leukemic myeloblasts or immature myeloid cells. Intraparenchymal myeloid sarcoma without the involvement of the skull or meninges is extremely rare. Here, we present the case of a 49-year-old man who developed intraparenchymal myeloid sarcoma on the left cerebellum after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). He received radiotherapy after complete removal of intraparenchymal myeloid sarcoma, but he was diagnosed spinal myeloid sarcoma three month later. Nine months after the operation, new intracranial and spinal myeloid sarcoma were diagnosed and the patient's condition had been worsened rapidly. Although the spinal myeloid sarcoma was not histologically diagnosed, this report provides valuable insights into the clinical course of progression of intraparenchymal myeloid sarcoma.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.3.171
PMCID: PMC3085814  PMID: 21556238
Myeloid sarcoma; Acute myeloid leukemia; Bone marrow transplantation
6.  Intraventricular Malignant Meningioma with CSF-Disseminated Spinal Metastasis : Case Report and Literature Review 
The authors report a case of 42-year-old woman with an intraventricular tumor in the trigone of the left lateral ventricle. The first operation achieved a microscopically complete resection. The tumor was histologically atypical meningioma. After 26 months, there were recurrences of intraventricular meningioma. Complete resection of the tumor and adjuvant radiation therapy were performed, and the histological diagnosis was malignant meningioma. Sixteen months after the second operation, spinal metastasis in cervicolumbar lesion was diagnosed and a subtotal removal of cervical intradural extramedullary mass was performed. We describe an unusual case of intraventricular malignant meningioma with cerebrospinal fluid-disseminated spinal metastases with review of the clinical courses of previous reports.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.4.256
PMCID: PMC2682126  PMID: 19444356
Malignant meningioma; Intraventricular neoplasms; Spinal metastases
7.  Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in a Patient Undergoing Removal of Metastatic Brain Tumor 
The authors present a case of 68-year-old woman who underwent resection of a metastatic adenocarcinoma in the left parietooccipital area. The intraoperative course was uneventful; however, after closure of the scalp incision, increased bleeding from the suture line was noted. A computerized tomography scan that was performed immediately after operation revealed acute epidural hemorrhage with mass effect under the bone flap. The patient developed disseminated intravascular coagulation and immediate re-exploration was performed. This patient was successfully treated owing to early recognition of the condition and immediate treatment with transfusion. Neurosurgeons should be alert that hypercoagulabe state is common in cancer patients and consumptive coagulopathy can occur after resection of metastatic brain tumor.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.5.341
PMCID: PMC2612574  PMID: 19119473
Disseminated intravascular coagulation; Brain tumor; Blood transfusion; Hemostasis
8.  A Cerebral Astroblastoma Mimicking an Extra-axial Neoplasm 
Astroblastoma is a rarely diagnosed primary brain neoplasm whose histogenesis has been clarified recently. It occurs in children and young adults and presents as a well circumscribed, contrast-enhancing lesion in the cerebral hemisphere. We present a case of 20-year-old woman with an astroblastoma in the left temporal convexity that was treated with total tumor resection alone. We thought the mass was extra-axial neoplasm based on radiological findings of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging initially, but later, we obtained angiographic findings suggesting an intra-axial neoplasm. The patient is doing well even two years after surgery. The characteristic radiological and histopathological features of this case are described with a literature review. An astroblastoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a superficially located tumor presenting with the findings of an extra-axial mass, especially in a young patient.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.4.205
PMCID: PMC2588258  PMID: 19096646
Astroblastoma; Intra-axial neoplasm
9.  Enhancement of Arsenic Trioxide (As2O3)- Mediated Apoptosis Using Berberine in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells 
Objective
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been used as an anticancer agent in traditional Chinese medicine for thousand years and berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid present that has indicated significant antimicrobial activity. We have examined the combined anticancer effects of As2O3 and berberine against the human neuroblastoma (HNB) SH-SY5Y cells in vitro, and to elucidate underlying molecular mechanism.
Methods
HNB SH-SY5Y cells were treated with 2 µM As2O3 and 75 µg/ml berberine, and their survival, cell death mechanism as well as synergistic cytotoxic effects were estimated by using MTT assay, DAPI staining, agarose gel electrophoresis, flow cytometric analysis, and western blot analysis.
Results
The combined treatment of two drugs also markedly decreased cell viability. The cytotoxic effects of two drugs were revealed as apoptosis characterized by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. The apoptotic cytotoxicity was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 protease as well as decreased the expression of Bcl-2, Bid, and Bcl-x/L. In addition, the cells treated with combination of two drugs also showed significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and lipid peroxidation compared to cells As2O3 or berberine only.
Conclusion
Combined treatment of As2O3 with berberine induced activation of apoptotic signaling pathways in HNB SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that the possibility of the combined treatment of two chemotherapeutic agents with low concentration improving cytotoxic effect for cancer cells with minimal side effects.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2007.42.5.392
PMCID: PMC2588187  PMID: 19096576
Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells; Arsenic trioxide; Berberine; Apoptosis
10.  Effects of Family Meal Frequency on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Korean Elderly Males and Females 
Abstract
Background
In the case of the elderly who highly depend on family, serious health problems can be caused due to the reduction of family meals. Therefore, this study aims to suggest the fundamental data for management of cardiovascular disease, one of the major causes of death in elderly Koreans, by investigating the effects of family meal frequency on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly males and females.
Methods
The raw data of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) were utilized. Data of 1,236 respondents were extracted for analysis regarding anthropometry, blood, blood pressure, nutrients and total energy intake. For collected data, using SPSS 18.0 and Amos 18.0, the mean and standard deviation, and the path coefficient between groups through a multi-group analysis by structural equation model were checked
Results
As family meal frequency increased, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose in Korean elderly males were likely to decrease, which led to conflicting results with those of Korean elderly females.
Conclusion
Frequent family meal makes a positive effect on reducing several risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly.
PMCID: PMC4450015  PMID: 26060777
Family meal frequency; Cardiovascular disease; Korean elderly
11.  Site-specific quantitative analysis of cardiac mitochondrial protein phosphorylation 
Journal of proteomics  2012;81:15-23.
We report the development of a multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) strategy specifically tailored to the detection and quantification of mitochondrial protein phosphorylation. We recently derived 68 MRM transitions specific to protein modifications in the respiratory chain, voltage-dependent anion channel, and adenine nucleotide translocase. Here, we have now expanded the total number of MRM transitions to 176 to cover proteins from the tricarboxylic acid cycle, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. We utilized the transition set to analyze endogenous protein phosphorylation in human heart, mouse heart, and mouse liver. The data demonstrate the potential utility of the MRM workflow for studying the functional details of mitochondrial phosphorylation signaling.
doi:10.1016/j.jprot.2012.09.015
PMCID: PMC3593810  PMID: 23022582
Multiple-reaction monitoring; mitochondria; phosphorylation; cardioprotection; quantification; cardiac biology
12.  Characterization and application of electrospun alumina nanofibers 
Alumina nanofibers were prepared by a technique that combined the sol–gel and electrospinning methods. The solution to be electrospun was prepared by mixing aluminum isopropoxide (AIP) in ethanol, which was then refluxed in the presence of an acid catalyst and polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP) in ethanol. The characterization results showed that alumina nanofibers with diameters in the range of 102 to 378 nm were successfully prepared. On the basis of the results of the XRD and FT-IR, the alumina nanofibers calcined at 1,100°C were identified as comprising the α-alumina phase, and a series of phase transitions such as boehmite → γ-alumina → α-alumina were observed from 500°C to 1,200°C. The pore size of the obtained γ-alumina nanofibers is approximately 8 nm, and it means that they are mesoporous materials. The kinetic study demonstrated that MO adsorption on alumina nanofibers can be seen that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-44
PMCID: PMC3909374  PMID: 24467944
Alumina nanofibers; Electrospinning; Adsorption; Pseudo-second-order kinetic
13.  A Traceless Cross-linker for Photo-Cleavable Bioconjugation 
Bioconjugate chemistry  2012;23(4):10.1021/bc200343u.
Photo-responsive bioconjugation empowers the development of novel methods for drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and high-throughput screening, among the others. In this paper, we report on the characteristics of a traceless photo-cleavable cross-linker, di 6-(3-succinimidyl carbonyloxymethyl-4-nitro-phenoxy)-hexanoic acid disulfide diethanol ester (SCNE). The traceless feature and the biocompatibility of this photo-cleavable cross-linking reagent were corroborated. Consequently, we demonstrated its application in reversible phage particle immobilization that could provide a platform for direct single phage screening. We also applied it in protein-photoprinting, where SCNE acts as a “photo-eraser” to remove the cross-linked protein molecules at a desired region in a simple, clean and light-controllable fashion. We further demonstrated the two-tier atomic force microscopic (AFM) method that uses SCNE to carry out two subsequent AFM tasks in situ. The approach allows guided protein delivery and subsequent high-resolution imaging at the same local area, thus opens up the possibility of monitoring protein functions in live cells. The results imply that SCNE is a versatile cross-linker that can be used for a wide range of applications where photo-cleavage ensures clean and remote-controllable release of biological molecules from a substrate.
doi:10.1021/bc200343u
PMCID: PMC3826797  PMID: 22432929
14.  Effects of Various Gait Speeds on the Latissimus Dorsi and Gluteus Maximus Muscles Associated with the Posterior Oblique Sling System 
Journal of Physical Therapy Science  2013;25(11):1391-1392.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of different gait speeds on the muscle activities of the latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus muscles in relation to the posterior oblique sling system. [Subjects] We recruited 14 young adult males. [Methods] We measured the left latissimus dorsi muscle activity and right gluteus maximus muscle activity of all subjects while they walked on a treadmill at speeds of 1.5 km/h, 3.5 km/h and 5.5 km/h. [Results] There was a significant increase in latissimus dorsi muscle activity with a treadmill speed of 5.5 km/h compared with 1.5 km/h and 3.5 km/h. The gluteus maximus muscle activity significantly increased in the order of 1.5 km/h < 3.5 km/h < 5.5 km/h. [Conclusion] The present results indicate that arm swing connected to increasing gait speed influences the muscle activity of the lower limbs through the posterior oblique sling system.
doi:10.1589/jpts.25.1391
PMCID: PMC3881462  PMID: 24396195
Electromyography; Gait speed; Posterior oblique sling system
15.  The Effects of Different Gait Speeds and Lower Arm Weight on the Activities of the Latissimus Dorsi, Gluteus Medius, and Gluteus Maximus Muscles 
Journal of Physical Therapy Science  2013;25(11):1483-1484.
[Purpose] This study researched the effects of different gait speeds and lower arm weight on the activities of the latissimus dorsi, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus muscles. [Subjects] Fourteen healthy adult men participated in this study. [Methods] All the participants carried out walking on a treadmill at speeds of 3.5 km/h and 5.5 km/h for half a minute. During treadmill gait, electromyographic activity muscle was measured of the latissimus dorsi, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus. [Result] There were significant differences in the muscle activities due to changes in gait speed and lower arm load in the latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus, but there were no significant differences in the muscle activities of the gluteus medius. [Conclusion] According to our results, arm swing is related to increasing gait speed, and lower arm load is influences the muscle activity of the lower extremities through the posterior oblique sling system.
doi:10.1589/jpts.25.1483
PMCID: PMC3881483  PMID: 24396216
Posterior oblique sling system; Arm weight; Arm swing
16.  An MRM-based Workflow for Quantifying Cardiac Mitochondrial Protein Phosphorylation in Murine and Human Tissue 
Journal of Proteomics  2012;75(15):4602-4609.
The regulation of mitochondrial function is essential for cardiomyocyte adaptation to cellular stress. While it has long been understood that phosphorylation regulates flux through metabolic pathways, novel phosphorylation sites are continually being discovered in all functionally distinct areas of the mitochondrial proteome. Extracting biologically meaningful information from these phosphorylation sites requires an adaptable, sensitive, specific and robust method for their quantification. Here we report a multiple reaction monitoring-based mass spectrometric workflow for quantifying site-specific phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins. Specifically, chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions for 68 transitions derived from 23 murine and human phosphopeptides, and their corresponding unmodified peptides, were optimized. These methods enabled the quantification of endogenous phosphopeptides from the outer mitochondrial membrane protein VDAC, and the inner membrane proteins ANT and ETC complexes I, III and V. The development of this quantitative workflow is a pivotal step for advancing our knowledge and understanding of the regulatory effects of mitochondrial protein phosphorylation in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology.
doi:10.1016/j.jprot.2012.02.014
PMCID: PMC3405178  PMID: 22387130
Phosphorylation; Mitochondria; Cardiovascular Disease; Protein Quantitation; MRM
17.  Substrate- and Isoform-specific Proteome Stability in Normal and Stressed Cardiac Mitochondria 
Circulation Research  2012;110(9):1174-1178.
Rationale
Mitochondrial protein homeostasis is an essential component of the functions and oxidative stress responses of the heart.
Objective
To determine the specificity and efficiency of proteome turnover of the cardiac mitochondria by endogenous and exogenous proteolytic mechanisms.
Methods and Results
Proteolytic degradation of the murine cardiac mitochondria was assessed using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Mitochondrial proteases demonstrated a substrate preference for basic protein variants, indicating a possible recognition mechanism based on protein modifications. Endogenous mitochondrial proteases and the cytosolic 20S proteasome exhibited different substrate specificities.
Conclusions
The cardiac mitochondrial proteome contains low amounts of proteases and is remarkably stable in isolation. Oxidative damage lowers the proteolytic capacity of cardiac mitochondria and reduces substrate availability for mitochondrial proteases. The 20S proteasome preferentially degrades specific substrates in the mitochondria and may contribute to cardiac mitochondrial proteostasis.
doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.268359
PMCID: PMC3359149  PMID: 22456183
Protein degradation; mitochondrial proteome; protein turnover; cardiac homeostasis
18.  Accumulation of Fatty Marrow in the Osteonecrotic Hip Mimicking Joint Infection 
Background
Factors such as lipids or cholesterol crystals in body fluids can cause a spurious elevation of leukocytes (WBC) in an automated cell count. This artifact can occur in automated WBC counts of hip fluid from femoral head osteonecrosis (ON), and an erroneous diagnosis of septic arthritis can be made.
Question/purposes
We describe the frequency of this artifactual leukocytosis in femoral head ON and how to differentiate it from septic arthritis.
Methods
From September 1997 to June 2004, 414 patients (486 hips) with femoral head ON were scheduled to undergo THAs. Although we had no preoperative suspicion of infection, we intraoperatively suspected concomitant pyogenic arthritis in eight patients (eight hips) because pus-like fluid gushed from the joint during the operation. To confirm the presence or absence of infection we intraoperatively evaluated the joint fluid with automated blood cell count and microscopy. The automated WBC count was elevated in all eight patients. In seven of the eight patients, WBCs were not identified under microscopic observation and the leukocytosis of automated cell counting was considered to be erroneous. These seven patients underwent THAs. The minimum followup was 3 years (average, 45 months; range, 36–60 months).
Results
These seven patients were considered to have a spurious elevation of WBC (range, 4500–18,400/mm3; mean, 8970/mm3) in an automated cell count. The prevalence of the spurious leukocytosis was 1.4% (7/414) in osteonecrotic hips. In all seven patients, we observed numerous fat cells and globules instead of WBCs under microscopic observation. No bacteria were seen in the smear and culture of the joint fluid. The seven patients underwent THAs, and no patient had a subsequent deep wound infection as of the last followup.
Conclusions
Fatty joint effusion in an osteonecrotic hip may appear like pus and erroneously can be interpreted as leukocytes in an automated cell count. In this situation, a microscopic evaluation of joint fluid smear should be performed to determine the presence of infection and the treatment method.
Level of Evidence
Level III, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2048-y
PMCID: PMC3270180  PMID: 21879406
19.  Effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and the expression of its receptor on various malignant cells 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(3):219-224.
Background
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is extensively used to improve neutrophil count during anti-cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of G-CSF on several leukemic cell lines and screened for the expression of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) in various malignant cells.
Methods
We examined the effects of the most commonly used commercial forms of G-CSF (glycosylated lenograstim and nonglycosylated filgrastim) on various leukemic cell lines by flow cytometry. Moreover, we screened for the expression of G-CSFR mRNA in 38 solid tumor cell lines by using real-time PCR.
Results
G-CSF stimulated proliferation (40-80% increase in proliferation in treated cells as compared to that in control cells) in 3 leukemic cell lines and induced differentiation of AML1/ETO+ leukemic cells. Among the 38 solid tumor cell lines, 5 cell lines (hepatoblastoma, 2 breast carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, and melanoma cell lines) showed G-CSFR mRNA expression.
Conclusion
The results of the present study show that therapeutic G-CSF might stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of malignant cells with G-CSFR expression, suggesting that prescreening for G-CSFR expression in primary tumor cells may be necessary before using G-CSF for treatment.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2012.47.3.219
PMCID: PMC3464340  PMID: 23071478
G-CSF; Differentiation; Proliferation; Solid tumor; AML
21.  Lower Salinomycin Concentration Increases Apoptotic Detachment in High-Density Cancer Cells 
The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal) sensitization mechanism in cancer. We tested whether Sal reduced proliferation in a high-density population by counting attached cell numbers after Sal treatment. Sal reduced proliferation in high-density cell populations. Longer exposure to Sal further reduced proliferation. Sal concentrations of 0.1 and 5 μM had similar sensitization effects, suggesting that Sal toxicity was minimal with longer exposure to a high-density cell population. The results suggest that Sal can be applied at a relatively low concentration for a longer time to overcome drug-resistant solid tumors. The 0.5 μM Sal treatment resulted in fewer attached cells than that of the 5 μM Sal treatment with a longer exposure. The lower Sal concentration mainly increased the number of easily detachable cells on the surface. In particular, 0.5 μM Sal increased cellular detachment of newly produced daughter cells. The easily-detachable cells were undergoing apoptosis. It seems that the 0.5 μM Sal treatment also increased cellular toxicity. These novel findings may contribute to the development of Sal-based therapy for patients with drug-resistant cancer or a high-density solid tumor.
doi:10.3390/ijms131013169
PMCID: PMC3497319  PMID: 23202945
salinomycin; apoptosis; high cell density; spaces among cells; cellular detachment; lower concentration
22.  Differentiation between Tuberculous Spondylitis and Pyogenic Spondylitis on MR Imaging 
Korean Journal of Spine  2011;8(4):283-287.
Objective
The objective of this study was to compare the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of tuberculous spondylitis with pyogenic spondylitis.
Methods
MR images of the spines of 41 patients with infectious spondylitis at our institution over 8-years of period were retrospectively reviewed. Eighteen patients with infective spondylitis were excluded because their results on the marrow biopsy and culture were negative. MR imaging findings in 6 patients with tuberculous spondylitis (3 male, 3 female) were compared with those of 17 patients (10 male, 7 female) with pyogenic spondylitis.
Results
Two MR imaging findings were statiscally significant in differentiating the tuberculous spondylitis from pyogenic spondylitis: a well defined paraspinal abnormal signal and a thin and smooth abscess wall. There were no significant differences in the following MR imaging findings: paraspinal abscess or intraosseous abscess, subligamentous spread to three or more vertebra, involvement of multiple vertebra, hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images, heterogenous low signal on T1-weighted images, involvement of posterior element, epidural extension, involvement of intervertebral disk, disk space narrowing, rim enhancement of the abscess, skip lesion, and endplate destruction.
Conclusion
MR imaging is an appropriate modality for differentiation of tuberculous spondylitis from pyogenic spondylitis.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2011.8.4.283
PMCID: PMC4461740  PMID: 26064146
Spondylitis; Tuberculous; Pyogenic; MR Imaging
23.  Determination of midsagittal plane for evaluation of facial asymmetry using three-dimensional computed tomography 
Imaging Science in Dentistry  2011;41(2):79-84.
Purpose
The aim of the present study was to investigate the disagreement of cephalometric analysis depending on the reference determination of midsagittal plane on three-dimensional computed tomography.
Materials and Methods
A total of 102 young women with class III dentofacial deformity were evaluated using three-dimensional computed tomography. The cranial and facial midsagittal planes were defined and the amounts of jaw deviation were calculated. The amounts of jaw deviation were compared with paired t-test (2-tailed) and Bland-Altman plot was drawn.
Results
The landmark tracing were reproducible (r≥.978). The jaws relative to the cranial midsagittal plane were 10-17 times more significantly deviated than to the facial midsagittal plane (P<.001). Bland-Altman plot demonstrated that the differences between the amounts of jaw deviation from two midsagittal planes were not normally distributed versus the average of the amounts of jaw deviation from two midsagittal planes.
Conclusion
The cephalometric analyses of facial asymmetry were significantly inconsistent depending on the reference determination of midsagittal plane. The reference for midsagittal plane should be carefully determined in three-dimensional cephalometric analysis of facial asymmetry of patients with class III dentofacial deformity.
doi:10.5624/isd.2011.41.2.79
PMCID: PMC3174462  PMID: 21977479
Cephalometry; Facial Asymmetry; Tomography, X-Ray Computed; Imaging Three-Dimensional
24.  A Case of Occipital Neuralgia in the Greater and Lesser Occipital Nerves Treated with Neurectomy by Using Transcranial Doppler Sonography: Technical Aspects 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2011;24(1):48-52.
Occipital neuralgia is usually defined as paroxysmal stabbing pain in the greater or lesser occipital nerve (GON or LON) distribution. In occipital neuralgia patients, surgical considerations are carefully taken into account if medical management is ineffective. However, identification of the occipital artery by palpation in patients with thick necks or small occipital arteries can be technically difficult. Therefore, we established a new technique using transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography for more accurate and rapid identification. The patient was a 64-year-old man who had undergone C1-C3 screw fixation and presented with intractable stabbing pain in the bilateral GON and LON distributions. In cases in which pain management was performed using medication, physical therapy, nerve block, or radiofrequency thermocoagulation, substantial pain relief was not consistently achieved, and recurrence of pain was reported. Therefore, we performed occipital neurectomy of the bilateral GON and LON by using TCD sonography, which helped detect the greater occipital artery easily. After the operation, the patient's headache disappeared gradually, although he had discontinued all medication except antidepressants. We believe that this new technique of occipital neurectomy via a small skin incision performed using TCD sonography is easy and reliable, has a short operative time, and provides rapid pain relief.
doi:10.3344/kjp.2011.24.1.48
PMCID: PMC3049977  PMID: 21390179
neurectomy; occipital neuralgia; transcranial Doppler sonography
25.  Effect of LCD monitor type and observer experience on diagnostic performance in soft-copy interpretations of the maxillary sinus on panoramic radiographs 
Imaging Science in Dentistry  2011;41(1):11-16.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor type and observer experience on the diagnostic performance in soft-copy interpretations of maxillary sinus inflammatory lesions on panoramic radiographs.
Materials and Methods
Ninety maxillary sinuses on panoramic images were grouped into negative and positive groups according to the presence of inflammatory lesions, using CT for confirmation. Monochrome and color LCDs were used. Six observers participated and ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance. The reading time, fatigue score, and inter-/intra-observer agreements were assessed.
Results
The interpretation of maxillary sinus inflammatory lesions was affected by the LCD monitor type used and by the experience of the observer. The reading time was not significantly different, however the fatigue score was significantly different between two LCD monitors. Inter-observer agreement was relatively good in experienced observers, while the intra-observer agreement for all observers was good with monochrome LCD but not with color LCD.
Conclusion
The less experienced observers showed lowered diagnostic ability with a general color LCD.
doi:10.5624/isd.2011.41.1.11
PMCID: PMC3174453  PMID: 21977468
Maxillary Sinus; Task Performance; ROC curve

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