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1.  Is It Possible to Predict the Iron Status from an Infant's Diet History? 
Iron deficiency remains a very common nutritional problem despite the improvement in nutrition and increased understanding of methods for its prevention. Thus, we try to create a new method for screening iron nutrition through infant nutrition history.
Among the children who visited Inha University Hospital from March 2006 to July 2012, 181 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 52 children without IDA ranging from 6 to 36 months of age were reviewed in this study. We used the age when they began to wean food, the type of sort weaning foods, the time required for successful weaning, iron content in weaning foods, and the duration of breastfeeding for scoring infant nutrition history based on a questionnaire.
The mean score of the IDA group was 7.8±2.6 points, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (5.6±2.1) (p=0.000). If we set up the cutoff value at 6 points, this screening has 86.8% sensitivity and 36% specificity. In addition, as the IDA score increased, there was a falling trend of hemoglobin.
The IDA score does not have high specificity or high sensitivity. However, this study conveys that those patients who record a high score have low hemoglobin. Therefore, we suggest this score system for screening more IDA patients via nonpainful techniques.
PMCID: PMC3760699  PMID: 24010113
Iron-deficiency anemia; Weaning; Breast feeding; Diet; Nutrition
2.  The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention 
School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented.
PMCID: PMC3564024  PMID: 23390438
Bullying; Violence; Pediatrician; Child; Adolescent; Korea
3.  Clinical and hematologic manifestations in patients with Diamond Blackfan anemia in Korea 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(2):131-135.
Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), characterized by impaired red cell production, is a rare condition that is usually symptomatic in early infancy. The purpose of this study was to assess nationwide experiences of DBA encountered over a period of 20 years.
The medical records of 56 patients diagnosed with DBA were retrospectively reviewed from November 1984 to July 2010. Fifteen institutions, including 13 university hospitals, participated in this study.
The male-to-female ratio of patients with DBA was 1.67:1. The median age of diagnosis was 4 months, and 74.1% were diagnosed before 1 year of age. From 2000 to 2009, annual incidence was 6.6 cases per million. Excluding growth retardation, 38.2% showed congenital defects: thumb deformities, ptosis, coarctation of aorta, ventricular septal defect, strabismus, etc. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 5.1±1.9 g/dL, mean corpuscular volume was 93.4±11.6 fL, and mean number of reticulocytes was 19,700/mm3. The mean cellularity of bone marrow was 75%, with myeloid:erythroid ratio of 20.4:1. After remission, 48.9% of patients did not need further steroids. Five patients with DBA who received hematopoietic transplantation have survived. Cancer developed in 2 cases (3.6%).
The incidence of DBA is similar to data already published, but our study had a male predilection. Although all patients responded to initial treatment with steroids, about half needed further steroids after remission. It is necessary to collect further data, including information regarding management pathways, from nationwide DBA registries, along with data on molecular analyses.
PMCID: PMC3389062  PMID: 22783360
Diamond Blackfan anemia; Anemia; Congenital defects
4.  The prevalence of anemia and iron depletion in the population aged 10 years or older 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2011;46(3):196-199.
Anemia and iron depletion continue to be common disorders in the world. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of anemia and iron depletion in apparently healthy Koreans aged 10 years or more.
We used the data of the 4th Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which assessed 7,607 individuals (3,337 males and 4,270 females). Iron depletion was defined as serum ferritin less than 15 ng/mL.
In males, mean hemoglobin (Hb) concentration decreased after the age of 50. The prevalence of anemia was 7.1% in 60 to 69 year olds and 12.3% in men aged 70 or older. As for females, the prevalence of anemia was 8.8% in 15 to 17 year olds, 16.7% in 18 to 49 year olds, 10.9% in 60 to 69 year olds, and 18.2% women aged 70 or older. In males, the prevalence of iron depletion was 8.6% at ages 10 to 14 years, 3.9% at 15 to 17, and 2.6% at 70 years or older. In females, the prevalence of iron depletion was 17.2% at ages 10 to 14 years, 24.1% at 15 to 17, 33.0% at 18 to 49, and 5.7% at 70 years or older. Although normocytic anemia was most common in both males and females, the proportion of microcytosis and macrocytosis increased at age 70 or older.
The prevalence of anemia and iron depletion was high in women of reproductive age and in the elderly. Considering the rapid increase in the older population, an intervention to prevent anemia and iron depletion is imperative.
PMCID: PMC3208204  PMID: 22065976
Anemia; Hemoglobin; Iron depletion; Prevalence
5.  Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and metabolic syndrome as predictors of middle-aged men's health 
Korean Journal of Urology  2015;56(5):386-392.
There is no reported evidence for an anthropometric index that might link obesity to men's sexual health. We evaluated the ability of an anthropometric index and the symptom scores of five widely used questionnaires to detect men's health problems. We determined the predictive abilities of two obesity indexes and other clinical parameters for screening for lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction in middle-aged men.
Materials and Methods
A total of 1,910 middle-aged men were included in the study. Participants underwent a detailed clinical evaluation that included recording the symptom scores of five widely used questionnaires. The participants' body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were determined. Serum prostate-specific antigen, urinalysis, testosterone, estimated glomerular filtration rate, evaluation of metabolic syndrome, and transrectal ultrasonography were assessed.
By use of logistic regression analysis, age and total prostate volume were independent predictors of lower urinary tract symptoms. Metabolic syndrome was the only significant negative predictive factor for chronic prostatitis symptoms. Age and metabolic syndrome were independent predictive factors for erectile dysfunction. Waist-to-hip ratio had a statistically significant value for predicting erectile dysfunction.
Our data showed that total prostate volume is a significant predictor of lower urinary tract symptoms, and central obesity has predictive ability for erectile dysfunction. Metabolic syndrome was the only significant negative predictive factor for chronic prostatitis-like symptoms. The management of correctable factors such as waist-to-hip ratio and metabolic syndrome may be considered preventive modalities against the development of men's health problems.
PMCID: PMC4426511  PMID: 25964840
Body mass index; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Metabolic syndrome X; Physiological sexual dysfuntion; Waist-hip ratio
6.  Efficacy of scrotal Doppler ultrasonography with the Valsalva maneuver, standing position, and resting-Valsalva ratio for varicocele diagnosis 
Korean Journal of Urology  2015;56(2):144-149.
To determine effectiveness of Valsalva maneuver and standing position on scrotal color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) for the varicocele diagnosis.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed the physical examination and CDU finding in 87 patients who visited National Police Hospital from January 2011 to April 2014. Diameters of pampiniform plexus were measured bilaterally during resting and Valsalva maneuver in the supine position and standing position. We calculated the ratio of mean of maximal vein diameter (mMVD) during resting and Valsalva maneuver (resting-Valsalva ratio) and compared in the both position.
In the resting and supine position, mMVD of varicocele testis units were 1.8 mm, 2.1 mm, 2.6 mm (grades I, II, III, respectively), and that of normal testis units (NTU) 1.2 mm. During Valsalva maneuver in the supine position, mMVD were 3.0 mm, 3.4 mm, 4.2 mm (grades I, II, III) vs 1.8 mm (NTU) (p=0.007, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). Average of resting-Valsalva ratio in the supine position were 0.69, 0.74, 0.74 (grades I, II, III) and 0.67 (NTU). Whereas in the resting and standing position, mMVD were 2.8 mm, 3.3 mm, 3.8 mm (grades I, II, III) and 1.8 mm (NTU) (p=0.002, p<0.001, p<0.001). During Valsalva maneuver in the standing position, mMVD were 5.0 mm, 5.8 mm, 6.6 mm (grades I, II, III) and 2.5 mm (NTU) (p=0.002, p<0.001, p<0.001). And average resting-Valsalva ratio were 0.76, 0.90, 0.71 (grades I, II, III) and 0.26 (NTU), which showed significant differences from all grades (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001).
It is suggested that the standing position and Valsalva maneuver during CDU could improve diagnostic ability for varicocele. Resting-Valsalva ratio in the standing position could be a new diagnostic index for varicocele diagnosis using CDU.
PMCID: PMC4325119  PMID: 25685302
Doppler ultrasonography; Valsalva maneuver; Varicocele
7.  Development of multifocal nodular lesions of a liver mimicking hepatic metastasis, following resection of an insulinoma in a child 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2015;58(2):69-72.
Insulinoma, which arises from insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, is a rare tumor in children. Only 5%-10% of insulinomas are malignant and undergo metastasis. We report a case of an 11-year-old girl who experienced hypoglycemia-related seizures induced by an insulinoma; after resection of the primary tumor, she developed hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). Laboratory test results indicated marked hypoglycemia with hyperinsulinemia. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography results were normal; however, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a solid mass in the pancreatic tail. Therefore, laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was performed. Two months after the surgery, an abdominal MRI revealed multiple nodular lesions in the liver. An US-guided liver biopsy was then performed, and histological examination revealed FNH without necrosis or mitotic activity. The patient has been free of hypoglycemia for 2 years, and recent MRI studies showed a decrease in the size of FNH lesions, without any evidence of metastasis. Even though no metastatic lesions are noted on imaging, close observation and follow-up imaging studies are required in a child with insulinoma that has malignant potential on histopathologic findings.
PMCID: PMC4357775  PMID: 25774199
Insulinoma; Focal nodular hyperplasia; Neoplasm metastasis; Pediatrics
8.  Significant adverse reactions to long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of central precocious puberty and early onset puberty 
Long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are commonly used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP) in Korea. Although rare, there have been reports on the characteristic of adverse reactions of GnRHa in CPP among the Korean population. This study was intended to report on our clinical experience regarding significant adverse reactions to long-acting GnRHa in CPP and early onset puberty and to evaluate the prevalence rate of serious side effects.
This retrospective study included children with CPP and early onset puberty, who were administered monthly with long-acting GnRHa (leuprolide acetate, triptorelin acetate) at the outpatient clinic of Department of Pediatrics, at Inha University Hospital, between January 2011 and December 2013. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who experienced significant adverse reactions and evaluated the prevalence rate.
Six serious side effects (0.9%) were observed among total of 621 CPP and early onset puberty children with GnRHa therapy. The number of sterile abscess formation was four in three patients (4 events of 621). Anaphylaxis occurred in only one patient, and unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in another one patient. Anaphylaxis occurred after the 6th administration of the monthly depot triptorelin acetate. Unilateral SCFE developed in GnRHa therapy.
Sterile abscess formation occurred in 0.6% of CPP and early onset puberty patients from the administration of a monthly depot GnRHa therapy. The occurrences of anaphylaxis and SCFE are extremely rare, but can have serious implications on patients. Clinicians should be aware of these potential adverse effects related to GnRHa therapy in CPP.
PMCID: PMC4208261  PMID: 25346917
Drug-related side effects and adverse reactions; Central precocious puberty; Leuprolide; Triptorelin
9.  Combined Treatment of Murine Fibrosarcoma with Chemotherapy (Paclitaxel), Radiotherapy, and Intratumoral Injection of Dendritic Cells 
Annals of Dermatology  2014;26(1):53-60.
New antitumor therapeutic strategies aim to combine different approaches that are able to induce tumor-specific effector and memory T cell responses that might control tumor growth. Dendritic cells (DCs) have the capacity to induce antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We have previously shown that the combined treatment of paclitaxel chemotherapy (Chemo) and injection of DCs led to complete tumor regression.
The goal of this study was to evaluate synergistic antitumor effect of a triple combination treatment comprising radiotherapy, paclitaxel Chemo and intratumoral injection of syngeneic bone marrow-derived DCs on murine fibrosarcoma, compared to other single or double combination treatments.
For the murine fibrosarcoma model, naïve C57BL/6 mice were inoculated intradermally with 2×103 MCA102 cells in the right upper flank. Mice were assigned to five groups (untreatedcontrol, RT alone, RT+Chemo, RT+DC, and RT+Chemo+DC), with eight mice in each group. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed to assess the immune activity. The persistence of tumor-specific immunity was determined by second tumor challenge in mice with complete tumor regression.
The triple combination treatment showed a significantly enhanced therapeutic efficacy by decreasing tumor size and inducing complete tumor regression, resulting in a cure of 50% of mice. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity assays and the second tumor challenge experiment strongly indicated the induction of a tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response and acquisition of prolonged tumor immunity.
These findings suggest that the triple combination treatment can be a promising strategy for the treatment of murine fibrosarcoma.
PMCID: PMC3956795  PMID: 24648686
Combined modality therapy; Dendritic cells; Fibrosarcoma; Paclitaxel; Radiotherapy
10.  Serum glycated albumin as a new glycemic marker in pediatric diabetes 
Serum glycated albumin (GA) has been recently used as another glycemic marker that reflects shorter term glycemic control than glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Insulin secretory function and glycemic fluctuation might be correlated with the ratio of GA to HbA1c (GA/HbA1c) in diabetic adult patients. This study investigated the association of GA and GA/HbA1c ratio with the levels of fasting C-peptide, fasting plasma glucose in type 1 and type 2 pediatric diabetes.
Total 50 cases from 42 patients were included. The subjects were classified into type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (n=30) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (n=20) group. The associations among HbA1c, GA, and GA/HbA1c ratio were examined. The relationship between the three glycemic indices and fasting glucose, fasting C-peptide were analyzed.
Mean values of GA, the GA/HbA1c ratio were significantly higher in T1DM than T2DM. GA (r=0.532, P=0.001), HbA1c (r=0.519, P=0.002) and the GA/HbA1c ratio (r=0.409, P=0.016) were correlated with the fasting plasma glucose. Fasting C-peptide level arranged 4.22±3.22 ng/mL in T2DM, which was significantly above the values in T1DM (0.26±0.49 ng/mL). There were no significant correlation between HbA1c and fasting C-peptide level. However, GA and the GA/HbA1c ratio exhibited inverse correlations with fasting C-peptide level (r=-0.214, P=0.002; r=-0.516, P<0.001).
GA seems to more accurately reflects fasting plasma glucose level than HbA1c. GA, GA/HbA1c ratio appear to reflect insulin secretory function.
PMCID: PMC4027086  PMID: 24904879
Diabetes mellitus; Glycosylated serum albumin; Glycosylated hemoglobin A; Child
12.  Clinical Features of Symptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum in Children: Comparison of Scintigraphic and Non-scintigraphic Diagnosis 
Meckel's diverticulum (MD) has various clinical manifestations, and diagnosis or selectection of proper diagnostic tools is not easy. This study was conducted in order to assess the clinical differences of MD diagnosed by scintigraphic and non-scintigraphic methods and to find the proper diagnostic tools.
We conducted a retrospective review ofthe clinical, surgical, radiologic, and pathologic findings of 34 children with symptomatic MD, who were admitted to Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Inha University Hospital, and The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital between January 2000 and December 2012. The patients were evaluated according to scintigraphic (12 cases; group 1) and non-scintigraphic (22 cases; group 2) diagnosis.
The male to female ratio was 7.5 : 1. The most frequent chief complaint was lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in group 1 and nonspecific abdominal pain in group 2, respectively. The most frequent pre-operative diagnosis was MD in both groups. Red blood cell (RBC) index was significantly lower in group 1. MD was located at 7 cm to 85 cm from the ileocecal valve. Four patients in group 1 had ectopic gastric tissues causing lower GI bleeding. The most frequent treatment modality was diverticulectomy in group 1 and ileal resection in group 2, respectively.
To diagnose MD might be delayed unless proper diagnostic tools are considered. It is important to understand indications of scintigraphic and non-scintigraphic methods according to clinical and hematologic features of MD. Scintigraphy would be weighed in patients with anemia as well as GI symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3746044  PMID: 24010105
Meckel's diverticulum; Scintigraphy; Meckel's scan; Diagnosis; Child; Radionuclide imaging
13.  Congenital Acute Myeloid Leukemia with t(8;16) and t(17;19) Double Translocation: Case Presentation and Literature Review 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(6):945-949.
Congenital leukemia is uncommon and excluding transient myeloproliferation associated with Down syndrome, makes up approximately 1% of childhood leukemias. A newborn boy was born with multiple subcutaneous nodules and large purpuric papules. Skin biopsy revealed proliferation of atypical hematologic cells in the dermis. Bone marrow morphology was consistent with acute myeloid leukemia (M5) and cytogenetic studies revealed t(8;16) and t(17;19) double translocation. Although prognosis of congenital leukemia is known to be dismal, recent reports showed spontaneous remissions. With the fear of chemotherapy-related toxicity, to treat or not to treat may be a dilemma both to parents and pediatricians. We report our experience and review the literature.
PMCID: PMC2877231  PMID: 20514319
Leukemia; Translocation, Genetic; Leukemic Infiltration; Drug Therapy
14.  A Case of Acute Hepatitis with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection and Transient Depression of Multiple Coagulation Factors 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2008;49(6):1055-1059.
We report a case of acute severe hepatitis with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection and transient depression of multiple coagulation factors. A 5-year-old boy, previously healthy, was admitted with pneumonia. M. pneumoniae infection was confirmed by serology testing. Liver enzymes were elevated on admission without any past medical history. After treatment with azithromycin for 3 days, pneumonia improved, but the hepatitis was acutely aggravated. Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) was prolonged and depression of multiple coagulation factors developed. Liver biopsy revealed features consistent with acute hepatitis. A week later, liver enzymes were nearly normalized spontaneously. Normalization of prolonged PTT and coagulation factors were also observed several months later. This may be the first case of transient depression of multiple coagulation factors associated with M. pneumoniae infection.
PMCID: PMC2628021  PMID: 19108034
Hepatitis; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; depression; coagulation factors
15.  Combined Treatment of an Intratumoral Injection of Dendritic Cells and Systemic Chemotherapy (Paclitaxel) for Murine Fibrosarcoma 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2005;46(6):835-842.
A novel combined treatment of conventional chemotherapy with an intratumoral injection of syngeneic dendritic cells (DCs) has emerged as a potent cancer treatment strategy. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic effect of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a chemotherapeutic drug, paclitaxel, and an intratumoral (i.t.) injection of syngeneic bone marrow-derived DCs for the treatment of pre-existing fibrosarcoma. Subcutaneous tumors were established using MCA102 fibrosarcoma cells in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. The results demonstrated that the combined treatment of paclitaxel chemotherapy and the injection of DCs led to complete tumor regression, in contrast to only partial eradication of the tumors with chemotherapy or DCs alone. Furthermore, the tumor-free mice were able to resist a repeat challenge with the same type of tumor. These findings suggest that a combination therapy of systemic chemotherapy along with the intratumoral administration of DCs is a potent treatment strategy for fibrosarcoma.
PMCID: PMC2810599  PMID: 16385661
Dendritic cells; paclitaxel; immunotherapy

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