Healthy aging is often accompanied by episodic memory decline. Prior studies have consistently demonstrated that older adults show disproportionate deficits in relational memory (RM) relative to item memory (IM). Despite rich evidence of an age-related RM deficit, the source of this deficit remains unspecified. One of the most widely investigated factors of age-related RM impairment is a reduction in attentional resources. However, no prior studies have demonstrated that reduced attentional resources are the critical source of age-related RM deficits. Here, we utilized qualitatively different attention tasks, and tested whether reduced attention for relational processing underlies the RM deficit observed in aging. In Experiment 1, we imposed either item-detection or relation-detection attention tasks on young adults during episodic memory encoding, and found that only the concurrent attention task involving relational processing disproportionately impaired RM performance in young adults. Moreover, by ruling out the possible confound of task-difficulty on the disproportionate RM impairment, we further demonstrated that reduced relational attention is a key factor for the age-related RM deficit. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results from Experiment 1 using different materials of stimuli and found that the effect of relational attention on RM is material-general. The results of Experiment 2 also showed that reducing attentional resources for relational processing in young adults strikingly equated their RM performance to that of older adults. Thus, the current study documents the first evidence that reduced attentional resources for relational processing are a critical factor for the relational memory impairment observed in aging.
Aging; Episodic memory; Attention; Association
Hepatic angiomylolipoma; Hepatocellular carcinoma
The repopulating lymphocytes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have an important role not only on the prevention of serious infections in the early transplantation period, but also on the killing of residual leukemic cells by graft-versus-leukemia effect. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of lymphocyte recovery after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in children with hematologic malignancies.
Materials and Methods
We evaluated 69 children transplanted for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (n=34), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n=26), chronic leukemia (n=7) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (n=2) between 1996 and 2008 at the Chonnam National University Hospital, Korea. The patients were grouped based on absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) <500/µL or ≥500/µL at D+21 and D+30 after transplant.
Patients with a High ALC at D+21 and D+30 had a faster neutrophil and platelet engraftment. The High at D+30 group had a better 5 year overall survival (71% vs. 53%, p=0.043) and event-free survival (72% vs. 53%, p=0.065) than the Low at D+30 group. The incidence of grade II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and relapse rate did not differ by the ALC counts. However, the Low at D+30 group had a significantly increased risk for transplant-related mortality (p=0.019). The univariate analysis showed that the factors associated with decreased survival were a Low ALC at D+30, patients with high risk ALL, and grade II-IV aGVHD in patients with ALL and AML.
Early posttransplant serial lymphocyte measurement would be a simple but useful method for predicting transplant outcomes.
Absolute lymphocyte count; allogeneic stem cell transplantation; children; leukemia
Genetic abnormalities in adult AML are caused most frequently by somatic mutations in exon 12 of the NPM1 gene, which is observed in approximately 35% of AML patients and up to 60% of patients with cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML).
We performed mutational analysis, including fragment analysis and direct sequencing of exon 12 of the NPM1 gene, on 83 AML patients to characterize the NPM1 mutations completely.
In this study, NPM1 mutations were identified in 19 (22.9%) of the 83 AML patients and in 12 (42.9%) of the 28 CN-AML patients. Among the 19 patients with NPM1 mutations, type A NPM1 mutations were identified in 16 (84.2%) patients, whereas non-A type NPM1 mutations were observed in 3 (15.8%) patients. Two of the 3 non-A type NPM1 mutations were novel: c.867_868insAAAC and c.869_873indelCTTTAGCCC. These 2 novel mutant proteins display a nuclear export signal motif (L-xxx-L-xx-V-x-L) less frequently and exhibit a mutation at tryptophan 290 that disrupts the nucleolar localization signal.
This study suggests that novel NPM1 mutations may be non-rare and that supplementary sequence analysis is needed along with conventional targeted mutational analysis to detect non-A types of NPM1 mutations.
NPM1; Nucleophosmin; AML
Epstein-Barr virus infections; T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder; Adult
This study evaluates the effectiveness of immunochemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of patients with primary bone lymphoma (PBL).
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 33 patients with PBL who were treated at 6 medical centers in Korea from 1992 to 2010. Clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes were analyzed.
The median age of the patients participating in our study was 40 years. The most common sites of involvement were the pelvis (12.36%) and femur (11.33%). CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) or CHOP-like regimens were administered to 20 patients (61%), and R-CHOP (rituximab plus CHOP) was administered to the remaining 13 patients (39%). The overall response rate was 89% (complete response, 76%; partial response, 12%). The overall survival (OS) of patients with solitary bone lesions was longer than that of patients with multiple bone lesions (median OS: not reached vs. 166 months, respectively; P=0.089). Addition of rituximab to CHOP did not significantly affect either OS or progression-free survival (P=0.53 and P=0.23, respectively). Combining radiation therapy with chemotherapy also did not improve the OS or progression-free survival of patients with solitary bone lesions.
Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy remains an effective treatment option for patients with PBL. Additional benefits of supplementing chemotherapy with either rituximab or radiation therapy were not observed in this study. Further investigation is needed to characterize the role of immunochemotherapy in treating patients with PBL.
Bone lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Rituximab
We reports a case of a newly formed thrombus in the left atrial appendage during cardiopulmonary bypass detected by transesophageal echocardiography in a patient with chronic atrial fibrillation and mitral stenosis. This case alerts the anesthesiologists of possible thrombus formation despite full heparinization during cardiac surgery and the importance of a comprehensive echocardiography examination.
Atrial appendage; Atrial fibrillation; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Mitral stenosis; Thrombus; Transesophageal echocardiography
Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) is based on multiplex PCR, utilizing variable number tandem repeat. Our goal was to compare the performance of MLVF in distinguishing clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates with that of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which has traditionally been the gold standard.
Sixty-three clinically significant S. aureus isolates were tested using both PFGE and MLVF. Multiplex PCR for MLVF was performed using PCR primers for clfA, clfB, sdrCDE, sspA, and spa. PFGE was performed with genomic DNA fragments generated by SmaI endonuclease digestion. Banding patterns of MLVF or PFGE were analyzed using InfoQuestFP software.
The hands-on time of our modified method was about 3 h, on average, for each of 18 isolates. PFGE (80% cutoff) or MLVF (75% cutoff) separated all of the 63 isolates into 13 and 12 types, respectively. Three types generated by PFGE were identical to those generated by MLVF. PFGE and MLVF yielded similar Simpson's diversity indices, indicating similar discriminatory power. The overall concordance between PFGE and MLVF was low, as represented by adjusted Rand indices (0.266-0.278). PFGE predicted MLVF type better than MLVF predicted PFGE type, as reflected by Wallace coefficients (PFGE cutoff 80% vs. MLVF cutoff 75%, 0.389 vs. 0.233). Analysis of the relationship between a pair of isolates showed 91.0% concordance between the PFGE (80% cutoff) and MLVF (75% cutoff).
Our simple, low-cost, modified MLVF protocol can effectively discriminate between S. aureus clinical isolates. MLVF can replace PFGE for the hospital infection control of S. aureus.
Staphylococcus aureus; Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting
The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the three-dimensional (3D) quantitative coronary analysis (QCA) system by comparing with that of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) QCA and two-dimensional (2D) QCA. 3D QCA, 2D QCA and IVUS QCA were performed in 45 vessel segments. The obtained values for the branch to branch segment vessel length and the proximal part of the segment vessel’s lumen diameter were measured. Inter-technique agreement was analyzed using paired sample t-test and Bland–Altman analysis. No differences were found in vessel lengths taken by 3D QCA and IVUS QCA (mean difference: 0.29 ± 1.06 mm, P = 0.07). When compared with IVUS QCA, 2D QCA underestimated vessel length (mean difference: −1.78 ± 2.55, P < 0.001). Bland–Altman analysis showed close agreement and a small bias between 3D QCA and IVUS QCA in the measurement of vessel length. The vessel lumen diameter measurements by 2D QCA and 3D QCA were significantly lower than that by IVUS QCA (mean difference: −0.64 ± 0.69, P < 0.001; −0.56 ± 0.52, P < 0.001 respectively). Rotational angiography with 3D reconstruction can provide a more accurate vessel length measurement, whereas 2D and 3D QCA underestimated the vessel lumen diameter compared with IVUS QCA.
Quantitative coronary angiography; Intravascular ultrasound; Three-dimensional rotational angiography
Coronary artery anomalies are diagnosed in 0.6 to 1.5% of patients who undergo coronary angiography (CAG). They may present with life threatening conditions but are generally asymptomatic. Recognition and adequate visualization of the anomaly is essential for correct management of the condition. However, in some cases the exact orifice and course of an anomalous coronary vessel cannot be selectively identified by CAG. In this report, a 54-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with acute inferior myocardial infarction and had an anomalous origin of the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) from the first diagonal branch (D1). In CAG, the right CAG showed no significant stenosis and fortunately we found an anomalous origin of the LCX from the D1. The course of LCX was precisely established by 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography.
Coronary vessel anomalies
The double-ring-shaped chaperonin GroEL binds a wide range of non-native polypeptides within its central cavity and, together with its cofactor GroES, assists their folding in an ATP-dependent manner. While the conformational cycle of GroEL/ES has been extensively studied, little is known about how the environment in the central cavity affects substrate conformation. Here we use the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (VHL) as a model substrate for studying the action of the GroEL/ES system on a bound polypeptide. Fluorescent labeling of pairs of sites on VHL for FRET allows VHL to be used to explore how GroEL binding and GroEL/ES/nucleotide binding affect substrate conformation. On average, upon binding to GroEL, all pairs of labeling sites experience compaction relative to the unfolded protein while single-molecule FRET distributions show significant heterogeneity. Upon addition of GroES and ATP to close the GroEL cavity, on average further FRET increases occur between the two hydrophobic regions of VHL, accompanied by FRET decreases between the N- and C-termini. This suggests that ATP- and GroES-induced confinement within the GroEL cavity remodels bound polypeptides by causing expansion (or racking) of some regions and compaction of others, most notably, the hydrophobic core. However, single-molecule observations of the specific FRET changes for individual proteins at the moment of ATP/GroES addition show that a large fraction of the population shows the opposite behavior, that is, FRET decreases between the hydrophobic regions and FRET increases for the N- and C-termini. Our time-resolved single-molecule analysis reveals the underlying heterogeneity of the action of GroES/EL on a bound polypeptide substrate which may arise from the random nature of the specific binding to the various identical subunits of GroEL, and may help explain why multiple rounds of binding and hydrolysis are required for some chaperonin substrates.
GroEL; VHL; single-molecule fluorescence; FRET; conformational change
We developed a novel multiplex PCR assay using dual-priming oligonucleotide primers targeting the RD1 gene for simultaneous identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). This assay would be useful both for detection of the M. tuberculosis complex and for differentiation of M. bovis BCG from pathogenic M. tuberculosis complex species.
A case report described a 72-year-old man with a history of a deceased-donor liver transplantation (due to hepatitis B-associated end-stage liver cirrhosis) performed in 1994. The patient was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastasis in 1997 and was successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation and thoracoscopic superior segmentectomy. There was no evidence of newly diagnosed metastatic lesions or recurrence until the 19th post-operative month. Gastric cancer was identified by endoscopy during a routine follow-up examination; the pre-pyloric antral lesion measured 1.5 cm in size and was histologically well-differentiated and confined to the submucosal layers on endoscopic ultrasound. Laparoscopic gastrectomy and lymph node dissection (D1 + β) was successfully performed in March 2009, and the patient was discharged on the 5th post-operative day without complications. This suggests that laparoscopic surgery is one of the feasible methods for resection of gastric cancer in liver transplant patients.
Laparoscopic gastrectomy; Liver transplantation; Gastric cancer
AIM: To investigate the preoperative factors that can predict neoplastic polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLGs) as well as malignant PLGs.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the 210 consecutively enrolled patients who underwent cholecystectomy due to a PLG larger than 10 mm, as was determined by preoperative trans-abdominal ultrasonography or endoscopic ultrasonography. We analyzed the medical, laboratory, radiologic data and the pathologic results.
RESULTS: In 210 cases, 146 had non-neoplastic polyps (69.5%) and 64 cases were neoplastic polyps (30.5%). An older age (≥ 65 years), the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the size of polyp (≥ 15 mm) were revealed to be independent predictive variables for neoplastic polyps with odd ratios (OR) of 2.27 (P = 0.044), 2.64 (P = 0.021) and 4.94 (P < 0.01), respectively. Among the neoplastic PLGs, an older age (≥ 65 years), the presence of DM and polyp size (≥ 15 mm) were associated with malignancy with ORs of 4.97 (P = 0.005), 6.13 (P = 0.001) and 20.55 (P < 0.001), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Among patients with PLGs larger than 10 mm in size, higher risk groups such as elderly patients more than 65 years old, those with DM or a large polyp size (≥ 15 mm) should be managed by cholecystectomy.
Gallbladder; Polyp; Neoplastic; Cholecystectomy; Diabetes; Pre-operative factors
Propionibacterium acnes is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus and a normal inhabitant of the skin. Although it is often considered a contaminant of blood cultures, it can occasionally cause serious infections, including postoperative central nervous system infections. Here, we report the case of a 70-yr-old man who developed a large cerebral abscess caused by P. acnes 13 months after neurosurgery. Immediate gram staining of the pus from his brain revealed the presence of gram-positive coccobacilli. However, colony growth was observed only after 5 days of culture. Therefore, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the pus specimen. The isolate was identified as P. acnes. The colonies developed 9 days after the initial culture. The API Rapid ID 32A test (bioMérieux, France) was performed using a colony, but an unacceptable profile was obtained. Then, the pus was transferred into the enrichment broths of the BACTEC FX (Becton Dickinson, USA) and BacT/Alert 3D (bioMérieux, Organon Teknika, USA) systems, but only the BACTEC FX system could detect growth after 5 days. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing and API Rapid 32A profiling with a colony recovered from Brucella agar, which was inoculated with the microbial growth in the enrichment broth from the BACTEC FX system. The organism was identified as P. acnes by both methods. This case suggests that 16S rRNA gene sequencing may be a useful alternative for identifying slowly growing P. acnes from specimens that do not show growth after 5 days of culture.
Propionibacterium acnes; Brain abscess; 16S rRNA gene sequencing
Limited options remain for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) after failure of standard systemic chemotherapy. Readministration of chemotherapeutic agents by hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) has the rationale of providing higher concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents to hepatic metastases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HAI of fluorouracil with leucovorin (HAI 5-FU/LV) for patients with liver metastases from CRC.
Fourteen patients with liver metastases from CRC who received HAI 5-FU/LV after failure of systemic chemotherapy containing fluorouracil and leucovorin were identified and their medical records were reviewed.
Of 10 patients evaluable for response, one partial response, six stable disease, and three progressive disease were reported. Additionally, the overall response and disease control rates were 7% and 50%, respectively. The median time to progression was 4.3 months (range, 2.9 to 5.6), to hepatic progression was 5.8 months (range, 4.7 to 6.9), and to extrahepatic progression was 5.8 months (range, 2.3 to 9.2). No grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities occurred and one case of abdominal pain and two cases of oral mucositis were the only grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities. Catheter-related complications occurred in three patients: one thrombosis, one infection, and one displacement.
HAI 5-FU/LV was well tolerated and showed modest efficacy for patients with liver metastases from refractory CRC. Readministration of previously used chemotherapeutic agents via the hepatic artery could be an effective salvage option and warrants further investigation in a prospective trial.
Colorectal neoplasms; Fluorouracil; Infusions, intra-arterial; Leucovorin
Bilateral total knee arthroplasty is generally accompanied by a significant amount of blood loss. We investigated the relationship between the intensity of pain and the amount of blood loss in the early postoperative period after bilateral total knee arthroplasty.
A prospective study was conducted on 91 patients who underwent elective sequential bilateral total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. All patients received combined spinal and epidural anesthesia. Patients were divided into three groups based on their scores on the verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS) for pain at 6 hours postoperatively. The VNRS was classified as follows; mild pain (n = 34, VNRS score 0-4), moderate pain (n = 24, VNRS score 5-6), and severe pain (n = 33, VNRS score 7-10). We compared the mean arterial pressures and the amount of blood loss during the first 24 postoperative hours in the three groups. Factors influencing postoperative blood loss were analyzed.
Postoperative mean arterial pressures and blood loss were not different among the groups. Of the factors examined, the amount of postoperative blood loss was only dependent on the amount of intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.001).
Early postoperative pain has no effect on postoperative blood pressure and the amount of blood loss after bilateral total knee arthroplasty. For postoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood loss is the main determinant.
Arthroplasty; Blood loss; Knee; Postoperative pain
The Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital deafness and cardiac phenotype (QT prolongation, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death). JLNS has been shown to occur due to homozygous mutation in KCNQ1 or KCNE1. There have been a few clinical case reports on JLNS in Korea; however, these were not confirmed by a genetic study. We identified compound heterozygous mutations in KCNQ1 in a 5-yr-old child with JLNS, who visited the hospital due to recurrent syncope and seizures and had congenital sensorineural deafness. His electrocardiogram revealed a markedly prolonged corrected QT interval with T wave alternans. The sequence analysis of the proband revealed the presence of novel compound heterozygous deletion/splicing error mutations (c.828-830 delCTC, p.S277del/c.921G>A, p.V307V). Each mutation in KCNQ1 was identified on the maternal and paternal side. With β-blocker therapy the patient has remained symptom-free for three and a half years.
Congenital Long QT Syndrome; Deafness; Mutation
A right-sided aortic arch (RAA) is a rare congenital anomaly, and Stanford type B dissection aneurysms involving this anomaly is also uncommon. Surgical approaches to dealing with an RAA are complicated by the unusual anatomical features of the condition. Here we report the case of a 47-year-old male who had a type B dissecting aneurysm involving an RAA with Kommerell's diverticulum. Graft replacement was successfully performed with an uneventful postoperative course.
Aorta, thoracic; Dissection
Background and Objectives
Arterial stiffness is a precursor to premature cardiovascular disease. The augmentation index (AI) and pulse pressure (PP) are cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to define the diagnostic values of the AI and PP from the peripheral arterial and central aortic waveforms in healthy subjects.
Subjects and Methods
We recruited 522 consecutive subjects (mean age 46.3±9.6 years, 290 males) who came to our facility for a comprehensive medical testing. We measured the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, peripheral and central PP, and a pulse wave analysis that included the central and peripheral AI.
The peripheral and central AIs in the female subjects were significantly higher than that in the male subjects (p<0.001). The peripheral and central PPs in the subjects with hyperlipidemia were significantly higher than subjects with normal lipid profiles (p<0.001). The peripheral and central PPs and peripheral and central AIs significantly increased with age.
Pending validation in prospective outcome-based studies, a peripheral PP of 70 mmHg, central PP of 50 mmHg, peripheral AI of 100%, and central AI of 40% may be preliminary values in adult subjects.
Arteries; Pulse pressure
There has been a controversy regarding the usefulness of biofeedback therapy for functional constipation or fecal incontinence. This study was performed to investigate the long-term clinical efficacy of biofeedback therapy.
Sixty-four patients with constipation or fecal incontinence received biofeedback therapy for 4 weeks. Symptom improvements were evaluated immediately after the completion of biofeedback therapy and during the follow-up period of about 12 to 64 months.
Twenty-five patients in the constipation group [mean age of 52.1 years, 16 men (64.0%)] received 6.2 sessions of biofeedback therapy. Improvement of constipation after the completion of biofeedback therapy was as follows: major response (or improvement) in 3 patients (12.0%), fair in 6 (24.0%), minor in 11 (44.0%) and none in 5 (20.0%). Among 9 patients who showed major or fair improvement, 8 patients (88.9%) maintained the symptom improvement through the long term follow-up periods. Thirty-nine patients in the fecal incontinence group [59.7 years old, 15 men (38.5%)] received 6.8 sessions of biofeedback therapy. Improvement of incontinence after the completion of biofeedback therapy was as follows: major improvement in 6 patients (15.4%), fair in 14 (35.9%), minor in 14 (35.9%), and none in 5 (12.8%). All 11 patients with major or fair improvement maintained the symptom improvement to the end of follow-up periods.
Symptom improvements after biofeedback therapy were disappointing in both the constipation and incontinence group. However, when the symptom improvements were classified as major or fair, the improvements continued for at least a year.
Biofeedback; Therapy; Constipation; Fecal incontinence
Since the first descriptions of Brugada as a new clinical entity defined by sudden cardiac death in patients with typical electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns, Brugada syndrome (BS) has been increasingly diagnosed. This syndrome is known as a disease that is inherited via an autosomal dominant trait, and the SCN5A mutation has been found in 20-25% of BS patients. Because BS primarily manifests in adulthood, little information is available on BS during childhood. Although there have been several reports on adult BS in Korea, pediatric BS has not been reported. Herein, we report on childhood BS in two families. One infantile BS patient and his family had a novel SCN5A mutation (c.4035G>T, p.W1345C, heterozygote) in domain III of the sodium channel.
Brugada syndrome; Tachycardia, ventricular
Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant complication after coronary artery bypass surgery. Prior coronary angiography increases the likelihood of AKI due to the use of a radiocontrast dye. This study examined the effect of coronary angiography on the postoperative renal function after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB).
The records of 110 patients who required OPCAB were reviewed. These patients also had at least two of the following conditions: chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, emergency surgery, congestive heart failure, age >75 years, hematocrit <30%, a left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, or the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. The patients were divided into two groups; coronary angiography performed within two days of OPCAB (Control group, n = 55), and coronary angiography performed more than two days before OPCAB (Angio group, n = 55). The serum creatinine (SCr) and serum cystatin C levels were measured on the day before surgery, as well as on postoperative days 1, 2, 3 and 7. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was also obtained on those days. AKI was defined as an increase in Cr ≥50% or ≥0.3 mg/dl within 48 hours.
The postoperative changes in the SCr, cystatin C and eGFR were similar in the two groups. The incidence of AKI and renal replacement therapy were similar in the two groups.
Coronary angiography performed within two days of OPCAB does not affect the postoperative renal function.
Coronary angiography; Kidney; Off-pump coronary artery bypass; Postoperative periods
Coronary embolism is an uncommon cause of myocardial infarction. A 48-year-old male presented with typical chest pain of an MI. There was no definite ST segment change on electrocardiogram (ECG) and no elevation of myocardial enzymes. Coronary angiography (CAG) revealed occlusion of the distal left anterior descending coronary artery (dLAD), the distal left circumflex coronary artery (dLCX), the diagonal branch (D) and the obtuse marginal branch (OM), with a large filling defect in the left main coronary artery (LMA) that caused the myocardial infarction. We considered the possibility that coronary embolization was caused by the migration of a thrombus in the LMA during CAG. We did balloon angioplasty in the dLAD, dLCX, OM and D and treated the patient with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist. However, thrombi remained in the dLAD, OM, and dLCX. After 3 days of anti-thrombotic treatment, follow-up CAG revealed only slight resolution of thrombi in the LAD. After triple antiplatelet agent medication for 1 year, a follow-up CAG showed a resolution of the thrombi in all coronary arteries.
Embolism; Myocardial infarction
The use of computers, especially for virtual reality (VR), to understand, assess, and treat various mental health problems has been developed for the last decade, including application for phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention deficits, and schizophrenia. However, the number of VR tools addressing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still lacking due to the heterogeneous symptoms of OCD and poor understanding of the relationship between VR and OCD. This article reviews the empirical literatures for VR tools in the future, which involve applications for both clinical work and experimental research in this area, including examining symptoms using VR according to OCD patients' individual symptoms, extending OCD research in the VR setting to also study behavioral and physiological correlations of the symptoms, and expanding the use of VR for OCD to cognitive-behavioral intervention.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder; Virtual reality; Computer; Assessment; Treatment; Cognitive-behavioral therapy