Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) serotypes 1–9 are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds worldwide. APMV-1 (also called Newcastle disease virus, NDV) is attenuated in non-human primates and is being developed as a candidate human vaccine vector. The vector potential of the other serotypes was unknown. In the present study, we evaluated nine different biologically- or recombinantly-derived APMV strains for the ability to replicate and cause disease in rhesus macaque model. Five of the viruses were: biologically-derived wild type (wt) APMV-2, -3, -5, -7 and -9. Another virus was a recombinant (r) version of wt APMV-4. The remaining three viruses were versions of wt rAPMV-2, -4 and -7 in which the F cleavage site had been modified to be multi-basic. Rhesus macaques were inoculated intranasally and intratracheally and monitored for clinical disease, virus shedding from the upper and lower respiratory tract, and seroconversion. Virus shedding was not detected for wt APMV-5. Very limited shedding was detected for wt rAPMV-4 and modified rAPMV-4, and only in a subset of animals. Shedding by the other viruses was detected in every infected animal, and usually from both the upper and lower respiratory tract. In particular, shedding over a number of days in every animal was observed for modified rAPMV-2, wt APMV-7, and modified rAPMV-7. Modification of the F protein cleavage site appeared to increase shedding by wt rAPMV-2 and marginally by wt rAPMV-4. All APMVs except wt APMV-5 induced a virus-specific serum antibody response in all infected animals. None of the animals exhibited any clinical disease signs. These results indicate that APMVs 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 are competent to infect non-human primates, but are moderately-to-highly restricted, depending on the serotype. This suggests that they are not likely to significantly infect primates in nature, and represent promising attenuated candidates for vector development.
Opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) is popular method of postoperative pain control, but many patients suffer from IV PCA-related postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). In this retrospective observational study, we have determined independent predictors of IV PCA-related PONV and predictive values of the Apfel's simplified risk score in pursuance of identifying high-risk patients.
Materials and Methods
We analyzed 7000 patients who received IV PCA with background infusion after elective surgery. Patients who maintained IV PCA for a postoperative period of 48 hr (completion group, n=6128) were compared with those who have discontinued IV PCA within 48 hr of surgery due to intractable PONV (cessation group, n=872). Patients, anesthetics, and surgical factors known for predicting PONV were evaluated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of IV PCA related intractable PONV.
In a stepwise multivariate analysis, weight, background infusion dose of fentanyl, addition of ketolorac to PCA, duration of anesthesia, general anesthesia, head and neck surgery, and Apfel's simplified risk score were revealed as independent risk factors for intractable PONV followed by the cessation of IV PCA. In addition, Apfel's simplified risk score, which demonstrated the highest odds ratio among the predictors, was strongly correlated with the cessation rate of IV PCA.
Multimodal prophylactic antiemetic strategies and dose reduction of opioids may be considered as strategies for the prevention of PONV with the use of IV PCA, especially in patients with high Apfel's simplified risk scores.
Apfel's simplified risk score; patient-controlled analgesia; postoperative nausea and vomiting
The pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65 are widely used tools for the prediction of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was conducted to evaluate validation of severity scoring system including the PSI and CURB-65 scores of Korean CAP patients. In the prospective CAP cohort (participated in by 14 hospitals in Korea from January 2009 to September 2011), 883 patients aged over 18 yr were studied. The 30-day mortalities of all patients were calculated with their PSI index classes and CURB scores. The overall mortality rate was 4.5% (40/883). The mortality rates per CURB-65 score were as follows: score 0, 2.3% (6/260); score 1, 4.0% (12/300); score 2, 6.0% (13/216); score 3, 5.7% (5/88); score 4, 23.5% (4/17); and score 5, 0% (0/2). Mortality rate with PSI risk class were as follows: I, 2.3% (4/174); II, 2.7% (5/182); III, 2.3% (5/213); IV, 4.5% (11/245); and V, 21.7% (15/69). The subgroup mortality rate of Korean CAP patients varies based on the severity scores and CURB-65 is more valid for the lower scores, and PSI, for the higher scores. Thus, these variations must be considered when using PSI and CURB-65 for CAP in Korean patients.
Pneumonia; Prognosis; Severity Index
Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause devastating disease in chickens worldwide. Although the current vaccines are substantially effective, they do not completely prevent infection, virus shedding and disease. To produce genotype-matched vaccines, a full-genome reverse genetics system has been used to generate a recombinant virus in which the F protein cleavage site has been changed to that of avirulent vaccine virus. In the other strategy, the vaccines have been generated by replacing the F and HN genes of a commercial vaccine strain with those from a genotype-matched virus. However, the protective efficacy of a chimeric virus vaccine has not been directly compared with that of a full-genome virus vaccine developed by reverse genetics. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of genotype VII matched chimeric vaccines by generating three recombinant viruses based on avirulent LaSota (genotype II) strain in which the open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the F and HN proteins were replaced, individually or together, with those of the circulating and highly virulent Indonesian NDV strain Ban/010. The cleavage site of the Ban/010 F protein was mutated to the avirulent motif found in strain LaSota. In vitro growth characteristics and a pathogenicity test indicated that all three chimeric viruses retained the highly attenuated phenotype of the parental viruses. Immunization of chickens with chimeric and full-length genome VII vaccines followed by challenge with virulent Ban/010 or Texas GB (genotype II) virus demonstrated protection against clinical disease and death. However, only those chickens immunized with chimeric rLaSota expressing the F or F plus HN proteins of the Indonesian strain were efficiently protected against shedding of Ban/010 virus. Our findings showed that genotype-matched vaccines can provide protection to chickens by efficiently preventing spread of virus, primarily due to the F protein.
c-Src and Lyn are the only Src family kinases (SFKs) with established activity in osteoclasts (OCs). c-Src promotes function via cytoskeletal organization of the mature resorptive cell while Lyn is a negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis. We establish that Fyn, another SFK, also impacts the OC, but in a manner distinctly different than c-Src and Lyn. Fyn deficiency principally alters cells throughout the osteoclastogenic process, resulting in diminished numbers of resorptive polykaryons. Arrested OC formation in the face of insufficient Fyn reflects reduced proliferation of precursors, in response to M-CSF and retarded RANK ligand (RANKL)-induced differentiation, attended by suppressed activation of the osteoclastogenic signaling molecules, c-Jun and NF-κB. The anti-apoptotic properties of RANKL are also compromised in cells deleted of Fyn, an event mediated by increased Bim expression and failed activation of Akt. The defective osteoclastogenesis of Fyn-/- OCs dampens bone resorption, in vitro. Finally, while Fyn deficiency does not regulate basal osteoclastogenesis, in vivo, it reduces that stimulated by RANKL by approximately 2/3. Thus, Fyn is a pro-resorptive SFK, which exerts its effects by prompting proliferation and differentiation while attenuating apoptosis of OC lineage cells.
Osteoclasts; Fyn; Src family kinase (SFK); M-CSF; RANK ligand
Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Korea for the last 30 years. Cancer patients' 5-year survival rate between 2005 and 2009 was 62.0%, representing a highly advanced standard of care, as much as developed countries in the EU and the US. The Korean government formulated its first 10-year plan for cancer control in 1996 and has been carrying out a second 10-year plan for cancer control since 2006. But despite the Korean government's efforts, the cancer burden in Korea continues to increase. Many separate laws have gone into effect concerning the management of carcinogen exposure. However, there are no integrated regulatory laws or management systems against carcinogen exposure in Korea. Dead zones remain where carcinogen exposure cannot be controlled properly in Korea. In this paper, we suggest the need to establish a national carcinogen list based on international harmonization as a prerequisite for a paradigm shift in cancer control policy from treatment to primary prevention.
Cancer control; Collaborative risk management; National carcinogen list; Primary prevention
Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP) is a hematopoietic adaptor containing Src homology (SH)3 and SH2 motifs and a unique carboxy terminus. Unlike c-Src, SLAP lacks a tyrosine kinase domain. We investigated the role of SLAP in osteoclast development and resorptive function. Employing SLAP-deficient mice, we find lack of the adaptor enhances in vitro proliferation of osteoclast precursors in the form of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs), without altering their survival. Furthermore, osteoclastogenic markers appear more rapidly in SLAP−/− BMMs exposed to RANK ligand (RANKL). The accelerated proliferation of M-CSF-treated, SLAP-deficient precursors is associated with enhanced ERK activation. SLAP’s role as a mediator of M-CSF signaling, in osteoclastic cells, is buttressed by complexing of the adaptor protein and c-Fms in lipid rafts. Unlike c-Src, SLAP does not impact resorptive function of mature osteoclasts, but induces their early apoptosis. Thus, SLAP negatively regulates differentiation of osteoclasts and proliferation of their precursors. Conversely, SLAP decreases osteoclast death by inhibiting activation of caspase 3. These counterbalancing events yield indistinguishable bones of WT and SLAP−/− mice which contain equal numbers of osteoclasts in basal and stimulated conditions.
SLAP; osteoclasts; c-Src
The prognostic value of the peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC), and ALC/AMC ratio at diagnosis in patients with classic Hodgkin's lymphoma was evaluated, and relationships with tumor-associated macrophages were examined.
Although most patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) have a long survival duration, the current risk stratification is imperfect. A recent study suggested a prognostic role for the peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count (ALC/AMC) ratio at diagnosis in cHL. It is intriguing to investigate the significance of the ALC/AMC ratio in relation to tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), yet another prognostic factor for cHL.
We examined the prognostic impact of the ALC, AMC, and ALC/AMC ratio in 312 cHL patients (median age, 37 years) using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for optimal cutoff values, and compared these with TAM content.
The median follow-up was 65 months (range, 0.1–245 months). On univariate analysis, a low ALC/AMC ratio (<2.9) was correlated with a poorer overall survival (OS) outcome. A subgroup analysis of patients with limited-stage disease showed that the ALC/AMC ratio was significantly correlated with the OS time. Multivariate analysis showed the ALC/AMC ratio to be an independent prognostic factor for OS outcome. A Spearman correlation test of TAM content showed a negative correlation with the ALC/AMC ratio and a positive correlation with the peripheral blood macrophage percentage.
This study suggests that the ALC/AMC ratio may be a simple, inexpensive, and independent prognostic factor for OS outcome in patients with cHL and may have a role in the stratification of cHL patients in addition to the International Prognostic Score and TAM content.
Hodgkin's lymphoma; Monocytes; Lymphocytes; Lymphocyte/monocyte ratio; Prognosis
To analyze publication rate, time to publication and the characteristics of the abstracts presented at the annual Korean Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine (KARM) meetings.
A total of 1,027 abstracts presented at the 2008 and 2009 annual KARM meetings were enrolled in the database and searched for their subsequent citation in PubMed, KoreaMed, and Google Scholar.
The data analysis revealed that 317 (30.87%) abstracts, were published as full-length journal articles and publication rates by subject were not significantly different. The mean time to publication was 17.17±10.48 months, and the journals written in English (20.39±10.20) required a longer duration than those written in Korean (11.94±8.44) with statistical significance (p<0.001). There was no statistical difference (p=0.284) in the duration between domestic (17.61±10.37) and foreign (16.48±10.51) of the 220 domestic journal articles, 190 (86.76%) were published in the Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine and the 97 articles published in foreign journals were scattered over 60 different journals.
The publication rate of abstracts presented at the 2008 and 2009 annual KARM meetings was 30.87% and the mean time to publication was 17.17±10.48 months.
Abstracts; Publications; Rehabilitation; Journal article
A new reactor-based neutron single-crystal diffractometer was developed based on a large-area curved position-sensitive detector with a delay-line readout method. The instrumentation details are presented, including diffractometer construction, measurement method, raw data treatment and calibration, and various applications for structural studies are given to exploit the strengths of the diffractometer.
A new single-crystal neutron diffractometer based on a large-area curved two-dimensional position-sensitive detector (C-2DPSD) has been developed. The diffractometer commissioning is almost complete, together with development of the measurement methodology and the raw data processing software package, the Reciprocal Analyzer, and the instrument is now ready to be launched for users. Position decoding of the C-2DPSD is via a delay-line readout method with an effective angular range of 110 × 54° in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, with a nominal radius of curvature of 530 mm. The diffractometer is equipped with a Ge(311) mosaic monochromator and two supermirror vacuum guide paths, one before and one after the monochromator position. The commissioning incorporates corrections and calibration of the instrument using an NaCl crystal, various applications such as crystallographic and magnetic structure measurements, a crystallinity check on large crystals, and a study on the composition or dopant content of a mixed crystal of (TmxYb1−x)Mn2O5. The installation of the diffractometer and the measurement method, the calibration procedure and results, the raw data treatment and visualization, and several applications using the large C-2DPSD-based diffractometer are reported.
single-crystal neutron diffraction; neutron diffractometers; curved two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors
The complete genome sequence of an African Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain isolated from a chicken in Togo in 2009 was determined. The genome is 15,198 nucleotides (nt) in length and is classified in genotype VII in the class II cluster. Compared to common vaccine strains, the African strain contains a previously described 6-nt insert in the downstream untranslated region of the N gene and a novel 6-nt insert in the HN-L intergenic region. Genome length differences are a marker of the natural history of NDV. This is the first description of a class II NDV strain with a genome of 15,198 nt and a 6-nt insert in the HN-L intergenic region. Sequence divergence relative to vaccine strains was substantial, likely contributes to outbreaks, and illustrates the continued evolution of new NDV strains in West Africa.
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the early effects of statin treatment on plaque composition according to plaque stability on Intravascular Ultrasound-Virtual Histology at 6 months after a coronary event. Previous trials have demonstrated that lipid lowering therapy with statins decreases plaque volume and increases plaque echogenicity in patients with coronary artery disease.
Materials and Methods
Fifty-four patients (54 lesions) with acute coronary syndrome were prospectively enrolled. We classified and analyzed the target plaques into two types according to plaque stability: thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA, n=14) and non-TCFA (n=40). The primary end point was change in percent necrotic core in the 10-mm subsegment with the most disease.
After 6 months of statin therapy, no change was demonstrated in the mean percentage of necrotic core (18.7±8.5% to 20.0±11.0%, p=0.38). There was a significant reduction in necrotic core percentage in patients with TCFA (21.3±7.2% to 14.4±8.9%, p=0.017), but not in patients with non-TCFA. Moreover, change in percent necrotic core was significantly correlated with change in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (r=0.4, p=0.003). Changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lipid core percentage demonstrated no significant associations.
A clear reduction of lipid core was observed only for the TCFA plaque type, suggesting that changes in plaque composition following statin therapy might occur earlier in vulnerable plaque than in stable plaque; the effect may be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of statins.
Acute coronary syndromes; statin; IVUS-VH
Brachydactyly type C (BDC) is characterized by shortening of the middle phalanges of the index, middle, and little fingers. Hyperphalangy of the index and middle finger and shortening of the first metacarpal can also be observed. BDC is a rare genetic condition associated with the GDF5 gene, and this condition has not been confirmed by genetic analysis so far in the Korean population. Herein, we present a case of a 6-yr-old girl diagnosed with BDC confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. The patient presented with shortening of the second and third digits of both hands. Sequence analysis of the GDF5 gene was performed and the pathogenic mutation, c.1312C>T (p.Arg438Cys), was identified. Interestingly, this mutation was previously described in a patient who presented with the absence of the middle phalanges in the second through fifth toes. However, our patient showed no involvement of the feet. Considering intrafamilial and interfamilial variability, molecular analysis of isolated brachydactyly is warranted to elucidate the genetic origin and establish a diagnosis.
Brachydactyly; GDF5 gene; Mutational analysis
An avian paramyxovirus type 4 (APMV-4) was isolated from a duck in Delaware in 2010. Its genome is 15,048 nucleotides (nt) long, which is shorter by 6 nt than those for all previously reported strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this strain formed a separate cluster within APMV-4 strains.
To evaluate the role of the F protein cleavage site in the replication and pathogenicity of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs), we constructed a reverse genetics system for recovery of infectious recombinant APMV-4 from cloned cDNA. The recovered recombinant APMV-4 resembled the biological virus in growth characteristics in vitro and in pathogenicity in vivo. The F cleavage site sequence of APMV-4 (DIQPR↓F) contains a single basic amino acid, at the -1 position. Six mutant APMV-4 viruses were recovered in which the F protein cleavage site was mutated to contain increased numbers of basic amino acids or to mimic the naturally occurring cleavage sites of several paramyxoviruses, including neurovirulent and avirulent strains of NDV. The presence of a glutamine residue at the -3 position was found to be important for mutant virus recovery. In addition, cleavage sites containing the furin protease motif conferred increased replication and syncytium formation in vitro. However, analysis of viral pathogenicity in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, and 3-week-old ducks showed that none the F protein cleavage site mutations altered the replication, tropism, and pathogenicity of APMV-4, and no significant differences were observed among the parental and mutant APMV-4 viruses in vivo. Although parental and mutant viruses replicated somewhat better in ducks than in chickens, they all were highly restricted and avirulent in both species. These results suggested that the cleavage site sequence of the F protein is not a limiting determinant of APMV-4 pathogenicity in chickens and ducks.
Candida species are the leading causes of invasive fungal infection among hospitalized patients and are responsible for major economic burdens. The goals of this study were to estimate the costs directly associated with the treatment of candidemia and factors associated with increased costs, as well as the impact of first-line antifungal agents on the outcomes and costs. A retrospective study was conducted in a sample of 199 patients from four university-affiliated tertiary care hospitals in Korea over 1 year. Only costs attributable to the treatment of candidemia were estimated by reviewing resource utilization during treatment. Risk factors for increased costs, treatment outcome, and hospital length of stay (LOS) were analyzed. Approximately 65% of the patients were treated with fluconazole, and 28% were treated with conventional amphotericin B. The overall treatment success rate was 52.8%, and the 30-day mortality rate was 47.9%. Hematologic malignancy, need for mechanical ventilation, and treatment failure of first-line antifungal agents were independent risk factors for mortality. The mean total cost for the treatment of candidemia was $4,743 per patient. Intensive care unit stay at candidemia onset and antifungal switch to second-line agents were independent risk factors for increased costs. The LOS was also significantly longer in patients who switched antifungal agents to second-line drugs. Antifungal switch to second-line agents for any reasons was the only modifiable risk factor of increased costs and LOS. Choosing an appropriate first-line antifungal agent is crucial for better outcomes and reduced hospital costs of candidemia.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in the largest number of Korean individuals examined to date. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 229,595 Korean adults aged 19 yr and above who participated in a Korean Community Health Survey conducted in 2009. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used as the measurement tool for depressive symptoms (CES-D score over 16) and definite depression (CES-D score over 25). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations between sociodemographic factors and depressive symptoms. The percentages of depressive symptoms and definite depression in the total study population were 11% (7.8% for men, 14.0% for women) and 3.7%, (2.4% for men, 5.0% for women), respectively. Female gender, older age, disrupted marital status, low education and income level, multigenerational household composition and metropolitan residence were associated with greater risk of depressive symptoms. The present study provides a valid prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms, using the largest representative sample of the Korean general population to date. Various sociodemographic factors contribute to the prevalence and effects of depressive symptoms in Korea.
Depression; Epidemiology; Prevalence; Socioeconomic Factors
Good postoperative pain control is an important part of adequate postoperative care. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) provided better postoperative analgesia compared to other conventional analgesic methods, but several risks have been observed as well. We therefore surveyed the efficacy and safety of PCEA in this retrospective observational study.
We analyzed collected data on 2,276 elective surgical patients who received PCEA with ropivacaine and fentanyl. Patients were assessed by a PCA service team in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), at 1-6 h, 6-24 h, and 24-48 h postoperatively for adequate pain control. The presence of PCEA-related adverse events was also assessed.
Numerical pain score (median [interquartile range]) were 3 [1-4], 5 [4-7], 4 [3-5], and 3 [3-5] in the PACU, at 1-6 h, 6-24 h, and 24-48 h postoperatively. Median pain scores in patients underwent major abdominal or thoracic surgery were higher than other surgical procedure in the PACU, at 1-6 h after surgery. Nausea and vomiting (20%) and numbness and motor weakness (15%) were revealed as major PCEA-related adverse events during the postoperative 48 h period. There were 329 patients (14%) for whom PCEA was ceased within 48 h following surgery.
Our data suggest that the use of PCEA provides proper analgesia in the postoperative 48 h period after a wide variety of surgical procedures and that is associated with few serious complications. However, more careful pain management and sustainable PCEA monitoring considering the type of surgical procedure undergone is needed in patients with PCEA.
efficacy; epidural analgesia; patient-controlled analgesia; postoperative pain; safety
A 22-year-old man was referred to our institution due to lower back pain and was diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thoracic and lumbar spine. The patient achieved complete remission with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. One year later, right cervical lymphadenopathy was observed and Hodgkin's lymphoma was confirmed on biopsy. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, and experienced no further symptoms. Further, no evidence of recurrence was observed on follow-up imaging. This report discusses the association between Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Histiocytosis; Hodgkin disease; Langerhans-cell histiocytosis
Cold urticaria; Cholinergic urticaria
Congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare hemorrhagic disorder that can cause excessive bleeding during and after surgery in affected patients. The recombinant form of activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven® from Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark), which was developed as a second-generation bypassing agent, has recently been used in the management of bleeding for patients with congenital FVII deficiency.
We reviewed the results of 8 surgical procedures in 5 patients with congenital FVII deficiency at the Kyung Hee University Hospital, Gangdong, Seoul, Korea, between January 2008 and June 2010. We administrated rFVIIa preoperatively in six patients and postoperatively in five patients.
Between January 2008 and June 2010 at our center, 8 operations were performed successfully and no complications were observed in the 5 patients with congenital FVII deficiency. The median level of FVII activity was 2% (range, 0.6-7%). Four orthopedic procedures, 1 tonsillectomy, and 3 dental extractions were performed. The median duration of hospitalization was 8.5 days (range, 0-15 days). rFVIIa was administered at all procedures, except the dental extraction that was performed using only antifibrinolytic agents without any replacement. No bleeding or thrombogenic complications were observed in any case.
Patients with congenital FVII deficiency who require surgery can be treated efficiently and safely with rFVIIa or antifibrinolytic agents. rFVIIa was well tolerated and maintained effective hemostasis and showed good clinical outcome after the major surgery.
Congenital FVII deficiency; Surgery; rFVIIa; Antifibrinolytic agent
To investigate the therapeutic effects of mechanical horseback riding for gait and balance parameters in post-stroke patients.
This study was a non randomized prospective positive-controlled trial over a 12 week period. From May 2011 to October 2011, 37 stroke patients were recruited from our outpatient clinic and divided into two groups. The control group received the conventional physiotherapy while the intervention group received the conventional physiotherapy along with mechanical horseback riding therapy for 12 weeks. Outcome measurements of gait included the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) and gait part of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (G-POMA) while those of balance included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the balance part of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (B-POMA). These measurements were taken before and after treatment.
There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics and initial values between the two groups. When comparing baseline and 12 weeks post treatment in each group, the intervention group showed significant improvement on BBS (39.9±5.7 → 45.7±4.8, p=0.001) and B-POMA (10.4±2.6 → 12.6±2.1, p=0.001), but significant improvement on gait parameters. When comparing the groups, the dynamic balance category of BBS in post treatment showed significant difference (p=0.02).
This study suggests that mechanical horseback riding therapy may be an effective treatment tool for enhancing balance in adults with stroke.
Hippotherapy; Stroke; Gait; Balance
The berry of Panax ginseng significantly inhibited the histamine releases at the concentration of 30 μg/mL (p<0.05) and 10 μg/mL (p<0.01). The ginsenoside Re from ginseng berry was found out to have a potent effect in the experiment of histamin and cytokine release.
Panax ginseng; Ginseng berry; Ginsenoside Re; Histamine; Cytokine
The effect of coupling the salt concentration gradient crystallization method with the use of the paramagnetic salt MnCl2 and a magnetic field is reported. The use of a simple magnetic device is shown to have a significant effect on hen egg-white lysozyme crystal growth.
The effect of coupling the salt concentration gradient crystallization method with the use of the paramagnetic salt MnCl2 and a magnetic field is reported. The use of a simple magnetic device is proposed to have a significant effect on hen egg-white lysozyme crystal growth. Large single crystals greater than 10 mm3 in volume with optical perfection were consistently obtained in this study.
lysozyme; crystallization; magnetic fields; optical perfection