The aim of this study was to demonstrate the early effects of statin treatment on plaque composition according to plaque stability on Intravascular Ultrasound-Virtual Histology at 6 months after a coronary event. Previous trials have demonstrated that lipid lowering therapy with statins decreases plaque volume and increases plaque echogenicity in patients with coronary artery disease.
Materials and Methods
Fifty-four patients (54 lesions) with acute coronary syndrome were prospectively enrolled. We classified and analyzed the target plaques into two types according to plaque stability: thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA, n=14) and non-TCFA (n=40). The primary end point was change in percent necrotic core in the 10-mm subsegment with the most disease.
After 6 months of statin therapy, no change was demonstrated in the mean percentage of necrotic core (18.7±8.5% to 20.0±11.0%, p=0.38). There was a significant reduction in necrotic core percentage in patients with TCFA (21.3±7.2% to 14.4±8.9%, p=0.017), but not in patients with non-TCFA. Moreover, change in percent necrotic core was significantly correlated with change in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (r=0.4, p=0.003). Changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lipid core percentage demonstrated no significant associations.
A clear reduction of lipid core was observed only for the TCFA plaque type, suggesting that changes in plaque composition following statin therapy might occur earlier in vulnerable plaque than in stable plaque; the effect may be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of statins.
Acute coronary syndromes; statin; IVUS-VH
Brachydactyly type C (BDC) is characterized by shortening of the middle phalanges of the index, middle, and little fingers. Hyperphalangy of the index and middle finger and shortening of the first metacarpal can also be observed. BDC is a rare genetic condition associated with the GDF5 gene, and this condition has not been confirmed by genetic analysis so far in the Korean population. Herein, we present a case of a 6-yr-old girl diagnosed with BDC confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. The patient presented with shortening of the second and third digits of both hands. Sequence analysis of the GDF5 gene was performed and the pathogenic mutation, c.1312C>T (p.Arg438Cys), was identified. Interestingly, this mutation was previously described in a patient who presented with the absence of the middle phalanges in the second through fifth toes. However, our patient showed no involvement of the feet. Considering intrafamilial and interfamilial variability, molecular analysis of isolated brachydactyly is warranted to elucidate the genetic origin and establish a diagnosis.
Brachydactyly; GDF5 gene; Mutational analysis
An avian paramyxovirus type 4 (APMV-4) was isolated from a duck in Delaware in 2010. Its genome is 15,048 nucleotides (nt) long, which is shorter by 6 nt than those for all previously reported strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this strain formed a separate cluster within APMV-4 strains.
To evaluate the role of the F protein cleavage site in the replication and pathogenicity of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs), we constructed a reverse genetics system for recovery of infectious recombinant APMV-4 from cloned cDNA. The recovered recombinant APMV-4 resembled the biological virus in growth characteristics in vitro and in pathogenicity in vivo. The F cleavage site sequence of APMV-4 (DIQPR↓F) contains a single basic amino acid, at the -1 position. Six mutant APMV-4 viruses were recovered in which the F protein cleavage site was mutated to contain increased numbers of basic amino acids or to mimic the naturally occurring cleavage sites of several paramyxoviruses, including neurovirulent and avirulent strains of NDV. The presence of a glutamine residue at the -3 position was found to be important for mutant virus recovery. In addition, cleavage sites containing the furin protease motif conferred increased replication and syncytium formation in vitro. However, analysis of viral pathogenicity in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, and 3-week-old ducks showed that none the F protein cleavage site mutations altered the replication, tropism, and pathogenicity of APMV-4, and no significant differences were observed among the parental and mutant APMV-4 viruses in vivo. Although parental and mutant viruses replicated somewhat better in ducks than in chickens, they all were highly restricted and avirulent in both species. These results suggested that the cleavage site sequence of the F protein is not a limiting determinant of APMV-4 pathogenicity in chickens and ducks.
Candida species are the leading causes of invasive fungal infection among hospitalized patients and are responsible for major economic burdens. The goals of this study were to estimate the costs directly associated with the treatment of candidemia and factors associated with increased costs, as well as the impact of first-line antifungal agents on the outcomes and costs. A retrospective study was conducted in a sample of 199 patients from four university-affiliated tertiary care hospitals in Korea over 1 year. Only costs attributable to the treatment of candidemia were estimated by reviewing resource utilization during treatment. Risk factors for increased costs, treatment outcome, and hospital length of stay (LOS) were analyzed. Approximately 65% of the patients were treated with fluconazole, and 28% were treated with conventional amphotericin B. The overall treatment success rate was 52.8%, and the 30-day mortality rate was 47.9%. Hematologic malignancy, need for mechanical ventilation, and treatment failure of first-line antifungal agents were independent risk factors for mortality. The mean total cost for the treatment of candidemia was $4,743 per patient. Intensive care unit stay at candidemia onset and antifungal switch to second-line agents were independent risk factors for increased costs. The LOS was also significantly longer in patients who switched antifungal agents to second-line drugs. Antifungal switch to second-line agents for any reasons was the only modifiable risk factor of increased costs and LOS. Choosing an appropriate first-line antifungal agent is crucial for better outcomes and reduced hospital costs of candidemia.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in the largest number of Korean individuals examined to date. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 229,595 Korean adults aged 19 yr and above who participated in a Korean Community Health Survey conducted in 2009. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used as the measurement tool for depressive symptoms (CES-D score over 16) and definite depression (CES-D score over 25). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations between sociodemographic factors and depressive symptoms. The percentages of depressive symptoms and definite depression in the total study population were 11% (7.8% for men, 14.0% for women) and 3.7%, (2.4% for men, 5.0% for women), respectively. Female gender, older age, disrupted marital status, low education and income level, multigenerational household composition and metropolitan residence were associated with greater risk of depressive symptoms. The present study provides a valid prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms, using the largest representative sample of the Korean general population to date. Various sociodemographic factors contribute to the prevalence and effects of depressive symptoms in Korea.
Depression; Epidemiology; Prevalence; Socioeconomic Factors
Good postoperative pain control is an important part of adequate postoperative care. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) provided better postoperative analgesia compared to other conventional analgesic methods, but several risks have been observed as well. We therefore surveyed the efficacy and safety of PCEA in this retrospective observational study.
We analyzed collected data on 2,276 elective surgical patients who received PCEA with ropivacaine and fentanyl. Patients were assessed by a PCA service team in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), at 1-6 h, 6-24 h, and 24-48 h postoperatively for adequate pain control. The presence of PCEA-related adverse events was also assessed.
Numerical pain score (median [interquartile range]) were 3 [1-4], 5 [4-7], 4 [3-5], and 3 [3-5] in the PACU, at 1-6 h, 6-24 h, and 24-48 h postoperatively. Median pain scores in patients underwent major abdominal or thoracic surgery were higher than other surgical procedure in the PACU, at 1-6 h after surgery. Nausea and vomiting (20%) and numbness and motor weakness (15%) were revealed as major PCEA-related adverse events during the postoperative 48 h period. There were 329 patients (14%) for whom PCEA was ceased within 48 h following surgery.
Our data suggest that the use of PCEA provides proper analgesia in the postoperative 48 h period after a wide variety of surgical procedures and that is associated with few serious complications. However, more careful pain management and sustainable PCEA monitoring considering the type of surgical procedure undergone is needed in patients with PCEA.
efficacy; epidural analgesia; patient-controlled analgesia; postoperative pain; safety
A 22-year-old man was referred to our institution due to lower back pain and was diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thoracic and lumbar spine. The patient achieved complete remission with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. One year later, right cervical lymphadenopathy was observed and Hodgkin's lymphoma was confirmed on biopsy. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, and experienced no further symptoms. Further, no evidence of recurrence was observed on follow-up imaging. This report discusses the association between Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Histiocytosis; Hodgkin disease; Langerhans-cell histiocytosis
Cold urticaria; Cholinergic urticaria
Congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare hemorrhagic disorder that can cause excessive bleeding during and after surgery in affected patients. The recombinant form of activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven® from Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark), which was developed as a second-generation bypassing agent, has recently been used in the management of bleeding for patients with congenital FVII deficiency.
We reviewed the results of 8 surgical procedures in 5 patients with congenital FVII deficiency at the Kyung Hee University Hospital, Gangdong, Seoul, Korea, between January 2008 and June 2010. We administrated rFVIIa preoperatively in six patients and postoperatively in five patients.
Between January 2008 and June 2010 at our center, 8 operations were performed successfully and no complications were observed in the 5 patients with congenital FVII deficiency. The median level of FVII activity was 2% (range, 0.6-7%). Four orthopedic procedures, 1 tonsillectomy, and 3 dental extractions were performed. The median duration of hospitalization was 8.5 days (range, 0-15 days). rFVIIa was administered at all procedures, except the dental extraction that was performed using only antifibrinolytic agents without any replacement. No bleeding or thrombogenic complications were observed in any case.
Patients with congenital FVII deficiency who require surgery can be treated efficiently and safely with rFVIIa or antifibrinolytic agents. rFVIIa was well tolerated and maintained effective hemostasis and showed good clinical outcome after the major surgery.
Congenital FVII deficiency; Surgery; rFVIIa; Antifibrinolytic agent
To investigate the therapeutic effects of mechanical horseback riding for gait and balance parameters in post-stroke patients.
This study was a non randomized prospective positive-controlled trial over a 12 week period. From May 2011 to October 2011, 37 stroke patients were recruited from our outpatient clinic and divided into two groups. The control group received the conventional physiotherapy while the intervention group received the conventional physiotherapy along with mechanical horseback riding therapy for 12 weeks. Outcome measurements of gait included the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) and gait part of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (G-POMA) while those of balance included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the balance part of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (B-POMA). These measurements were taken before and after treatment.
There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics and initial values between the two groups. When comparing baseline and 12 weeks post treatment in each group, the intervention group showed significant improvement on BBS (39.9±5.7 → 45.7±4.8, p=0.001) and B-POMA (10.4±2.6 → 12.6±2.1, p=0.001), but significant improvement on gait parameters. When comparing the groups, the dynamic balance category of BBS in post treatment showed significant difference (p=0.02).
This study suggests that mechanical horseback riding therapy may be an effective treatment tool for enhancing balance in adults with stroke.
Hippotherapy; Stroke; Gait; Balance
The effect of coupling the salt concentration gradient crystallization method with the use of the paramagnetic salt MnCl2 and a magnetic field is reported. The use of a simple magnetic device is shown to have a significant effect on hen egg-white lysozyme crystal growth.
The effect of coupling the salt concentration gradient crystallization method with the use of the paramagnetic salt MnCl2 and a magnetic field is reported. The use of a simple magnetic device is proposed to have a significant effect on hen egg-white lysozyme crystal growth. Large single crystals greater than 10 mm3 in volume with optical perfection were consistently obtained in this study.
lysozyme; crystallization; magnetic fields; optical perfection
Ozone; Ceil proliferation
To evaluate the risk factors for overactive bladder (OAB) in a population aged 40 years and over in the community.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a community-based survey of OAB in a population aged 40 years and over in Guri City and Yangpyeong County, South Korea, by use of the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) questionnaire. A total of 926 subjects were included in the final analysis. The definition of OAB was more than 2 points for the urgency score and 3 points for the sum of scores. In addition, the subjects were asked about age, dwelling place, marital status, educational status, behavioral factors (smoking, drinking, etc), and medical history. Categorical variables were analyzed by using the logistic regression model and were adjusted for age by using the logistic regression model.
Overall OAB prevalence was 14.1% (130/926), made up of 49/403 males (12.2%) and 81/523 females (15.5%). OAB prevalence increased with age (p<0.0001). Risk factors for OAB were educational status (age-adjusted p=0.0487), stroke (p=0.0414), osteoporosis (p=0.0208), asthma (p=0.0091), rhinitis (p=0.0008), and cataract. Other factors (dwelling place, marital status, smoking, drinking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, angina, tuberculosis, atopic dermatitis, hepatitis B, and depression) were not associated with OAB.
The prevalence of OAB in our study was about 14.1% and the risk factors for OAB were educational status, stroke, osteoporosis, asthma, rhinitis, and cataract. Knowledge of these risk factors may help in the diagnosis and treatment of OAB.
Overactive bladder; Risk factors
Phytoestrogen is an estrogenic compound that occurs naturally in plants. The most common sources of phytoestrogen are soybean products, which contain high levels of isoflavones. This compound, which has structural similarity with estrogen, can act as an estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist. Animal studies provide evidence of the significant effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development, including altered pubertal timing, impaired estrous cycling and ovarian function, and altered hypothalamus and pituitary functions. Although human studies examining the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development are extremely limited, the results of some studies agree with those of the animal studies. In this paper, we review the possible mechanism of phytoestrogen action and the evidence showing the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development in animal and human studies.
Phytoestrogens; Puberty; Sexual development
Adiponectin may affect bone through interactions with two known receptors, adiponectin receptors (ADIPOR) 1 and 2. We examined the association between polymorphisms of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Korean women. Six polymorphisms in ADIPOR1 and four polymorphisms in ADIPOR2 were selected and genotyped in all study participants (n = 1,329). BMD at the lumbar spine and femur neck were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lateral thoracolumbar (T4-L4) radiographs were obtained for vertebral fracture assessment and the occurrence of non-vertebral fractures examined using self-reported data. P values were adjusted for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction (Pcorr). ADIPOR1
rs16850799 and rs34010966 polymorphisms were significantly associated with femur neck BMD (Pcorr = 0.036 in the dominant model; Pcorr = 0.024 and Pcorr = 0.006 in the additive and dominant models, respectively). Subjects with the rare allele of each polymorphism had lower BMD, and association of rs34010966 with BMD showed a gene dosage effect. However, ADIPOR2 single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes were not associated with BMD at any site. Our results suggest that ADIPOR1 polymorphisms present a useful genetic marker for BMD in postmenopausal Korean women.
ADIPOR1 protein, human; ADIPOR2 protein, human; bone density; genetic association studies; Korea; osteoporosis, postmenopausal; polymorphism, single nucleotide
Frequent pathogens of nosocomial meningitis were investigated and the adequacy of empiric antibiotic therapy was assessed. Outcomes of nosocomial meningitis were also evaluated.
Ninety-one patients, who were diagnosed and treated for nosocomial meningitis at a single tertiary hospital in Daegu, Korea for 10 years, were included. Medical record and electronic laboratory data on the causative pathogens, antibiotics used, and outcomes were retrospectively investigated.
Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (40.9%) was the most common pathogen, followed by Acinetobacter (32.5%). Both were cultured as a single organism in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Seventy-eight patients (85.7%) had infections related to external ventricular drains (EVD). The most common empirical antibiotics were extended-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics plus vancomycin (35/91, 38.6%). Of the 27 patients who had cultured Acinetobacter in CSF, 10 (37%) were given the wrong empirical antibiotic treatment. Seven of the 27 patients (26.9%) with cultured Acinetobacter died, and overall mortality of the 91 patients was 16.5%. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of combined septic shock (p < 0.001) and a persistent EVD state (p = 0.021) were associated with a poor prognosis.
Acinetobacter is one of the leading pathogens of nosocomial meningitis and may lead to inadequate coverage of empiric antibiotic therapy due to increasing resistance. An EVD should be removed early in cases of suspected nosocomial meningitis, and carbapenem might be required for the poor treatment response.
Meningitis; Acinetobacter; Drug resistance; Prognosis
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are predominantly known as medication-induced diseases. However, at our institution, we have experienced more cases of non-drug-related SJS and TEN than expected. Therefore, we studied the difference between non-drug-related and drug-related SJS and TEN in terms of clinical characteristics and prognoses.
The etiologies, clinical characteristics, and treatment outcomes for 82 adult patients with SJS and TEN were retrospectively reviewed.
A total of 71 patients (86.6%) were classified as having SJS, and the other 11 patients (13.4%) were classified as having TEN. Drug-related cases were more common (43, 52.4%) than non-drug-related cases (39, 47.6%). Anticonvulsants (12/82, 14.6%) and antibiotics (9/82, 11%) were the most common causative medications. Anemia (p = 0.017) and C-reactive protein of ≥ 5 mg/dL (p = 0.026) were more common in the drug-related cases than in the non-drug-related cases. Intravenous steroid therapy was used as the main treatment regimen (70/82, 85.4%). Of the 82 patients, 8 (9.8%) died during the clinical course. A univariate analysis for mortality showed statistical significance for the following: kidney function abnormality, pneumonia, hemoglobin of < 10 g/dL, and combined underlying diseases. In a multivariate analysis, only pneumonia was statistically significant (odds ratio, 25.79; p = 0.009).
Drugs were the most frequent cause of these diseases. However, non-drug-related causes also contributed to a significant proportion of cases. Physicians should keep this in mind when documenting patient history. In addition, early recognition and treatment may be important for better outcomes.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome; Epidermal necrolysis, toxic; Etiology; Prognosis
Radioimmunotherapy agents have a highly significant role in autologous stem cell transplantation as they improve tolerability and increase the efficacy of the conditioning regimen.
We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy and toxicity of yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) combined with intravenous busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (Z-BuCyE) compared with those of BuCyE alone followed by autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The efficacy, toxicity, and engraftment characteristics were compared between 19 patients who received Z-BuCyE and 19 historical controls who received BuCyE.
The 2 treatment groups shared similar baseline characteristics. The median time to platelet engraftment (>20×109/L) and neutrophil engraftment (>0.5×109/L) did not significantly differ between the Z-BuCyE group (12 days and 10 days, respectively) and the BuCyE group (12 days and 10 days, respectively). No significant differences were observed between the groups with respect to toxicities and treatment-related mortality. The median follow-up period was 30.4 months, and median event-free survival was generally better in the Z-BuCyE group (12.5 months) vs. the BuCyE group (6.2 months, P=0.236). No significant difference in overall survival between the groups was noted.
Adding ibritumomab tiuxetan to BuCyE high-dose chemotherapy may benefit patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell NHL with no risk of additional toxicity.
Yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan; BuCyE; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder in females. Most have mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene (80-90%). Epilepsy is a significant commonly accompanied feature in Rett syndrome. Our study was aimed at comprehensive analysis of genetic and clinical features in Rett syndrome patients, especially in regards to epileptic features.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients who were diagnosed with MECP2 mutations at Severance Children's Hospital between January 1995 and July 2010. All patients met clinical criteria for Rett syndrome. Evaluations included clinical features, epilepsy classification, electroencephalography analysis, and treatment of seizures.
Ages ranged from 3.6 to 14.3 years (7.7±2.6). Fourteen different types of MECP2 mutations were found, including a novel in-frame mutation (1153-1188 del36). Fourteen of these patients (70.0%) had epilepsy, and the average age of seizure onset was 3.0±1.8 years. Epilepsy was diverse, including partial seizure in four patients (28.5%), secondarily generalized seizure in six (42.8%), generalized tonic seizure in two (14.3%), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in one (7.1%), and myoclonic status in non-progressive encephalopathy in one (7.1%). Motor functions were delayed so that only 10 patients (50.0%) were able to walk independently: five (35.8%) in the epilepsy group and five (83.3%) in the non-epilepsy group. Average developmental scale was 33.5±32.8 in the epilepsy group and 44.4±21.2 in the non-epilepsy group. A clear genotype-phenotype correlation was not found.
There is a tendency for more serious motor impairment and cognitive deterioration in Rett syndrome patients with epilepsy.
Rett syndrome; epilepsy; MECP2 mutation
Avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotypes 1–9 have been isolated from many different avian species. APMV-1 (Newcastle disease virus) is the only well-characterized serotype, because of the high morbidity, mortality, and economic loss caused by highly virulent strains. Very little is known about the pathogenesis, replication, virulence, and tropism of the other APMV serotypes. Here, this was evaluated for prototypes strains of APMV serotypes 2–9 in cell culture and in chickens and ducks. In cell culture, only APMV-1, -3 and -5 induced syncytium formation. In chicken DF1 cells, APMV-3 replicated with an efficiency approaching that of APMV-1, while APMV-2 and -5 replicated to lower, intermediate titers and the others were much lower. Mean death time (MDT) assay in chicken eggs and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) test in 1-day-old SPF chicks demonstrated that APMV types 2–9 were avirulent. Evaluation of replication in primary neuronal cells in vitro as well as in the brains of 1-day-old chicks showed that, among types 2–9, only APMV-3 was neurotropic, although this virus was not neurovirulent. Following intranasal infection of 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, replication of APMV types 2–9 was mostly restricted to the respiratory tract, although APMV-3 was neuroinvasive and neurotropic (but not neurovirulent) and also was found in the spleen. Experimental intranasal infection of 3-week-old mallard ducks with the APMVs did not produce any clinical signs (even for APMV-1) and exhibited restricted viral replication of the APMVs (including APMV-1) to the upper respiratory tract regardless of their isolation source, indicating avirulence of APMV types 1–9 in mallard ducks. The link between the presence of a furin cleavage site in the F protein, syncytium formation, systemic spread, and virulence that has been well-established with APMV-1 pathotypes was not evident with the other APMV serotypes.
Virulent and moderately virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), representing avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), cause respiratory and neurological disease in chickens and other species of birds. In contrast, APMV-2 is avirulent in chickens. We investigated the role of the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) envelope glycoproteins in these contrasting phenotypes by designing chimeric viruses in which the F and HN glycoproteins or their ectodomains were exchanged individually or together between the moderately virulent, neurotropic NDV strain Beaudette C (BC) and the avirulent APMV-2 strain Yucaipa. When we attempted to exchange the complete F and HN glycoproteins individually and together between the two viruses, the only construct that could be recovered was recombinant APMV-2 strain Yucaipa (rAPMV-2), containing the NDV F glycoprotein in place of its own. This substitution of NDV F into APMV-2 was sufficient to confer the neurotropic, neuroinvasive, and neurovirulent phenotypes, in spite of all being at reduced levels compared to what was seen for NDV-BC. When the ectodomains of F and HN were exchanged individually and together, two constructs could be recovered: NDV, containing both the F and HN ectodomains of APMV-2; and APMV-2, containing both ectodomains of NDV. This supported the idea that homologous cytoplasmic tails and matched F and HN ectodomains are important for virus replication. Analysis of these viruses for replication in vitro, syncytium formation, mean embryo death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and replication and tropism in 1-day-old chicks and 2-week-old chickens showed that the two contrasting phenotypes of NDV and APMV-2 could largely be transferred between the two backbones by transfer of homotypic F and HN ectodomains. Further analysis provided evidence that the homologous stalk domain of NDV HN is essential for virus replication, while the globular head domain of NDV HN could be replaced with that of APMV-2 with only a minimal attenuating effect. These results demonstrate that the F and HN ectodomains together determine the cell fusion, tropism, and virulence phenotypes of NDV and APMV-2 and that the regions of HN that are critical to replication and the species-specific phenotypes include the cytoplasmic tail and stalk domain but not the globular head domain.
Glucocorticoids (GCs) inhibit the resorptive capacity of the osteoclast by disrupting its cytoskeleton. We find that calpain-6 (Capn6), a unique, nonproteolytic member of its family, is suppressed 12-fold by dexamethasone (DEX) in the bone-degrading cell. While Capn6 abundance parallels commitment of naive bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) to the osteoclast phenotype, its excess or deletion does not affect the cell's differentiation. On the other hand, Capn6 localizes to the sealing zone, and its overexpression promotes osteoclast spreading and large actin ring formation, eventuating in stimulated bone degradation. Conversely, Capn6 knockdown impairs cytoskeletal organization and the cell's resorptive capacity. Capn6 complexes with tubulin, and its absence inhibits microtubule acetylation and stability in the osteoclast. Knockdown of Capn6 also reduces β3-integrin subunit protein, another essential regulator of osteoclast cytoskeletal function. Reflecting Capn6 as a target molecule of GCs, microtubule stability and acetylation, as well as the expression of β3-integrin protein, are similarly suppressed in DEX-treated osteoclasts. Moreover, overexpression of Capn6 rescues GC-mediated disruption of osteoclast cytoskeleton. Thus Capn6 promotes cytoskeletal organization and microtubule stability in osteoclasts, and its inhibition may mediate the resorption-arresting properties of GCs. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Capn6; OSTEOCLAST; CYTOSKELETON; MICROTUBULE; GLUCOCORTICOIDS
Bortezomib targets molecular dysregulation of nuclear factor-κB activation and cell cycle control, which are characteristic features of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of bortezomib treatment with dose-dense cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) every 2 weeks (CHOP-14).
Untreated DLBCL patients were enrolled. A phase I dose-escalation study with 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 mg/m2 bortezomib administration on day 1 and 4 in addition to the CHOP-14 regimen was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). Lenograstim 5 µg/kg/d was administered on day 4-13. The bortezomib dose from the phase I study was used in the phase II study.
Nine and 37 patients were enrolled in the phase I and phase II studies, respectively. The analysis of the phase II results (40 patients) included data of the 3 patients in the last MTD dose cohort of the phase I trial. During the phase I trial, no DLT was observed at any bortezomib dose; therefore, the recommended dose was 1.6 mg/m2. In phase II, the overall response rate was 95% (complete response: 80%; partial response: 15%). Nine out of the 40 patients showed grade 3 sensory neuropathy, and 22 required at least 1 dose reduction. Three patients could not complete the intended 6 cycles of treatment because of severe neuropathy.
Bortezomib plus CHOP-14 was highly effective for the treatment of untreated DLBCL patients, but in many cases, dose or schedule modification was required to reduce neurotoxicity.
Bortezomib; CHOP-14; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) rarely relapses in extracranial sites, and no specialized guidelines for follow-up evaluation have been proposed.
We analyzed 65 patients with newly diagnosed PNCSL to evaluate the pattern of relapse and prognostic factors.
Of the 65 patients analyzed, 55 had only parenchymal brain disease, and 10 had both intracranial and extracranial lesions. As a first-line treatment, 29 patients received chemotherapy only (CTx), 13 received chemotherapy followed by whole brain radiotherapy (CTx-WBRT), 18 received chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (CTx-ASCT), 2 received palliative WBRT, and 3 received best supportive care. The overall response rate to the initial treatment was 75.8%, with specific response rates of 62.1% to CTx, 84.6% to CTx-WBRT, and 100% to CTx-ASCT. The complete response (CR) rate was higher with CTx-ASCT than in the absence of ASCT (77.8% vs. 43.2%; P=0.025). After a median follow-up of 18.8 months, the median failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) were 13.0 and 36.1 months, respectively. No systemic relapse without a CNS lesion was noted. Multivariate analysis showed that ASCT was predictive of better FFS but not of OS. Age and the Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center prognostic score were predictive of survival.
We observed no systemic relapse without a CNS lesion, suggesting that regular systematic evaluation of extracranial sites may not always be necessary. Age was prognostic of survival irrespective of treatment scheme. ASCT may improve CR rate and FFS.
Primary CNS lymphoma; Relapse; Prognostic factor