AIM: To understand CD133 promoter hypermethylation and expression in 32 colorectal cancer cell lines.
METHODS: Nucleic acid was isolated from 32 colorectal cancer cell lines and CD133 expression levels were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Promoter methylation status of the CD133 gene was analyzed with a methylation-specific PCR after sodium-bisulfite modification and by clonal sequencing analysis. The correlation between expression and promoter methylation of CD133 gene was confirmed with treatment of 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine.
RESULTS: We measured CD133 expression levels in 32 colorectal cancer cell lines. RT-PCR analysis showed undetectable or low levels of CD133 expression in 34.4% of cell lines. To verify the relation between CD133 expression and methylation status of the CD133 gene promoter in colorectal carcinogenesis, CD133 gene promoter hypermethylation was analyzed in 32 cancer cell lines. Promoter hypermethylation was detected in 13 (40.6%) of the cell lines using methylation specific-PCR and confirmed by bisulfite sequencing analysis. Treatment of 11 of the cell lines with the demethylation agent 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine recovered CD133 expression in most of them.
CONCLUSION: Transcriptional repression of CD133 is caused by promoter hypermethylation of the CD133 CpG islands in some of colorectal cancer cell lines. The study may contribute to the understanding of the role of CD133 inactivation in the progression of colorectal cancers.
CD133; Promoter; Hypermethylation; Colorectal cancer; Sodium bisulfite modification
Background. The measurement of stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) after total thyroidectomy and remnant radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation is the gold standard for monitoring disease status in patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). The aim of this study was to determine whether sTg measurement during follow-up can be avoided in intermediate- and high-risk PTC patients. Methods. A total of 346 patients with PTCs with an intermediate or high risk of recurrence were analysed. All of the patients underwent total thyroidectomy as well as remnant RAI ablation and sTg measurements. Preoperative and postoperative parameters were included in the analysis. Results. Among the preoperative parameters, age below 45 years and preoperative Tg above 19.4 ng/mL were significant risk factors for predicting detectable sTg during follow-up. Among the postoperative parameters, thyroid capsular invasion, lymph node metastasis, and ablative Tg above 2.9 ng/mL were independently correlated with a detectable sTg range. The combination of ablative Tg less than 2.9 ng/mL with pre- and postoperative independent risk factors for detectable sTg increased the negative predictive value for detectable sTg up to 98.5%. Conclusions. Based on pre- and postoperative parameters, a substantial proportion of patients with PTCs in the intermediate- and high-risk classes could avoid aggressive follow-up measures.
Although Brucella endocarditis is a rare complication of human brucellosis, it is the main cause of the mortality in this disease. Traditionally, the therapeutic approach to endocarditis caused by Brucella species requires a combination of antimicrobial therapy and valve replacement surgery. In the literature, only a few cases of mitral prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Brucella species have been successfully treated without reoperation. We present a case of a 42-year-old man with a prosthetic mitral valve infected by Brucella abortus who was cured solely by medical treatment.
Infective endocarditis; Cardiac valve prosthesis; Brucella abortus
Prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) can be a life-threatening complication that requires immediate treatment. We present a case of 57-year-old woman with tricuspid PVT who was definitely diagnosed by multi-detector-row computed tomography limited with echocardiography. The patient was treated successfully with an alternative approach using low molecular weight heparin bridging therapy followed by intensifying anticoagulation alone.
Prosthetic tricuspid valve; Thrombosis; MDCT
To evaluate the degree of biological healing response that occurs between the anterior horn of the medial meniscus (MM) and the tibial plateau and investigate the biological healing response after injection of human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) in a rabbit model.
Materials and Methods
Twenty-five rabbits with a mean body weight of 2.5 kg were chosen for this study. On the left knee, a complete radial tear was made at the anterior tibial attachment site of MM and after removal of tibial cartilage, pullout repair of the torn MM was performed on the tibial plateau. On the right knee, the same procedure was performed, and a scaff old (matrix gel) that contained human bone marrow stem cell was implanted between MM and the tibial plateau. A biopsy was performed at 2 (group 1), 4 (group 2), and 8 (group 3) weeks postoperatively. The authors compared the differences in the degree of biological healing of each group and investigated the degree of biologic healing after hBMSC implantation by comparing the left knee with the right knee.
On the biopsy of 40 knees of 20 rabbits that survived after operation, all groups did not show the healing response between the undersurface of MM and the tibial plateau. There was no significant difference in terms of the pathological criteria such as fibroblasts and fibrochondrocytes etc., with and without hBMSC implantation.
There was no attachment between the repaired MM and the tibial plateau after complete radial tear on MM and the authors could not identify the effect of hBMSC.
Medial meniscus; Meniscal root ligament tear; Pullout repair; Human bone marrow stem cell; Biologic response
AIM: To verify the expression and methylation status of the MAGE-A1 and MAGE-A3 genes in colorectal cancer tissues and cancer cell lines.
METHODS: We evaluated promoter demethylation status of the MAGE-A1 and MAGE-A3 genes by RT-PCR analysis and methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR), as well as sequencing analysis, after sodium bisulfite modification in 32 colorectal cancer cell lines and 87 cancer tissues.
RESULTS: Of the 32 cell lines, MAGE-A1 and MAGE-A3 expressions were observed in 59% and 66%, respectively. Subsequent to sodium bisulfite modification and MS-PCR analysis, the promoter hypomethylation of MAGE-A1 and MAGE-A3 was confirmed in both at 81% each. Promoter hypomethylation of MAGE-A1 and MAGE-A3 in colorectal cancer tissues was observed in 43% and 77%, respectively. Hypomethylation of MAGE-A1 and MAGE-A3 genes in corresponding normal tissues were observed in 2% and 6%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The promoter hypomethylation of MAGE genes up-regulates its expression in colorectal carcinomas as well as in gastric cancers and might play a significant role in the development and progression of human colorectal carcinomas.
MAGE-A1; MAGE-A3; Promoter; Hypomethy-lation; Colorectal cancer
Blood metabolites can be detected as low-mass ions (LMIs) by mass spectrometry (MS). These LMIs may reflect the pathological changes in metabolism that occur as part of a disease state, such as cancer. We constructed a LMI discriminant equation (LOME) to investigate whether systematic LMI profiling might be applied to cancer screening. LMI information including m/z and mass peak intensity was obtained by five independent MALDI-MS analyses, using 1,127 sera collected from healthy individuals and cancer patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer (BRC), gastric cancer (GC) and other types of cancer. Using a two-stage principal component analysis to determine weighting factors for individual LMIs and a two-stage LMI selection procedure, we selected a total of 104 and 23 major LMIs by the LOME algorithms for separating CRC from control and rest of cancer samples, respectively. CRC LOME demonstrated excellent discriminating power in a validation set (sensitivity/specificity: 93.21%/96.47%). Furthermore, in a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) of available validation samples, the discriminating power of CRC LOME was much stronger (sensitivity/specificity: 94.79%/97.96%) than that of the FOBT (sensitivity/specificity: 50.00%/100.0%), which is the standard CRC screening tool. The robust discriminating power of the LOME scheme was reconfirmed in screens for BRC (sensitivity/specificity: 92.45%/96.57%) and GC (sensitivity/specificity: 93.18%/98.85%). Our study demonstrates that LOMEs might be powerful noninvasive diagnostic tools with high sensitivity/specificity in cancer screening. The use of LOMEs could potentially enable screening for multiple diseases (including different types of cancer) from a single sampling of LMI information.
serum profiling; MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; pattern recognition
Flammulina velutipes is one of the major edible mushrooms in the world. Recently, abnormalities that have a negative impact on crop production have been reported in this mushroom. These symptoms include slow vegetative growth, a compact mycelial mat, and few or even no fruiting bodies. The morphologies and fruiting capabilities of monokaryons of wild-type and degenerate strains that arose through arthrospore formation were investigated through test crossing. Only one monokaryotic group of the degenerate strains and its hybrid strains showed abnormal phenotypes. Because the monokaryotic arthrospore has the same nucleus as the parent strain, these results indicated that only one aberrant nucleus of the two nuclei in the degenerate strain was responsible for the degeneracy. A sequence-characterized amplified region marker that is linked to the degenerate monokaryon was identified based on a polymorphic sequence that was generated using random primers. Comparative analyses revealed the presence of a degenerate-specific genomic region in a telomere, which arose via the transfer of a genomic fragment harboring a putative helicase gene. Our findings have narrowed down the potential molecular targets responsible for this phenotype for future studies and have provided a marker for the detection of degenerate strains.
Although high morning blood pressure (BP) is known to be associated with the onset of cardiovascular events in adults, data on its effects in children with hypertension are limited. Our retrospective study aimed to define the clinical characteristics of children with morning hypertension (MH) and to determine its associated factors.
We reviewed 31 consecutive patients with hypertension, confirmed by the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We divided these patients into 2 groups: the MH group (n=21, 67.7%), morning BP above the 95th percentile for age and height (2 hours on average after waking up) and the normal morning BP group (n=10, 32.3%). We compared the clinical manifestations, laboratory results, and echocardiographic findings including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) between the groups.
The early/atrial (E/A) mitral flow velocity ratio in the MH group was significantly lower than that in the normal morning BP group. In addition, LV mass was higher in the MH group than in the normal morning BP group, although the difference was not statistically significant. The age at the time of hypertension diagnosis was significantly higher in the MH group than in the normal morning BP group (P=0.003). The incidence of hyperuricemia was significantly higher in the MH group than in the normal morning BP group.
Older patients and those with hyperuricemia are at higher risk for MH. The rise in BP in the morning is an important factor influencing the development of abnormal relaxation, as assessed by echocardiography. Clinical trials with longer follow-up periods and larger sample sizes are needed to clarify the clinical significance of MH.
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; Hypertension; Left ventricular hypertrophy
Pleurotus eryngii has recently become a major cultivated mushroom; it uses tetrapolar heterothallism as a part of its reproductive process. Sexual development progresses only when the A and B mating types are compatible. Such mating incompatibility occasionally limits the efficiency of breeding programs in which crossing within loci-shared strains or backcrossing strategies are employed. Therefore, understanding the mating system in edible mushroom fungi will help provide a short cut in the development of new strains. We isolated and identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and performed a functional analysis of the genes in the mating process by transformation. A genomic DNA library was constructed to map the entire mating-type locus. The B3 locus was found to contain four pheromone precursor genes and four receptor genes. Remarkably, receptor PESTE3.3.1 has just 34 amino acid residues in its C-terminal cytoplasmic region; therefore, it seems likely to be a receptor-like gene. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) revealed that most pheromone and receptor genes showed significantly higher expression in monokaryotic cells than dikaryotic cells. The pheromone genes PEphb3.1 and PEphb3.3 and the receptor gene PESTE3.3.1 were transformed into P5 (A3B4). The transformants were mated with a tester strain (A4B4), and the progeny showed clamp connections and a normal fruiting body, which indicates the proposed role of these genes in mating and fruiting processes. This result also confirms that PESTE3.3.1 is a receptor gene. In this study, we identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and found that some of those genes appear to play a role in the mating and fruiting processes. These results might help elucidate the mechanism of fruiting differentiation and improve breeding efficiency.
Ovarian cancer (OVC) is one of the most difficult types of cancer to detect in the early stages of its development. There have been numerous attempts to identify a biomarker for OVC; however, an accurate diagnostic marker has yet to be identified. The present study profiled OVC candidate metabolites from the serum to identify potential diagnostic markers for OVC. Data regarding low-mass ions (LMIs) in the serum were obtained using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight analysis. MALDI-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of each serum sample was repeated six times in order to reduce the likelihood of experimental errors. The intensity of the LMI mass peaks were normalized using total peak area sums. The normalized intensity of LMI was used in principal component analysis-discriminant analysis to differentiate between 142 patients with OVC and 100 healthy control participants. Liquid chromatography-MS/MS was used to identify the selected LMIs. Extracted ion chromatogram analysis was used to measure the relative quantity of candidate metabolites from the LMI mass peak areas. The concentration of common metabolites in the serum was determined using ELISA. The top 20 LMI mass peaks with a weigh factor over 0.05 were selected to distinguish between the patients with OVC and the controls. Among the LMIs, two with 184.05 and 496.30 m/z were identified as L-homocysteic acid (HCA) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (16:0), respectively. The relative quantity of LPC (16:0) was found to be decreased in the OVC serum (P=0.05), while the quantity of HCA was observed to be significantly higher in the OVC serum (P<0.001). HCA was not detected in 59 cases out of the 63 control participants; however, the majority of the cases of OVC (16/25) exhibited significantly higher quantities of HCA. When the cutoff was 10 nmol/ml, the sensitivity and specificity of HCA were 64.0 and 96.9%, respectively. The level of LPC (16:0) was significantly correlated with tumor grade (P=0.045). HCA and LPC (16:0) showed correlation with stage and tumor histology, but the limited sample size resulted in a lack of statistical significance. The findings of the present study suggest that HCA may have potential to be a biomarker for OVC. The stratified screening including LPC (16:0) did not significantly increase the power for OVC screening; however, the present study showed that profiling LMIs in serum may be useful for identifying candidate metabolites for OVC screening.
ovarian cancer; L-homocysteic acid; lysophosphatidylcholine (16:0); biomarker; cancer screening
In Korea, mass mortality of Quercus mongolica trees has become obvious since 2004. Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae is believed to be a causal fungus contributing the mortality. To evaluate the pathogenicity of the fungus to the trees, the fungus was multiple- and single-inoculated to the seedlings and twigs of the mature trees, respectively. In both the inoculations, the fungus was reisolated from more than 50% of inoculated twigs and seedlings. In the single inoculations, proportions of the transverse area of non-conductive sapwood at inoculation points and vertical lengths of discoloration expanded from the points were significantly different between the inoculation treatment and the control. In the multiple inoculations, no mortality was confirmed among the seedlings examined. These results showed that R. quercus-mongolicae can colonize sapwood, contribute to sapwood discoloration and disrupt sap flows around inoculation sites of Q. mongolica, although the pathogenicity of the fungus was not proven.
Discoloured sapwood; Non-conductive sapwood; Pathogenicity; Quercus mongolica; Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae
The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children with Kawasaki disease (KD) have an increased risk for early atherosclerosis.
The study included 98 children. The children were divided into the following groups: group A (n=19), KD with coronary arterial lesions that persisted or regressed; group B (n=49), KD without coronary arterial lesions; and group C (n=30), healthy children. Anthropometric variables and the levels of biochemical markers, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, homocysteine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and brachial artery stiffness using pulse wave velocity were compared among the three groups.
There were no significant differences in blood pressure and body index among the three groups. Additionally, there was no sex-specific difference. Moreover, the levels of triglyceride, HDL-C, apolipoprotein A, and hs-CRP did not differ among the three groups. However, the levels of total cholesterol (P=0.018), LDL-C (P=0.0003), and apolipoprotein B (P=0.029) were significantly higher in group A than in group C. Further, the level of homocysteine and the aortic pulse wave velocity were significantly higher in groups A and B than in group C (P=0.0001).
School-aged children after KD have high lipid profiles and arterial stiffness indicating an increased risk for early atherosclerosis.
Risk factors of cardiovascular diseases; Atherosclerosis; Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome
Thrombocytosis and coagulation systems activation are commonly associated with disease progression and are suggested poor prognostic factors in patients with malignancies. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and prognostic significance of thrombocytosis and elevated fibrinogen levels in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Initial platelet counts and fibrinogen levels were reviewed in 854 patients with histologically proven NSCLC. Thrombocytosis was defined as platelet counts > 450 × 109/L. A serum fibrinogen level > 4.5 g/L was considered high. At the time of diagnosis, initial platelet counts and serum fibrinogen levels were evaluated before treatment. Clinicopathologic data including histological type, tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stage, performance status, treatment method, and survival time were evaluated. Initial thrombocytosis was found in 6.9% of patients, and elevated fibrinogen levels were found in 55.1% of patients. Patients with thrombocytosis had a significantly poorer prognosis than patients with normal platelet counts (P < 0.001). In multivariate survival analysis, thrombocytosis was an independent prognostic factor (P < 0.001). An elevated serum fibrinogen level was associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.001). In conclusion, initial thrombocytosis and a high fibrinogen level are independent factors for predicting poor prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC.
Carcinoma Non-Small Cell Lung; Prognosis; Thrombocytosis; Fibrinogen
Resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with colorectal cancer prevents effective treatment and leads to unnecessary and burdensome chemotherapy. Therefore, prediction of 5-FU resistance is imperative.
To identify the proteins linked to 5-FU resistance, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomics was performed using the human colon cancer cell line SNU-C4R with induced 5-FU resistance. Proteins showing altered expression in SNU-C4R were identified by matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight analysis, and their roles in susceptibility to 5-FU or radiation were evaluated in various cell lines by transfection of specific siRNA or creation of overexpression constructs. Changes in cellular signaling and expression of mitochondrial apoptotic factors were investigated by Western Blot analysis. A mitochondrial membrane potential probe (JC-1 dye) and a flow cytometry system were employed to determine the mitochondrial membrane potential. Finally, protein levels were determined by Western Blot analysis in tissues from 122 patients with rectal cancer to clarify whether each identified protein is a useful predictor of a chemoradiation response.
We identified mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (mPEPCK) as a candidate predictor of 5-FU resistance. PEPCK was downregulated in SNU-C4R compared with its parent cell line SNU-C4. Overexpression of mPEPCK did not significantly alter the susceptibility to either 5-FU or radiation. Suppression of mPEPCK led to a decrease in both the cellular level of phosphoenolpyruvate and the susceptibility to 5-FU and radiation. Furthermore, the cellular levels of phosphoenolpyruvate (an end product of PEPCK and a substrate of pyruvate kinase), phosphorylated AKT, and phosphorylated 4EBP1 were decreased significantly secondary to the mPEPCK suppression in SNU-C4. However, mPEPCK siRNA transfection induced changes in neither the mitochondrial membrane potential nor the expression levels of mitochondrial apoptotic factors such as Bax, Bcl-2, and Bad. Downregulation of total PEPCK was observed in tissues from patients with rectal cancer who displayed poor responses to preoperative 5-FU-based radiation therapy.
Our overall results demonstrate that mPEPCK is a useful predictor of a response to chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer.
mPEPCK; 5-FU resistance; Colon cancer; Chemoradiotherapy; Prediction
Panax ginseng, the most famous medicinal herb, has a highly duplicated genome structure. However, the genome duplication of P. ginseng has not been characterized at the sequence level. Multiple band patterns have been consistently observed during the development of DNA markers using unique sequences in P. ginseng.
We compared the sequences of multiple bands derived from unique expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers to investigate the sequence level genome duplication.
Reamplification and sequencing of the individual bands revealed that, for each marker, two bands around the expected size were genuine amplicons derived from two paralogous loci. In each case, one of the two bands was polymorphic, showing different allelic forms among nine ginseng cultivars, whereas the other band was usually monomorphic. Sequences derived from the two loci showed a high similarity, including the same primer-binding site, but each locus could be distinguished based on SSR number variations and additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or InDels. A locus-specific marker designed from the SNP site between the paralogous loci produced a single band that also showed clear polymorphism among ginseng cultivars.
Our data imply that the recent genome duplication has resulted in two highly similar paralogous regions in the ginseng genome. The two paralogous sequences could be differentiated by large SSR number variations and one or two additional SNPs or InDels in every 100 bp of genic region, which can serve as a reliable identifier for each locus.
genome duplication; multi-band pattern; Panax ginseng; paralogs; SSR marker
HangAmDan-B (HAD-B) is a powdered mixture of eight ethnopharmacologically characterized folk medicines that is prescribed for solid masses and cancers in Korea. In view of the finding that macrophage-mediated inflammation is a pathophysiologically important phenomenon, we investigated whether HAD-B modulates inflammatory responses and explored the associated molecular mechanisms. The immunomodulatory activity of HAD-B in toll-like receptor-activated macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was assessed by measuring nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. To identify the specific transcription factors (such as nuclear factor [NF]–κB and signaling enzymes) targeted by HAD-B, biochemical approaches, including kinase assays and immunoblot analysis, were additionally employed. HAD-B suppressed the production of PGE2 and NO in LPS-activated macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the extract ameliorated HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis symptoms. Moreover, HAD-B significantly inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Interestingly, marked inhibition of NF-κB and activating transcription factor was observed in the presence of HAD-B. Data from direct kinase assays and immunoblot analysis showed that HAD-B suppresses activation of the upstream signaling cascade involving spleen tyrosine kinase, Src, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and transforming growth factor β–activated kinase 1. Finally, kaempferol, but not quercetin or resveratrol was identified as a bioactive compound in HAD-B. Therefore, our results suggest that HAD-B possesses anti-inflammatory activity that contributes to its anticancer property.
ATF-2; HangAmDan-B; inflammation; macrophages; NF-κB; p38; Syk
Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) are widely used medicinal plants with similar morphology but different medicinal efficacy. Roots, flowers, and processed products of Korean and American ginseng can be difficult to differentiate from each other, leading to illegal trade in which one species is sold as the other. This study was carried out to develop convenient and reliable chloroplast genome-derived DNA markers for authentication of Korean and American ginseng in commercial processed products. One codominant marker could reproducibly identify both species and intentional mixtures of the two species. We further developed a set of species-unique dominant DNA markers. Each species-specific dominant marker could detect 1% cross contamination with other species by low resolution agarose gel electrophoresis or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both markers were successfully applied to evaluate the original species from various processed ginseng products purchased from markets in Korea and China. We believe that high-throughput application of this marker system will eradicate illegal trade and promote confident marketing for both species to increase the value of Korean as well as American ginseng in Korea and worldwide.
authentication; chloroplast intergenic spacer DNA marker; Panax ginseng; Panax quinquefolius; processed ginseng products
Mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons of patients with idiopathic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known although the underlying mechanism is not clear. We established a homogeneous population of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAD-MSCs) from human adult patients with early-onset hereditary familial Parkin-defect PD as well as late-onset idiopathic PD by immortalizing cells with the hTERT gene to better understand the underlying mechanism of PD. The hAD-MSCs from patients with idiopathic PD were designated as "PD", from patients with Parkin-defect PD as "Parkin" and from patients with pituitary adenomas as "non-PD" in short. The pGRN145 plasmid containing hTERT was introduced to establish telomerase immortalized cells. The established hTERT-immortalized cell lines showed chromosomal aneuploidy sustained stably over two-years. The morphological study of mitochondria in the primary and immortalized hAD-MSCs showed that the mitochondria of the non-PD were normal; however, those of the PD and Parkin were gradually damaged. A striking decrease in mitochondrial complex I, II, and IV activities was observed in the hTERT-immortalized cells from the patients with idiopathic and Parkin-defect PD. Comparative Western blot analyses were performed to investigate the expressions of PD specific marker proteins in the hTERT-immortalized cell lines. This study suggests that the hTERT-immortalized hAD-MSC cell lines established from patients with idiopathic and familial Parkin-defect PD could be good cellular models to evaluate mitochondrial dysfunction to better understand the pathogenesis of PD and to develop early diagnostic markers and effective therapy targets for the treatment of PD.
hTERT; hAD-MSC; immortalization; Parkinson's disease; diagnosis