AIM: To understand CD133 promoter hypermethylation and expression in 32 colorectal cancer cell lines.
METHODS: Nucleic acid was isolated from 32 colorectal cancer cell lines and CD133 expression levels were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Promoter methylation status of the CD133 gene was analyzed with a methylation-specific PCR after sodium-bisulfite modification and by clonal sequencing analysis. The correlation between expression and promoter methylation of CD133 gene was confirmed with treatment of 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine.
RESULTS: We measured CD133 expression levels in 32 colorectal cancer cell lines. RT-PCR analysis showed undetectable or low levels of CD133 expression in 34.4% of cell lines. To verify the relation between CD133 expression and methylation status of the CD133 gene promoter in colorectal carcinogenesis, CD133 gene promoter hypermethylation was analyzed in 32 cancer cell lines. Promoter hypermethylation was detected in 13 (40.6%) of the cell lines using methylation specific-PCR and confirmed by bisulfite sequencing analysis. Treatment of 11 of the cell lines with the demethylation agent 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine recovered CD133 expression in most of them.
CONCLUSION: Transcriptional repression of CD133 is caused by promoter hypermethylation of the CD133 CpG islands in some of colorectal cancer cell lines. The study may contribute to the understanding of the role of CD133 inactivation in the progression of colorectal cancers.
CD133; Promoter; Hypermethylation; Colorectal cancer; Sodium bisulfite modification
The dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) gene family exhibits multiple functions and is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. It has attracted pharmaceutical interest in the areas of metabolic disorders as well as cancer. However, clinicopathologic significance of DPPIV family in colorectal cancer is not fully understood.
Materials and Methods
The clinical relevance of DPPIV and DPP10 expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining, and by assessing its clinicopathologic correlation in 383 colorectal cancer patients with known clinical outcomes.
DPPIV was not expressed in normal colon mucosa, but it showed luminal expression in 52 of the 383 colorectal cancers (13.5%). DPPIV expression in tumors was associated with right-sided location of the colon (p=0.010) and more advanced tumor stage (p=0.045). DPP10 was expressed in normal colonic mucosa, but its expression varied in primary colorectal cancer tissues. Loss of DPP10 expression was found in 11 colorectal cancers (CRCs) (2.9%), and multivariate analysis showed that loss of DPP10 expression was an independent factor for poor patient prognosis (p=0.008).
DPP10 may play a role in disease progression of colorectal cancer and loss of DPP10 expression in primary CRC is significantly associated with poor survival outcomes.
Colorectal cancer; dipeptidyl peptidase 10; progression; prognosis
In South Korea, health check-ups are readily accessible to the public. We aimed to compare the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal (GI) and lower GI diseases in Korean Americans and native Koreans to determine differences and risk factors.
In total, 1,942 subjects who visited Gangnam Severance Hospital from July 2008 to November 2010 for a health check-up were enrolled. Basic characteristics and laboratory data for the subjects were collected. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were performed. In total, 940 Korean Americans (group 1) and 1,002 native Koreans (group 2) were enrolled.
The overall prevalence of GI diseases for each group (group 1 vs group 2) were as follows: reflux esophagitis (RE) (9.65% vs 7.9%), gastric ulcer (2.8% vs 3.4%), duodenal ulcer (2.3% vs 3.6%), gastric cancer (0.4% vs 0.3%), colorectal polyp (35.9% vs 35.6%), colorectal cancer (0.5% vs 0.5%), and hemorrhoids (29.4% vs 21.3%). The prevalence of hemorrhoids was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (p=0.001). In the multivariable analysis of group 1, male sex, age over 50 years, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia predicted colorectal polyps. Male sex and high fasting glucose levels were associated with RE.
Our study showed that the prevalence of GI diseases (except hemorrhoids) in Korean Americans was similar to that observed in native Koreans. Therefore, the Korean guidelines for upper and lower screening endoscopy may be applicable to Korean Americans.
Korean Americans; Screening endoscopy
Over the last few years, the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors has been expanded to management of various cardiovascular disorders beyond pulmonary arterial hypertension. This study is designed to investigate the ability of udenafil, a newly developed long-acting PDE5 inhibitor, to improve functional capacity and hemodynamic status in a cohort of chronic systolic heart failure (SHF) patients.
Stable, chronic SHF patients will be randomly assigned to placebo (26 patients) or udenafil at a dose of 50 mg twice per day (26 patients) for the first 4 weeks followed by 100 mg twice daily for the next 8 weeks. Eligibility criteria will be age ≥18 years, clinical diagnosis of chronic SHF with current New York Heart Association class II to IV symptoms, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, and experience of at least one of following during the 12 months prior to study entry: hospitalization for decompensated heart failure, acute treatment with intravenous loop diuretics or hemofiltration, or pulmonary artery systolic pressure ≥40mmHg on transthoracic echocardiography. Pharmacological therapy for SHF will be optimized in all patients at least 30 days before study entry. The primary outcome will be the change of maximal oxygen uptake, assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Secondary outcomes will include changes in ventilatory efficiency (minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope), left ventricular systolic and diastolic parameters, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide, occurrence of mortality or hospitalization for heart failure, and the occurrence of any adverse event.
Clinical trial registration
Unique identifier: NCT01646515
Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor; Udenafil; Chronic heart failure; Exercise capacity
N-ras mutations are one of the most commonly detected abnormalities of myeloid origin. N-ras mutations result in a constitutively active N-ras protein that induces uncontrolled cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. We analyzed N-ras mutations in adult patients with AML at a particular institution and compared pyrosequencing analysis with a direct sequencing method for the detection of N-ras mutations.
We analyzed 90 bone marrow samples from 83 AML patients. We detected N-ras mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61 using the pyrosequencing method and subsequently confirmed all data by direct sequencing. Using these methods, we screened the N-ras mutation quantitatively and determined the incidence and characteristic of N-ras mutation.
The incidence of N-ras mutation was 7.2% in adult AML patients. The patients with N-ras mutations showed significant higher hemoglobin levels (P=0.022) and an increased incidence of FLT3 mutations (P=0.003). We observed 3 cases with N-ras mutations in codon 12 (3.6%), 2 cases in codon 13 (2.4%), and 1 case in codon 61 (1.2%). All the mutations disappeared during chemotherapy.
There is a low incidence (7.2%) of N-ras mutations in AML patients compared with other populations. Similar data is obtained by both pyrosequencing and direct sequencing. This study showed the correlation between the N-ras mutation and the therapeutic response. However, pyrosequencing provides quantitative data and is useful for monitoring therapeutic responses.
N-ras; AML; Pyrosequencing; Bone marrow
The aims of this study are to investigate the glycemic efficacy and predictive parameters of vildagliptin therapy in Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes.
In this retrospective study, we retrieved data for subjects who were on twice-daily 50 mg vildagliptin for at least 6 months, and classified the subjects into five treatment groups. In three of the groups, we added vildagliptin to their existing medication regimen; in the other two groups, we replaced one of their existing medications with vildagliptin. We then analyzed the changes in glucose parameters and clinical characteristics.
Ultimately, 327 subjects were analyzed in this study. Vildagliptin significantly improved hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels over 6 months. The changes in HbA1c levels (ΔHbA1c) at month 6 were -2.24% (P=0.000), -0.77% (P=0.000), -0.80% (P=0.001), -0.61% (P=0.000), and -0.34% (P=0.025) for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively, with significance. We also found significant decrements in fasting plasma glucose levels in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (P<0.05). Of the variables, initial HbA1c levels (P=0.032) and history of sulfonylurea use (P=0.026) were independently associated with responsiveness to vildagliptin treatment.
Vildagliptin was effective when it was used in subjects with poor glycemic control. It controlled fasting plasma glucose levels as well as sulfonylurea treatment in Korean type 2 diabetic subjects.
Diabetes mellitus; Dipeptidyl peptidase 4; Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor; Vildagliptin
Caldesmon (CaD), a major actin-associated protein, is found in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells. Smooth muscle caldesmon, h-CaD, is a multifunctional protein, and non-muscle cell caldesmon, l-CaD, plays a role in cytoskeletal architecture and dynamics. h-CaD is thought to be an useful marker for smooth muscle tumors, but the role(s) of l-CaD has not been examined in tumors.
Primary colon cancer and liver metastasis tissues were obtained from colon cancer patients. Prior to chemoradiotherapy (CRT), normal and cancerous tissues were obtained from rectal cancer patients. Whole-tissue protein extracts were analyzed by 2-DE-based proteomics. Expression and phosphorylation level of main cellular signaling proteins were determined by western blot analysis. Cell proliferation after CaD siRNA transfection was monitored by MTT assay.
The expression level of l-CaD was significantly increased in primary colon cancer and liver metastasis tissues compared to the level in the corresponding normal tissues. In cancerous tissues obtained from the patients showing poor response to CRT (Dworak grade 4), the expression of l-CaD was increased compared to that of good response group (Dworak grade 1). In line with, l-CaD positive human colon cancer cell lines were more resistant to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiation treatment compared to l-CaD negative cell lines. Artificial suppression of l-CaD increased susceptibility of colon cancer cells to 5-FU, and caused an increase of p21 and c-PARP, and a decrease of NF-kB and p-mTOR expression.
Up-regulated expression of l-CaD may have a role for increasing metastatic property and decreasing CRT susceptibility in colorectal cancer cells.
We herein report a rare case of subaortic stenosis in association with a previous tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) surgical repair, which was not taken into account as a differential diagnosis. Echocardiography plays a pivotal role in identification of this rare combination. Therefore, echocardiography should be performed periodically during follow-up of patients with surgically corrected TOF. Given the clinical complications that can result from subaortic stenosis (i.e., aortic regurgitation and infective endocarditis), early and aggressive management of this rare combination should be performed.
Tetralogy of Fallot; Ventricular outflow obstruction; Echocardiography
Although chronic effects of exercise on endothelial function are established, the impact of acute exercise on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of brachial artery has not been elucidated yet.
Eighty-six young healthy volunteers were prospectively enrolled from January 2011 to December 2011. The subjects completed FMD tests at rest and immediately after treadmill exercise test. Primary outcome was the impact of acute exercise on FMD, measured by the difference of FMD before and after exercise. Secondary outcomes were the relationship of gender and exercise habit with FMD.
Seventy-four subjects who met the eligibility criteria were included for analysis. Thirty-five (47.3%) were male, and the mean age was 22.7±2.7 years. FMD was reduced after exercise (8.98±4.69 to 7.51±4.03%; P=0.017) and the reduction was found in female group (10.36±5.26 to 7.62±3.71%; P=0.002) but not in male group. Post-exercise FMD was significantly impaired in subjects who did not exercise regularly (6.92±3.13% versus 8.95±5.33%; P=0.003). The decrease of FMD after exercise was greater in female group (−2.75±5.28% versus 0.27±3.24%; P=0.003) and was associated with exercise habit (β=2.532; P=0.027).
In healthy young subjects, FMD was reduced after a bout of acute exercise. The impact of acute exercise showed significant differences according to gender and exercise habit. FMD impairment after acute exercise was observed in females and subjects without regular exercise.
Flow-mediated dilatation; FMD; Acute exercise
Radioiodine is regularly used in the treatment of thyroid cancer to eliminate residual malignant tissue after thyroidectomy and to treat metastasis. Because of the low dose of radioiodine used to treat thyroid cancer patients, leukemia is an uncommon complication of exposure to radioiodine. Here, we present a patient who developed therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16)(p13.1q22);CBFβ-MYH11, eosinophilia, and K-ras mutation and who had been treated with very low-dose radioiodine following total thyroidectomy.
Radioiodine; Thyroid cancer; Acute myeloid leukemia; CBFβ-MYH11; Eosinophilia; K-ras
Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) enables state-of-the-art in vivo evaluations of myocardial fibrosis. Although LGE patterns have been well described in asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, conflicting results have been reported regarding the characteristics of LGE in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM). This study was undertaken to determine 1) the frequency and distribution of LGE and 2) its prognostic implication in ApHCM.
Forty patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic pure ApHCM (age, 60.2 ± 10.4 years, 31 men) were prospectively enrolled. LGE images were acquired using the inversion recovery segmented spoiled-gradient echo and phase-sensitive inversion recovery sequence, and analyzed using a 17-segment model. Summing the planimetered LGE areas in all short axis slices yielded the total volume of late enhancement, which was subsequently presented as a proportion of total LV myocardium (% LGE).
Mean maximal apical wall thickness was 17.9±2.3mm, and mean left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction was 67.7 ± 8.0%. All but one patient presented with electrocardiographic negative T wave inversion in anterolateral leads, with a mean maximum negative T wave of 7.2 ± 4.7mm. Nine patients (22.5%) had giant negative T waves, defined as the amplitude of ≥10mm, in electrocardiogram. LGE was detected in 130 segments of 30 patients (75.0%), occupying 4.9 ± 5.5% of LV myocardium. LGE was mainly detected at the junction between left and right ventricles in 12 (30%) and at the apex in 28 (70%), although LGE-positive areas were widely distributed, and not limited to the apex. Focal LGE at the non-hypertrophic LV segments was found in some ApHCM patients, even without LGE of hypertrophied apical segments. Over the 2-year follow-up, there was no one achieving the study end-point, defined as all-cause death, sudden cardiac death and hospitalization for heart failure.
LGE was frequently observed not only in the thickened apex of the heart but also in other LV segments, irrespective of the presence or absence of hypertrophy. The simple presence of LGE on CMR was not representative of adverse prognosis in this population.
Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Late gadolinium enhancement
Many studies have investigated angina and its relationship with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, angina was diagnosed only by noninvasive tests or only by clinical symptoms in most of these studies. The aim of this study was to compare the prognosis, including rate of hospitalization and death from significant coronary artery lesion and nonsignificant coronary artery lesion angina, in patients with COPD.
Patients with COPD who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) due to angina were reviewed retrospectively at a tertiary referral hospital. COPD is defined as post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) of < 70%. A significant coronary lesion is defined as at least 50% diameter stenosis of one major epicardial artery in CAG.
In total, 113 patients were enrolled. Mean follow-up duration was 39 ± 21 months. Of the patients, 52 (46%) had mild COPD and 48 (42%) had moderate COPD. Sixty-nine (61%) patients had significant stenosis in CAG. The death rate in the follow-up period was 2.21 per 100 patient-years. No significant difference was observed among the all-cause mortality rate, admission rate, or intensive care unit admission rate in patients who had COPD with or without significant coronary artery disease. Pneumonia or acute exacerbation of COPD was the most common cause of admission.
In patients having COPD with angina who underwent CAG, no significant difference was observed in mortality or admission events depending on the presence of a significant coronary artery lesion during the 2-year follow-up period.
Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Coronary angiography; Coronary stenosis
B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) (intermediate DLBCL/BL), is a heterogeneous group with some features resembling DLBCL and others resembling BL. Here, we report a case of intermediate DLBCL/BL in a Korean child. A 2-yr-old male was admitted for evaluation and management of left hip pain. Immunohistochemistry of a biopsy of the femur neck revealed tumor cells positive for CD20, CD10, BCL2, BCL6, and Ki67. A bone marrow (BM) aspirate smear revealed that 49.3% of all nucleated cells were abnormal lymphoid cells, composed of large- and medium-sized cells. Immunophenotyping of the neoplastic cells revealed positivity for CD19, CD10, CD20, and sIg lambda and negativity for CD34, Tdt, and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Cytogenetic and FISH analyses showed a complex karyotype, including t(8;14)(q24.1;q32) and IGH-MYC fusion. Intensive chemotherapy was initiated, including prednisone, vincristine, L-asparaginase, daunorubicin, and central nervous system prophylaxis with intrathecal methotrexate (MTX) and cytarabine. One month after the initial diagnosis, BM examination revealed the persistent of abnormal lymphoid cells; cerebrospinal fluid cytology, including cytospin, showed atypical lymphoid cells. The patient was treated again with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, adriamycin, MTX, and intrathecal MTX and cytarabine. The patient died of sepsis 5 months after the second round of chemotherapy.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Burkitt lymphoma; Gray zone lymphoma
Preservation of the subvalvular apparatus has the merits of postoperative outcomes during mitral valve replacement for mitral regurgitation. We performed mitral valve replacement with anterior and posterior leaflet chordal preservation in a 65-year-old woman. On the 2nd postoperative day, routine postoperative trans-thoracic echocardiography showed an unknown aortic subvalvular mobile mass. We report a case of a remnant mitral subvalvular apparatus detected by echocardiography after chordal preserving mitral valve replacement which was confused with postoperative aortic valve vegetation.
Mitral valve replacement; Subvalvular apparatus; Vegetation
Autophagy is a dynamic cellular pathway involved in the turnover of proteins, protein complexes, and organelles through lysosomal degradation. The integrity of postmitotic neurons is heavily dependent on high basal autophagy compared to non-neuronal cells as misfolded proteins and damaged organelles cannot be diluted through cell division. Moreover, neurons contain the specialized structures for intercellular communication, such as axons, dendrites and synapses, which require the reciprocal transport of proteins, organelles and autophagosomes over significant distances from the soma. Defects in autophagy affect the intercellular communication and subsequently, contributing to neurodegeneration. The presence of abnormal autophagic activity is frequently observed in selective neuronal populations afflicted in common neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These observations have provoked controversy regarding whether the increase in autophagosomes observed in the degenerating neurons play a protective role or instead contribute to pathogenic neuronal cell death. It is still unknown what factors may determine whether active autophagy is beneficial or pathogenic during neurodegeneration. In this review, we consider both the normal and pathophysiological roles of neuronal autophagy and its potential therapeutic implications for common neurodegenerative diseases.
Alzheimer disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; autophagy; Huntington disease; neurodegenerative diseases; neurons; Parkinson disease
Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-α/γ dual agonists have been developed to alleviate metabolic disorders. However, several PPARα/γ dual agonists are accompanied with unwanted side effects, including body weight gain, edema, and tissue failure. This study investigated the effects of a novel PPARα/γ dual agonist, CG301269, on metabolic disorders both in vitro and in vivo.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Function of CG301269 as a PPARα/γ dual agonist was assessed in vitro by luciferase reporter assay, mammalian one-hybrid assay, and analyses of PPAR target genes. In vitro profiles on fatty acid oxidation and inflammatory responses were acquired by fatty acid oxidation assay and quantitative (q)RT-PCR of proinflammatory genes. In vivo effect of CG301269 was examined in db/db mice. Total body weight and various tissue weights were measured, and hepatic lipid profiles were analyzed. Systemic glucose and insulin tolerance were measured, and the in vivo effect of CG301269 on metabolic genes and proinflammatory genes was examined by qRT-PCR.
CG301269 selectively stimulated the transcriptional activities of PPARα and PPARγ. CG301269 enhanced fatty acid oxidation in vitro and ameliorated insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in vivo. In db/db mice, CG301269 reduced inflammatory responses and fatty liver, without body weight gain.
We demonstrate that CG301269 exhibits beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism by simultaneous activation of both PPARα and PPARγ. Our data suggest that CG301269 would be a potential lead compound against obesity and related metabolic disorders.
Use of ecliptic pHluorin-fused ER46 and TIRFM identifies ER46 as a type I transmembrane protein in live human ECs. The transmembrane mutant ER46-Ile386Cys obscures the N-terminal ectodomain and effects a marked reduction in membrane-impermeant estrogen binding, with diminished rapid eNOS activation and NO production.
In addition to enhancing or repressing transcription, steroid hormone receptors rapidly transduce kinase activation signals. On ligand engagement, an N-terminus–truncated splice isoform of estrogen receptor (ER) α, ER46, triggers membrane-initiated signals, resulting in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and endothelial NO production. The orientation of ER46 at the plasma membrane is incompletely defined. With the use of ecliptic pHluorin-fused ER46, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in live human endothelial cells illustrates that ER46 can topologically conform to a type I transmembrane protein structure. Mutation of isoleucine-386 at the center of ER46's transmembrane hydrophobic core prevents membrane spanning, obscures the N-terminal ectodomain, and effects a marked reduction in membrane-impermeant estrogen binding with diminished rapid eNOS activation and NO production, despite maintained genomic induction of an estrogen response element–luciferase reporter. Thus there exist pools of transmembrane steroid hormone receptors that are efficient signaling molecules and potential novel therapeutic targets.
The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, is a serious pest of oak trees in Korea. In this study we investigated filamentous fungi present in the body of the beetle. Fourteen genera of filamentous fungi belonging to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were isolated. Among the isolated fungi, some were able to produce wood degrading enzymes. This is first report of fungi associated with P. koryoensis.
Filamentous fungi; Oak wilt disease; Platypus koryoensis; Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae
The cloning and characterization of a gene (MsHSP23) coding for a heat shock protein in alfalfa in a prokaryotic and model plant system is described. MsHSP23 contains a 633 bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 213 amino acids and exhibits greater sequence similarity to mitochondrial sHSPs from dicotyledons than to those from monocotyledons. When expressed in bacteria, recombinant MsHSP23 conferred tolerance to salinity and arsenic stress. Furthermore, MsHSP23 was cloned in a plant expressing vector and transformed into tobacco, a eukaryotic model organism. The transgenic plants exhibited enhanced tolerance to salinity and arsenic stress under ex vitro conditions. In comparison to wild type plants, the transgenic plants exhibited significantly lower electrolyte leakage. Moreover, the transgenic plants had superior germination rates when placed on medium containing arsenic. Taken together, these overexpression results imply that MsHSP23 plays an important role in salinity and arsenic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco. This approach could be useful to develop stress tolerant crops including forage crops.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10529-011-0750-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Abiotic stress; Arsenic; E. coli; Heat shock proteins; Medicago sativa; MsHSP23; Salinity stress
Background and Objectives
The aims of this study were to establish a reliable model of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) in rats and verify the pathophysiological features of this model by evaluating cardiac function using serial echocardiography and a pressure-volume analysis.
Materials and Methods
MR was created in 37 Sprague-Dawley rats by making a hole with a 23 gauge needle on the mitral leaflet through the left ventricular (LV) apex under the guidance of transesophageal echocardiography.
Serial echocardiograms revealed that the LV began to dilate immediately after the MR operation and showed progressive dilation until the 14th week (LV end-systolic dimension at 14 weeks, 4.71±0.25 mm vs. 6.81±0.50 mm for sham vs. MR, p<0.01; LV end-diastolic dimension, 8.32±0.42 mm vs. 11.01±0.47 mm, p<0.01). The LV ejection fraction tended to increase immediately after the MR operation but started to decrease thereafter and showed a significant difference with the sham group from the 14th week (70.0±2.2% vs. 62.1±3.1% for sham vs. MR). In a pressure-volume analysis performed at the 14th week, the LV end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and +dp/dt decreased significantly in the MR group. A serial treadmill test revealed that exercise capacity remained in the normal range until the 14th week when it began to decrease (exercise duration, 406±45 seconds vs. 330±27 seconds, p<0.01). A pathological analysis showed no significance difference in interstitial fibrosis between the two groups.
We established a small animal model of chronic MR and verified its pathophysiological features. This model may provide a useful tool for future research on MR and volume overload heart failure.
Mitral regurgitation; Hemodynamic study; Exercise test; Rat model
Stress-induced cardiomyopathy is a unique reversible cardiovascular disease precipitated by acute emotional or physical stress. It is associated with a high prevalence of chronic anxiety disorder that precedes the onset of cardiomyopathy, as well as comorbid cardiovascular risk factors that are similar to the ST segment elevation of myocardial infarction. A thirty-five-year-old woman suffering from anorexia nervosa visited our hospital complaining of severe general weakness. She was diagnosed with stress-induced cardiomyopathy and mural thrombus using a transthoracic echocardiogram. Therefore, she was given anticoagulation therapy and nutrition with immediate psychiatric interventions. After two weeks of treatment, the follow-up echocardiogram indicated a significant improvement of the left ventricular dysfunction and mural thrombus.
Stress cardiomyopathy; Anorexia nervosa; Thrombosis
To evaluate the degree of biological healing response that occurs between the anterior horn of the medial meniscus (MM) and the tibial plateau and investigate the biological healing response after injection of human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) in a rabbit model.
Materials and Methods
Twenty-five rabbits with a mean body weight of 2.5 kg were chosen for this study. On the left knee, a complete radial tear was made at the anterior tibial attachment site of MM and after removal of tibial cartilage, pullout repair of the torn MM was performed on the tibial plateau. On the right knee, the same procedure was performed, and a scaff old (matrix gel) that contained human bone marrow stem cell was implanted between MM and the tibial plateau. A biopsy was performed at 2 (group 1), 4 (group 2), and 8 (group 3) weeks postoperatively. The authors compared the differences in the degree of biological healing of each group and investigated the degree of biologic healing after hBMSC implantation by comparing the left knee with the right knee.
On the biopsy of 40 knees of 20 rabbits that survived after operation, all groups did not show the healing response between the undersurface of MM and the tibial plateau. There was no significant difference in terms of the pathological criteria such as fibroblasts and fibrochondrocytes etc., with and without hBMSC implantation.
There was no attachment between the repaired MM and the tibial plateau after complete radial tear on MM and the authors could not identify the effect of hBMSC.
Medial meniscus; Meniscal root ligament tear; Pullout repair; Human bone marrow stem cell; Biologic response
Background and aims
There are insufficient data comparing long-term prognoses after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and surgery.
We compared the baseline characteristics and survival rates of patients (single, ≤3 cm, and Child-Pugh class A) treated surgically (n = 215) and with RFA (n = 255) from January 2000 to December 2007 at our institution.
The surgery group was characterized by younger age, higher prevalence of HBsAg, less cirrhosis, and an increased chance of Child-Pugh score of 5 and CLIP score of 1, compared to the RFA group. During the median follow-up period of 42 months (range 1–109), the 3-, 5- and 7-year overall survival rates in the surgery group were 98, 94, and 94%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the RFA group (92, 87, and 76%, respectively, P = 0.002). The 3- and 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 72 and 66%, respectively, in the surgery group, which were significantly higher than those in the RFA group (34 and 24%, respectively, P < 0.001). The superiority of the survival rates in the surgery group persisted in most patients throughout the subgroup analysis, based on the Child-Pugh score and CLIP score. Multivariate analysis showed that age and surgery as a procedure type were the significant predictive factors for both overall survival [HR = 1.04 (CI 1.001–1.08), P = 0.047 for age; HR = 2.97 (CI 1.19–7.45), P = 0.02 for surgery] and recurrence-free survival [HR = 1.02 (CI 1.01–1.04), P = 0.01 for age; HR = 2.44 (CI 1.76–3.37), P < 0.001 for surgery].
The long-term outcome after surgery for Child-Pugh class A and single small HCC is superior to that after RFA.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hepatectomy; Radiofrequency cather ablation; Survival; Recurrence; Prognosis
Estrogen-induced rapid, membrane-initiated activation of numerous signal transduction cascades has been shown in animal, cellular and molecular vascular studies, which support the favorable effects of estrogen on vascular structure and function. These effects are mediated by distinct forms of estrogen receptor (ER)α. This includes estrogen-stimulated, rapid activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), resulting in elaboration of the athero-protective, angiogenesis-promoting product nitric oxide (NO). An N-terminus truncated short isoform of ERα, ER46, plays a critical role in membrane-initiated, rapid responses to 17β-estradiol (E2) in human endothelial cells (ECs). We have proposed a ER46-centered, eNOS-activating molecular complex in human EC caveolar membranes, containing c-Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), Akt and eNOS. In this review, we describe estrogen-induced, rapid, non-genomic actions in the endothelium.
Estrogen; ER46; eNOS