To describe the sonographic (US) and clinical features of spontaneously reduced small bowel intussusception, and to discuss the management options for small bowel intussusception based on US findings with clinical correlation.
Materials and Methods
During a five years of period, 34 small bowel intussusceptions were diagnosed on US in 32 infants and children. The clinical presentations and imaging findings of the patients were reviewed.
The clinical presentations included abdominal pain or irritability (n = 25), vomiting (n = 5), diarrhea (n = 3), bloody stool (n = 1), and abdominal distension (n = 1), in combination or alone. US showed multi-layered round masses of small (mean, 1.5±0.3 cm) diameters and with thin (mean, 3.5±1 mm) outer rims along the course of the small bowel. The mean length was 1.8±0.5 cm and peristalsis was seen on the video records. There were no visible lead points. The vascular flow signal appeared on color Doppler images in all 21 patients examined. Spontaneous reduction was confirmed by combinations of US (n = 28), small bowel series (n = 6), CT scan (n = 3), and surgical exploration (n = 2). All patients discharged with improved condition.
Typical US findings of the transient small bowel intussusception included 1) small size without wall swelling, 2) short segment, 3) preserved wall motion, and 4) absence of the lead point. Conservative management with US monitoring rather than an immediate operation is recommended for those patient with typical transient small bowel intussusceptions. Atypical US findings or clinical deterioration of the patient with persistent intussusception warrant surgical exploration.
Children, gastrointestinal tract; Intussusception; Intestine, US
Cyanoacrylate (CA) is most widely used as a medical and commercial tissue adhesive because of easier wound closure, good cosmetic results and little discomfort. But, CA-based tissue adhesives have some limitations including the release of cytotoxic chemicals during biodegradation. In previous study, we made prepolymerized allyl 2-CA (PACA) based tissue adhesive, resulting in longer chain structure. In this study, we investigated a biocompatibility of PACA as alternative tissue adhesive for medical application, comparing with that of Dermabond® as commercial tissue adhesive. The biocompatibility of PACA was evaluated for short-term (24 hr) and long-term (3 and 7 days) using conventional cytotoxicity (WST, neutral red, LIVE/DEAD and TUNEL) assays, hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome (MT) staining. Besides we examined the biochemical changes in cells and DNA induced by PACA and Dermabond® utilizing Raman spectroscopy which could observe the denaturation and conformational changes in protein, as well as disintegration of the DNA/RNA by cell death. In particular, we analyzed Raman spectrum using the multivariate statistical methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM). As a result, PACA and Dermabond® tissue adhesive treated cells and tissues showed no difference of the cell viability values, histological analysis and Raman spectral intensity. Also, the classification analysis by means of PCA-SVM classifier could not discriminate the difference between the PACA and Dermabond® treated cells and DNA. Therefore we suggest that novel PACA might be useful as potential tissue adhesive with effective biocompatibility.
Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory and chronically relapsing skin disorder that commonly occurs in children; the number of atopic dermatitis patients is increasing. The cause and mechanism of atopic dermatitis have not been defined clearly, although many studies are ongoing. Epidemiological studies suggest that soybean and its isoflavones have immunoregulatory activities. Here, we report that 7,3′,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone (7,3′,4′-THIF), a major metabolite of daidzin, effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 production in RAW 264.7 cells, and also reduced β-hexosaminidase secretion in RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, 7,3′,4′-THIF significantly reduced scratching time, transepidermal water loss, and mast cell infiltration. It also decreased protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 and IL-4 expression and increased filaggrin expression in skin lesions of NC/Nga mice. These results suggest that 7,3′,4′-THIF improves Dermatophagoides farina body extract-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.
AIM: To determine whether magnified observation of short-segment Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is useful for the detection of specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM).
METHODS: Thirty patients with suspected short-segment BE underwent magnifying endoscopy up to × 80. The magnified images were analyzed with respect to their pit-patterns, which were simultaneously classified into five epithelial types [I (small round), II (straight), III (long oval), IV (tubular), V (villous)] by Endo’s classification. Then, a 0.5% solution of methylene blue (MB) was sprayed over columnar mucosa. The patterns of the magnified image and MB staining were analyzed. Biopsies were obtained from the regions previously observed by magnifying endoscopy and MB chromoendoscopy.
RESULTS: Three of five patients with a type V (villous) epithelial pattern had SIM, whereas 21 patients with a non-type V epithelial patterns did not have SIM. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of pit-patterns in detecting SIM were 100%, 91.3%, 92.3%, 60% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.004). Three of the 12 patients with positive MB staining had SIM, whereas 14 patients with negative MB staining did not have SIM. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MB staining in detecting SIM were 100%, 60.9%, 65.4%, 25% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.085). The specificity and accuracy of pit-pattern evaluation were significantly superior compared with MB staining for detecting SIM by comparison with the exact McNemar’s test (P = 0.0391).
CONCLUSION: The magnified observation of a short-segment BE according to the mucosal pattern and its classification can be predictive of SIM.
Short-segment; Barrett’s esophagus; Magnifying endoscopy; Methylene blue chromoendoscopy; Specialized intestinal metaplasia; Dysplasia; Esophageal adenocarcinoma; Diagnosis
Non healing chronic wounds are difficult to treat in patients with diabetes and can result in severe medical problems for these patients and for society. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been adopted to treat intractable chronic wounds and has been reported to be effective. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of this treatment have not been elucidated. To assess the vasculogenic effect of NPWT, we evaluated the systemic mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) during NPWT. Twenty-two of 29 consecutive patients who presented at the clinic of Seoul National Universty Hospital between December 2009 and November 2010 who underwent NPWT for diabetic foot infections or skin ulcers were included in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken before NPWT (pre-NPWT) and 7–14 days after the initiation of NPWT (during-NPWT). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis showed that the number of cells in EPC-enriched fractions increased after NPWT, and the numbers of EPC colony forming units (CFUs) significantly increased during NPWT. We believe that NPWT is useful for treating patients with diabetic foot infections and skin ulcers, especially when these conditions are accompanied by peripheral arterial insufficiency. The systemic mobilization of EPCs during NPWT may be a mechanism for healing intractable wounds in diabetic patients with foot infections or skin defects via the formation of increased granulation tissue with numerous small blood vessels.
diabetic foot; endothelial progenitor cell; negative-pressure wound therapy
Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) face a dismal prognosis due to a lack of any effective therapies. To address this situation, we conducted a preclinical investigation of the therapeutic efficacy of oligonucleotides directed against the oncogenic microRNA miR-221 which has been implicated in HCC. Of 9 chemistries evaluated, we determined that a 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate-modified anti-miR-221 oligonucleotide was most effective at reducing proliferation in vitro. A cholesterol-modified isoform of anti-miR-221 (chol-anti-miR-221) exhibited improved pharmacokinetics and liver tissue distribution compared to unmodified oligonucleotide. Chol-anti-miR-221 significantly reduced miR-221 levels in liver within a week of intravenous administration and in situ hybridization studies confirmed accumulation of the oligonucleotide in tumor cells in vivo. Within the same period, chol-anti-miR-221 reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased markers of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, elevating the tumor doubling time and increasing mouse survival. Taken together, our findings offer a preclinical proof of efficacy for chol-anti-miR-221 in a valid orthotopic mouse model of HCC, suggesting that this targeted agent could benefit treatment of advanced HCC patients.
microRNA; antisense; antagomiR; HCC; liver
We have previously demonstrated that hypoxia stimulates adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the precise mechanism involved in the ROS generation by ASCs is not well understood. We sought to investigate in this work: (1) which subtype of NADPH oxidase (Nox) is primarily expressed in ASCs; (2) where Nox4 is localized in ASCs; and (3) whether silencing of Nox4 attenuates hypoxia-enhanced function of ASC. We used 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) as an indicator of ROS generation and found that the fluorescence intensity of DCF-DA was significantly increased after hypoxia exposure (2% oxygen). In addition, hypoxia enhanced the proliferation and migration of ASCs and upregulated the mRNA expression of Oct4 and Rex1. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression of Nox family in ASCs demonstrated that Nox4 is primarily expressed in ASCs, while immunofluorescence assay showed that Nox4 is mainly localized in the perinuclear region and overlaps with Mitotracker, a mitochondria marker. Silencing of Nox4 by siRNA treatment downregulated the RNA and protein expression of Nox4, which significantly reduced the ROS generation under hypoxia. In addition, Nox4 silencing significantly reduced the proliferation and migration of ASCs and downregulated the mRNA expression of Oct4 and Rex1. Phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β, AKT, and ERK1/2 also diminished following Nox4 silencing. In a nutshell, these results suggest that Nox4 is primarily expressed in ASCs and plays a pivotal role in the hypoxia-enhanced stimulation of ASCs.
Radiotherapy alone has several limitations for treating lung cancer. Inhalation, a non-invasive approach for direct delivery of therapeutic agents to the lung, may help to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of radiation. Up-regulating beclin1, known as a tumor suppressor gene that plays a major role in autophagy, may sensitize tumors and lead to tumor regression in lungs of K-rasLA1 lung cancer model mice. To minimize the side-effects of radiotherapy, fractionated exposures (five times, 24-h interval) with low dose (2 Gy) of radiation to the restricted area (thorax, 2 cm) were conducted. After sensitizing the lungs with radiation, beclin1, complexed with a nano-sized biodegradable poly(ester amine), was prepared and delivered into the murine lung via aerosol three times/week for four weeks. In a histopathological analysis, animals treated with beclin1 and radiation showed highly significant tumor regression and low progression to adenocarcinoma. An increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles and secondary lysosomes was detected. Dissociation of beclin1-bcl2 stimulated autophagy activation and showed a synergistic anti-tumor effect by inhibiting the Akt-mTOR pathway, cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The combination of radiation with non-invasive aerosol delivery of beclin1 may provide a prospect for developing novel therapy regimens applicable in clinics.
Radiation; Beclin1; aerosol delivery; lung cancer
Th2 cells are crucially important in allergic disease and the possible involvement of Treg and Th17 cells has not been clearly identified.
To identify the mRNA expression of T cell transcription factors in nasal mucosa in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and to reveal their correlations with clinical features.
Eighteen patients with AR and 12 controls with turbinate hypertrophy were included. mRNA expression of the following transcriptional factors in nasal mucosa were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction; T-bet (Th1), GATA3 (Th2), retinoic acid-related orphan receptor C (RORC; Th17), and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3; Treg). mRNA expression was compared among groups and correlation between mRNA expression level and clinical features (rhinitis symptoms, eosinophil count, and IgE) were also investigated.
GATA3 and RORC were significantly increased and Foxp3 was significantly decreased in the AR group. Moderate-to-severe AR group also had increased expression of GATA3 and RORC than mild AR group, suggesting severity of AR influence expression of transcription factors. Correlation analysis showed that none of these transcription factors were associated with severity of clinical symptoms, eosinophil counts and skin prick test severity and that IgE level was significantly correlated with expression level of GATA3 and RORC, suggesting an association of IgE production with Th2 and Th17 cells.
Increased mRNA expression of GATA3 (Th2), increased expression of RORC and decreased expression of Foxp3 may be important in pathogenesis of AR. GATA3 and RORC may be closed related with IgE level.
Allergic rhinitis; Transcription factor; T-bet; GATA3; Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor C; Forkhead box P3
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading causes of death among the elderly. Several studies have reported the clinical usefulness of serum procalcitonin, a biomarker of bacterial infection. However, the association between the levels of procalcitonin and the severity in the elderly with CAP has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate usefulness of procalcitonin as a predictor of severity and mortality in the elderly with CAP.
This study covers 155 CAP cases admitted to Pusan National University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2010. Patients were divided into two groups (≥65 years, n=99; <65 years, n=56) and were measured for procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell, confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, blood pressure, 65 years or older (CURB-65) and pneumonia severity of index (PSI).
The levels of procalcitonin were significantly correlated with the CURB-65, PSI in totals. Especially stronger correlation was observed between the levels of procalcitonin and CURB-65 in the elderly (procalcitonin and CURB-65, ρ=0.408 with p<0.001; procalcitonin and PSI, ρ=0.293 with p=0.003; procalcitonin and mortality, ρ=0.229 with p=0.023). The correlation between the levels of CRP or WBC and CAP severity was low. The existing cut-off value of procalcitonin was correlated with mortality rate, however, it was not correlated with mortality within the elderly.
The levels of procalcitonin are more useful than the levels of CRP or WBC to predict the severity of CAP. However, there was no association between the levels of procalcitonin and mortality in the elderly.
Community-Acquired Infections; Aged; Pneumonia; Procalcitonin
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the active ingredient in turmeric (Curcuma longa), is a highly pleiotropic molecule with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, chemopreventive, chemosensitization, and radiosensitization activities. The pleiotropic activities attributed to curcumin come from its complex molecular structure and chemistry, as well as its ability to influence multiple signaling molecules. Curcumin has been shown to bind by multiple forces directly to numerous signaling molecules, such as inflammatory molecules, cell survival proteins, protein kinases, protein reductases, histone acetyltransferase, histone deacetylase, glyoxalase I, xanthine oxidase, proteasome, HIV1 integrase, HIV1 protease, sarco (endo) plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, DNA methyltransferases 1, FtsZ protofilaments, carrier proteins, and metal ions. Curcumin can also bind directly to DNA and RNA. Owing to its β-diketone moiety, curcumin undergoes keto–enol tautomerism that has been reported as a favorable state for direct binding. The functional groups on curcumin found suitable for interaction with other macromolecules include the α, β-unsaturated β-diketone moiety, carbonyl and enolic groups of the β-diketone moiety, methoxy and phenolic hydroxyl groups, and the phenyl rings. Various biophysical tools have been used to monitor direct interaction of curcumin with other proteins, including absorption, fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, competitive ligand binding, Forster type fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), radiolabeling, site-directed mutagenesis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), immunoprecipitation, phage display biopanning, electron microscopy, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS) displacement, and co-localization. Molecular docking, the most commonly employed computational tool for calculating binding affinities and predicting binding sites, has also been used to further characterize curcumin’s binding sites. Furthermore, the ability of curcumin to bind directly to carrier proteins improves its solubility and bioavailability. In this review, we focus on how curcumin directly targets signaling molecules, as well as the different forces that bind the curcumin–protein complex and how this interaction affects the biological properties of proteins. We will also discuss various analogues of curcumin designed to bind selective targets with increased affinity.
Lutein is a naturally occurring carotenoid with antioxidative, antitumorigenic, antiangiogenic, photoprotective, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of lutein have previously been described, the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the regulatory activity of lutein in the inflammatory responses of skin-derived keratinocytes or macrophages and to elucidate the mechanism of its inhibitory action. Lutein significantly reduced several skin inflammatory responses, including increased expression of interleukin-(IL-) 6 from LPS-treated macrophages, upregulation of cyclooxygenase-(COX-) 2 from interferon-γ/tumor necrosis-factor-(TNF-) α-treated HaCaT cells, and the enhancement of matrix-metallopeptidase-(MMP-) 9 level in UV-irradiated keratinocytes. By evaluating the intracellular signaling pathway and the nuclear transcription factor levels, we determined that lutein inhibited the activation of redox-sensitive AP-1 pathway by suppressing the activation of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Evaluation of the radical and ROS scavenging activities further revealed that lutein was able to act as a strong anti-oxidant. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that lutein-mediated AP-1 suppression and anti-inflammatory activity are the result of its strong antioxidative and p38/JNK inhibitory activities. These findings can be applied for the preparation of anti-inflammatory and cosmetic remedies for inflammatory diseases of the skin.
Aim: TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), is a selective killer of tumor cells, although its potential is limited by the development of resistance. In this article, we investigated whether the polyherbal preparation Zyflamend® can sensitize tumor cells to TRAIL. Results: We found that Zyflamend potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human cancer cells. Zyflamend manifested its effects through several mechanisms. First, it down-regulated the expression of cell survival proteins known to be linked to resistance to TRAIL. Second, Zyflamend up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein, Bax. Third, Zyflamend up-regulated the expression of death receptors (DRs) for TRAIL. Up-regulation of DRs was critical as gene-silencing of these receptors significantly reduced the effect of Zyflamend on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The up-regulation of DRs was dependent on CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), as Zyflamend induced CHOP, its gene-silencing abolished the induction of receptors, and mutation of the CHOP binding site on DR5 promoter abolished Zyflamend-mediated DR5 transactivation. Zyflamend mediated its effects through reactive oxygen species (ROS), as ROS quenching reduced its effect. Further, Zyflamend induced DR5 and CHOP and down-regulated the expression of cell survival proteins in nude mice bearing human pancreatic cancer cells. Innovation: Zyflamend can sensitize tumor cells to TRAIL through modulation of multiple cell signaling mechanisms that are linked to ROS. Conclusion: Zyflamend potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the ROS-CHOP-mediated up-regulation of DRs, increase in pro-apoptotic protein and down-regulation of cell survival proteins. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 413–427.
To compare the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and magnitude of insulin resistance, measured by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), between South Korean women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy subjects, and to evaluate risk factors for MetS and increased HOMA-IR in patients with RA.
In a cross-sectional setting, 84 female patients with RA and 109 age-matched healthy female subjects were consecutively recruited at a university-affiliated rheumatology center in South Korea. MetS was defined according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III) 2004 criteria.
The frequency of MetS did not differ significantly between patients with RA (19%) and healthy subjects (15.6%, p = 0.566), although patients with RA had a higher HOMA-IR compared with healthy subjects (p < 0.001). Patients with RA met the NCEP-ATP III 2004 criteria for high blood pressure more often than healthy subjects (44% vs. 19.3%, p < 0.001), and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol was more prevalent in healthy subjects (33%) than in patients with RA (14.3%, p = 0.004). Although no obvious risk factors for the presence of MetS were identified in patients with RA, higher serum C-reactive protein and disease activity score assessed using the 28-joint count for swelling and tenderness-erythrocyte sedimentation rate significantly contributed to a higher HOMA-IR.
Despite their increased insulin resistance, South Korean women with RA did not have a significantly higher frequency of MetS compared with that in healthy subjects.
Arthritis, rheumatoid; Metabolic syndrome X; Insulin resistance; Cardiovascular diseases
Early esophageal cancer is defined as a tumor invading the mucosa with or without lymph node or distant organ metastasis. In the current guidelines for early esophageal cancer, absolute indication for endoscopic resection include lesions limited to the epithelium or lamina propria mucosa not exceeding two-thirds of the circumference, and relative indications include lesions limited to the muscularis mucosa or the upper third of the submucosal layer and not accompanied by clinical evidence of lymph node metastasis. After endoscopic submucosal dissection for early esophageal cancer, locally recurrent cancer can occur, especially in the case of incomplete resection. Here, we report a rare case of a submucosal tumor-like recurrence after endoscopic resection of early esophageal cancer.
Esophageal neoplasms; Endosonography; Endoscopic resection; Recurrence
The purpose of this study was to investigate how educational status influences cardiovascular risk factors and care of diabetes mellitus and hypertension.
From Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey IV, we obtained survey results of 6,835 men and 9,067 women more than 30 years old. We performed multivariate logistic regression to compare cardiovascular risk factors and care of hypertension and diabetes respective to educational status.
There were disparities in cardiovascular risk factors by educational status. In men, impaired fasting glucose, high triglyceride, and smoking were less frequently found in the highest educated group than in the middle educated group. In women, the prevalence of abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, high blood pressure, high triglyceride, and metabolic syndrome among the highest educated group were significantly lower. The proportion of those with proper physical activity in the highest educated group was found to be less than that of the middle educated group, regardless of gender. For care of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, disease recognition and treatment were lower among the lowest educated group in men, while these disparities were not shown in women. Instead, the lowest educated group in diabetic women received screening exams for eye and kidney complications less than the middle education group. In both genders, the high education group had a higher chance of receiving education about diabetes mellitus.
There were educational disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and care of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The disparities were found to be different by gender.
Education; Cardiovascular Diseases; Risk Factors; Quality of Health Care
Pyogenic granuloma is a benign inflammatory vascular lesion, mainly found in the skin and oral mucosa. A few cases of pyogenic granuloma in the gastrointestinal tract have been reported, and the esophagus was the main site in these cases. These patients were diagnosed with pyogenic granuloma after they underwent upper endoscopy and biopsy. Endoscopic resection is a favorable treatment option for esophageal pyogenic granuloma. Recently, we observed characteristic endosonographic findings in two cases with esophageal pyogenic granuloma, which were then treated successfully by endoscopic resection.
Endosonography; Esophagus; Pyogenic granuloma
The cell cycle system is controlled in a timely manner by three groups of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors. Abnormal alterations of cell cycle regulatory mechanisms are a common feature of many diseases including numerous tumor types such as ovarian cancer. Although a variety of cell cycle regulatory genes are well known in mammalian species including human and mice, they are not well studied in avian species, especially in laying hens which are recognized as an excellent animal model for research relevant to human ovarian carcinogenesis. Therefore, in the present study, we focused on comparative expression and regulation of expression of candidate genes which might be involved in the cell cycle program in surface epithelial ovarian cancer in laying hens. Our current results indicate that expression levels of cell cycle gene transcripts are greater in cancerous as compared to normal ovaries. In particular, cyclin A2 (CCNA2), CCND1, CCND2, CCND3, CCNE2, cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), CDK3, CDK5, cyclin dependent kinases inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) and CDKN1B were upregulated predominantly in the glandular epithelia of cancerous ovaries from laying hens. Further, several microRNAs (miRs), specifically miR-1798, miR-1699, miR-223 and miR-1744 were discovered to influence expression of CCND1, CCNE2, CDK1, and CDK3 mRNAs, respectively, via their 3′-UTR which suggests that post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression influences their expression in laying hens. Moreover, miR-1626 influenced CDKN1A expression and miR-222, miR-1787 and miR-1812 regulated CDKN1B expression via their 3′-UTR regions. Collectively, results of the present study demonstrate increased expression of cell cycle-related genes in cancerous ovaries of laying hens and indicate that expression of these genes is post-transcriptionally regulated by specific microRNAs.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in cellular apoptosis and are involved in pathophysiological etiology of degenerative diseases. However, recent studies suggest that ROS at low levels may play a pivotal role as second messengers and activate normal cellular processes. Intracellular ROS increase the proliferation, migration, and regenerative potential of ASCs. On the contrary, manipulations that diminish intracellular ROS levels interfere with normal ASC function. ROS generation therefore acts like a double-edged sword.
This review discusses the following research questions: 1) Do ROS stimulate or suppress ASCs? 2) How are ROS generated from ASCs? 3) Which function(s) is/are regulated by intracellular ROS generation? In addition, the antioxidant/antiapoptotic effect of ASCs is briefly introduced.
Whether ROS is harmful or beneficial is primarily a question of dosage. Low or moderate ROS generation increase the proliferation, migration, and regenerative potential of ASCs. Therefore, it is beneficial to expose ASCs to moderate oxidative stress during manipulation. The addition of a ROS donor in culture can reduce the cost for the expansion of ASCs, and a ROS preconditioning can enhance the regenerative potential of ASCs.
adipose-derived stem cells; reactive oxygen species; stimulation; apoptosis; hypoxia
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) offer a potential alternative for tissue repair and regeneration. We have recently shown that hypoxia stimulates ASCs and enhances the regenerative potential of ASCs, which is beneficial for ASC therapy. In the present study, we further investigated a key mediator and a signal pathway involved in the stimulation of ASC during hypoxia. Culturing ASC in a hypoxic incubator (2% oxygen tension) increased the proliferation and migration, and this was mediated by Akt and ERK pathways. To determine the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate intensity was detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Hypoxia significantly increased the dichlorofluorescin diacetate intensity, which was greatly reduced by N-acetyl-cysteine and diphenyleneiodonium treatment. Likewise, the hypoxia-induced proliferation and migration of ASCs were reversed by N-acetyl-cysteine and diphenyleneiodonium treatment, suggesting the involvement of ROS generation in ASC stimulation. Further, we examined the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases and observed that hypoxia stimulated the phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β. In summary, the ROS produced by ASCs in response to hypoxia was mostly likely due to NADPH oxidase activity. The increased cellular ROS was accompanied by the phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β as well as by the activation of ERK and Akt signal pathways. Our results suggest a pivotal role for ROS generation in the stimulation of ASCs by hypoxia.
The root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (PSE), also known as Moutan Cortex, has been widely used in Asia to treat various diseases. The molecular mechanisms by which PSE exerts its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities are well known, but its anti-cancer activity is not yet well understood. Here, we present evidence demonstrating that PSE can be used as a potent anti-cancer agent to treat gastric cancer.
The effects of the ethanol extract of PSE on cell proliferation were determined using an MTT (1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan) assay. Cell cytotoxicity induced by the PSE extact is measured using an LDH leakage assay. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle and to measure the subG0/G1 apoptotic cell fraction. Apoptosis induced by the PSE extact is also examined using a DNA fragmentation assay. Western blot analysis is used to measure the levels of apoptotic proteins such as Fas receptor, caspase-8, caspase-3, PARP, Bax, Bcl-2, MDM2, and p53.
This study demonstrated that treating AGS cells with the PSE extact significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cytotoxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The PSE extract also induced apoptosis in AGS cells, as measured by flow cytometry and a DNA fragmentation assay. We found that the PSE extract induced apoptosis via the extrinsic Fas-mediated apoptosis pathway, which was concurrent with the activation of caspases, including caspase-8 and caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP. The MDM2-p53 pathway also played a role in the apoptosis of AGS cells that was induced by the PSE extract.
These results clearly demonstrate that the PSE extact displays growth-suppressive activity and induces apoptosis in AGS cells. Our data suggest that the PSE extact might be a potential anti-cancer agent for gastric cancer.
Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews; Fas; MDM2; p53; Gastric cancer
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a tumor with poor prognosis that is resistant to all currently available treatments. Whether curcumin, a nutraceutical derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has potential therapeutic activity against human CCA was investigated using three CCA cell lines (KKU100, KKU-M156 and KKU-M213). Examination of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, phosphatidylserine externalization, esterase staining, caspase activation and poly-adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase cleavage demonstrated that curcumin inhibited proliferation of and induced apoptosis in these biliary cancer cells. Colony-formation assay confirmed the growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin on CCA cells. When examined for the mechanism, curcumin was found to activate multiple cell signaling pathways in these cells. First, all CCA cells exhibited constitutively active nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and treatment with curcumin abolished this activation as indicated by DNA binding, nuclear translocation and p65 phosphorylation. Second, curcumin suppressed activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 as indicated by decreased phosphorylation at both tyrosine705 and serine727 and inhibition of janus kinase-1 phosphorylation. Third, curcumin induced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Fourth, curcumin upregulated death receptors, DR4 and DR5. Fifth, curcumin suppressed the Akt activation pathway. Sixth, curcumin inhibited expression of cell survival proteins such as B-cell lymphoma-2, B-cell leukemia protein xL, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, c-FLIP, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP)-1, cIAP-2 and survivin and proteins linked to cell proliferation, such as cyclin D1 and c-Myc. Seventh, the growth inhibitory effect of curcumin was enhanced in the IκB kinase-deficient cells, the enzyme required for nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Overall, our results indicate that curcumin mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects through activation of multiple cell signaling pathways, and thus, its activity against CCA should be further investigated.
Hyperparathyroidism; Parathyroid neoplasm
Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and maximum tumor diameter (MTD) have been shown to reflect survival outcome in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, applying these values to primary extranodal DLBCL is difficult because they are separate nosological entities with differences in genetic origin. We therefore decided to evaluate whether SUVmax and MTD on 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) would affect the survival outcome in primary extranodal DLBCL.
From October 2005 to November 2010, 76 primary extranodal DLBCL patients receiving R-CHOP therapy were analyzed. All patients had undergone an initial 18-FDG PET/CT and conventional computed tomography (CT) of the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis for staging. Median follow-up period was 35 months.
The SUVmax and MTD cut-off values were 11.0 and 7.5 cm, respectively. SUVmax≥11.0 predicted a short progression free survival (PFS, P=0.002) and overall survival (OS, P=0.002). MTD≥7.5 cm was associated with poor PFS (P=0.003) and OS (P=0.003). High International Prognostic Index (IPI) was also associated with the survival outcome (PFS, P=0.046; OS, P=0.030). Multivariate analysis revealed that SUVmax≥11.0 (PFS, hazard ratio [HR]=10.813, P=0.024; OS, HR=6.312, P=0.015); MTD≥7.5 cm (PFS, HR=5.631, P=0.008; OS, HR=4.072, P=0.008); and high IPI (PFS, P=0.027; OS, P=0.046) were independent prognostic factors.
It appears that both MTD and SUVmax can be independent prognostic factors in primary extranodal DLBCL.
Lymphoma; Large B-cell; Extranodal
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease. Effective treatment is not currently available and the prognosis is poor. The aim of our study was to identify clinical predictors of survival in patients with IPF.
By using medical record database of a university hospital, we reviewed the records of patients who had been diagnosed as having IPF from January 1996 through December 2007.
Among 89 patients considered as having interstitial lung disease (ILD) on computed tomography (CT) of the chest, 22 were excluded because of the diagnosis of other ILDs or connective tissue disease, and finally, 67 met the criteria of IPF. The mean age at the diagnosis of IPF was 70 years (range, 41~87 years) and 43 (64%) were male. The mean survival time following the diagnosis of IPF was 40 months (range, 0~179 months). Among them, 28 cases were diagnosed as the progressive state of IPF on the follow-up CT examination, and the mean duration between diagnosis of IPF and progression was 31 months. Multivariate analysis using Cox regression model revealed that body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 kg/m2 (p=0.030; hazard ratio [HR], 12.085; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.277~114.331) and CT progression before 36 months from the diagnosis of IPF (p=0.042; HR, 13.564; 95% CI, 1.101~167.166) were independently associated with mortality.
Since low BMI at the diagnosis of IPF and progression on follow-up CT were associated with poor prognosis, IPF patients with low BMI and/or progression before 36 months following the diagnosis should be closely monitored.
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis; Body Mass Index; Disease Progression