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1.  Clinicopathologic significance of expression of nuclear factor-κB RelA and its target gene products in gastric cancer patients 
AIM: To assess the prognostic significance of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its target genes in gastric cancer.
METHODS: The tumor tissues of 115 patients with gastric cancer were immunohistochemically evaluated using monoclonal antibodies against NF-κB RelA. Preoperative serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed via enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) were measured via immunotrubidimetry.
RESULTS: Positive rate of NF-κB RelA was 42.6%. NF-κB RelA expression in tumor tissues was also related to serum levels of IL-6 (P = 0.044) and CRP (P = 0.010). IL-6, SAA, CRP were related to depth of invasion, VEGF and SAA were correlated with lymph node metastasis. IL-6, VEGF, SAA and CRP were related to the stage. Univariate analysis demonstrated that immunostaining of NF-κB RelA, levels of IL-6, VEGF, SAA were significantly related with both disease free survival and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis verified that NF-κB RelA [hazard ratio (HR): 3.40, P = 0.024] and SAA (HR: 3.39, P = 0.045) were independently associated with OS.
CONCLUSION: Increased expression of NF-κB RelA and high levels of serum SAA were associated with poor OS in gastric cancer patients.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i34.4744
PMCID: PMC3442213  PMID: 23002344
Nuclear factor-κB; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Interleukin-6; C-reactive protein; Serum amyloid A; Stomach; Carcinoma
2.  Gastric leptomeningeal carcinomatosis: Multi-center retrospective analysis of 54 cases 
AIM: To identify the clinical features and outcomes of infrequently reported leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) of gastric cancer.
METHODS: We analyzed 54 cases of cytologically confirmed gastric LMC at four institutions from 1994 to 2007.
RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio was 32:22, and the patients ranged in age from 28 to 78 years (median, 48.5 years). The majority of patients had advanced disease at initial diagnosis of gastric cancer. The clinical or pathologic tumor, node and metastasis stage of the primary gastric cancer was IV in 38 patients (70%). The median interval from diagnosis of the primary malignancy to the diagnosis of LMC was 6.3 mo, ranging between 0 and 73.1 mo. Of the initial endoscopic findings for the 45 available patients, 23 (51%) of the patients were Bormann type III and 15 (33%) patients were Bormann type IV. Pathologically, 94% of cases proved to be poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. Signet ring cell component was also observed in 40% of patients. Headache (85%) and nausea/vomiting (58%) were the most common presenting symptoms of LMC. A gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was conducted in 51 patients. Leptomeningeal enhancement was noted in 45 cases (82%). Intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy was administered to 36 patients-primarily methotrexate alone (61%), but also in combination with hydrocortisone/± Ara-C (39%). The median number of IT treatments was 7 (range, 1-18). Concomitant radiotherapy was administered to 18 patients, and concomitant chemotherapy to seven patients. Seventeen patients (46%) achieved cytological negative conversion. Median overall survival duration from the diagnosis of LMC was 6.7 wk (95% CI: 4.3-9.1 wk). In the univariate analysis of survival duration, hemoglobin, IT chemotherapy, and cytological negative conversion showed superior survival duration (P = 0.038, P = 0.010, and P = 0.002, respectively). However, in our multivariate analysis, only cytological negative conversion was predictive of relatively longer survival duration (3.6, 6.7 and 14.6 wk, P = 0.030, RR: 0.415, 95% CI: 0.188-0.918).
CONCLUSION: Although these patients had a fatal clinical course, cytologic negative conversion by IT chemotherapy may improve survival.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.5086
PMCID: PMC2768889  PMID: 19860003
Carcinomatosis; Gastric cancer; Intrathecal chemotherapy; Leptomeningeal
3.  Third-line docetaxel chemotherapy for recurrent and metastatic gastric cancer 
Background/Aims
To determine the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel as a third-line therapy for patients with relapsed gastric cancer who have undergone modified oxaliplatin-fluorouracil (m-FOLFOX)-4 and modified irinotecan-fluorouracil (m-FOLFIRI) regimens.
Methods
We analyzed 33 patients who had been histologically diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the stomach and who had progressed after m-FOLFOX-4 and m-FOLFIRI regimens. Patients were treated with cycles of 75 mg/m2 docetaxel on day 1 every 3 weeks.
Results
The median age of the patients was 56.0 years (range, 31.0 to 74.0), and 73% of the patients (24/33) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. All patients were evaluated in terms of tumor response: five (15%), nine (27%), and 19 (58%) patients experienced a partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease, respectively. The median time to progression was 2.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 2.58), and overall survival was 4.7 months (95% CI, 3.20 to 6.20), from the start of the docetaxel regimen. Assessing patients' toxicity profiles, the median number of cycles was 2.0 (range, 1.0 to 12.0). The major hematologic toxicities included grade 3 to 4 neutropenia (19/33, 58%), grade 3 to 4 thrombocytopenia (2/33, 6%), and grade 3 to 4 anemia (5/33, 15%). Neutropenic fever developed in three patients (3/33, 9%). The nonhematological toxicities were nausea and vomiting (10/33, 30%), abdominal pain (4/33, 12%), skin rash (1/33, 3%), and fluid retention (3/33, 9%).
Conclusions
Docetaxel is a feasible third-line therapy regimen for patients with advanced gastric cancer after m-FOLFIRI and m-FOLFOX-4 regimens.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2013.28.3.314
PMCID: PMC3654129  PMID: 23682225
Advanced gastric cancer; Docetaxel; Salvage therapy
4.  Identification of genes underlying different methylation profiles in refractory anemia with excess blast and refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia in myelodysplastic syndrome 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(3):186-193.
Background
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a preleukemic condition that transforms into acute myeloid leukemia. However, the genetic events underlying this transformation remain poorly understood. Aberrant DNA methylation may play a causative role in the disease and its prognosis. Thus, we compared the DNA methylation profiles in refractory anemia with excess blast (RAEB) to those in refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD).
Methods
Bone marrow samples were collected from 20 patients with primary MDS (9 with RAEB and 11 with RCMD), and peripheral blood samples were collected from 4 healthy controls. These samples were assessed using a commercial whole genome-wide methylation assay. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the methylation of candidate gene promoters in RAEB and RCMD.
Results
Microarray data revealed significant hypermethylation in 69 genes within RAEB but not RCMD. Candidate genes were mapped to 5 different networks, and network 1 had the highest score due to its involvement in gene expression, cancer, and cell cycle. Five genes (GSTM5, BIK, CENPH, RERG, and ANGPTL2) were associated with malignant disease progression. Among them, the methylated promoter pairs of GSTM5 (55.5% and 20%), BIK (20% and 0%), and ANGPTL2 (44.4% and 10%) were observed more frequently in RAEB.
Conclusion
DNA methylation of GSTM5, BIK, and ANGPTL2 may induce epigenetic silencing and contribute to the increasing blasts and resulting MDS progression; however, the functions of these genes were not determined. Further study focusing on epigenetic silencing using various detection modalities is required.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2012.47.3.186
PMCID: PMC3464335  PMID: 23071473
Myelodysplastic syndrome; DNA methylation; GSTM5; ANGPTL2; BIK
5.  Should we still use Camitta's criteria for severe aplastic anemia? 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(2):126-130.
Background
The criteria by Camitta for diagnosis in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) has been used since 1976. However, there has been no attempt to verify the Camitta's criteria, that the survival in patients with SAA may differ by absolute neutrophil count (ANC), platelet count (PLT), and corrected reticulocyte count (CRC), which are components of the Camitta's criteria.
Methods
117 SAA patients diagnosed by the Camitta's criteria were analyzed, retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the factors affecting overall survival (OS).
Results
Response by immunosuppressive therapy (IST) or stem cell transplantation (SCT) significantly affected OS (P=0.001). Therefore, we excluded treatment responders for analysis. Finally, 92 SAA patients including treatment non-responders by IST or SCT and conservative care group were analyzed by using univariate and multivariate analyses. The median age of analyzed patients was 54.5 years. Male to female ratio was 1:1. The median follow-up duration was 74.23 months (range, 54.71-93.74 months). The median ANC, PLT, and CRC were 394/µL, 12,000/µL, and 0.39%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, ANC <500/µL or ≥500/µL (P=0.015, HR 2.694, 95% CI: 1.20-6.01) and age (P=0.015, HR 1.022, 95% CI: 1.00-1.04) were the significant factors for OS.
Conclusion
ANC could be an essential, not an optional criterion for diagnosing SAA. This study suggests the possibility that the Camitta's criteria be modified. Studies in large cohorts are needed to transform the Camitta's criteria.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2012.47.2.126
PMCID: PMC3389061  PMID: 22783359
Camitta's criteria; Severe aplastic anemia; Absolute neutrophil count
6.  Incidence and clinical characteristics of clonal cytogenetic abnormalities of acquired aplastic anemia in adults 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2010;45(4):242-246.
Background
Cytogenetic abnormalities (CAs) have been reported frequently in patients with otherwise typical aplastic anemia (AA), but their implications in the prognosis and in the evolution to hematologic malignancies are controversial.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 127 adult AA patients who had successful cytogenetic analysis at initial diagnosis.
Results
The patients were classified into 3 groups according to the initial and follow-up results of cytogenetic profiles. Group 1 included patients who had persistent AA with normal cytogenetic profiles (N=117); Group 2, those who had a normal cytogenetic profile at initial diagnosis but later acquired CA (N=4, 3.1%); and Group 3, those who had CA at the initial diagnosis, regardless of follow-up cytogenetic status (N=6,4.7%). In Group 2, 2 patients later developed CA without progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); the other 2 patients later progressed to AML. None of the patients in Group 3 progressed to AML or MDS. There was no significant difference in overall survival between Groups 1 and 3.
Conclusion
AA patients with CA at initial diagnosis or follow-up may not be at greater risk for evolution to AML or MDS, or show shorter survival periods. Prospective studies and a larger patient samples are needed to establish the clinical relevance of CA.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2010.45.4.242
PMCID: PMC3023049  PMID: 21253425
Aplastic anemia; Cytogenetic abnormality
7.  A Case of 5-Fluorouracil Induced Encephalopathy 
Patients with reduced dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity are at risk for experiencing serious adverse effects following 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based chemotherapy. Neurotoxicity is considered an extremely rare side effect of 5-FU. We report here on an unusual case of 5-FU induced encephalopathy. A 38-year-old woman with advanced gastric carcinoma was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy that consisted of infused 5-FU (1,000 mg/m2) for 5 days and cisplatin (60 mg/m2) on day 1 following total gastrectomy. Nineteen days after starting chemotherapy, the patient displayed a sudden onset of slurred speech, confusion, cognitive disturbances and paranoia. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the brain showed no structural abnormalities, and the other laboratory tests provided no explanations for her symptoms, other than a slightly elevated ammonia level. The patient was treated with a lactulose retention enema and thiamine infusion, the 5-FU was halted and her symptoms then recovered after 7 days.
doi:10.4143/crt.2010.42.2.118
PMCID: PMC2901079  PMID: 20622967
5-FU; Neurotoxicity; Encephalopathy
8.  A Case of Pathologic Splenic Rupture as the Initial Manifestation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia M2 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2009;51(1):138-140.
A pathologic splenic rupture refers to a rupture without trauma. A splenic rupture as the initial manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia is extremely rare. In this study, we described a rare case of acute myeloid leukemia presenting principally as an acute abdomen due to a pathologic splenic rupture in a 35-year old male patient. We can assert that a pathologic splenic rupture in hematologic diseases is a potentially life-threatening complication, which necessitates immediate operative intervention. Any such patient complaining about left upper abdominal tenderness should be closely observed, and further diagnostic investigations (ultrasonograph of the abdomen, abdominal CT scan) should be initiated in order to rule out a splenic rupture. The oncologist should be aware of this rare initial presentation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M2, as the condition generally necessitates a prompt splenectomy.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.1.138
PMCID: PMC2799964  PMID: 20046528
Acute myeloid leukemia M2; pathologic; splenic rupture
9.  Phase II Study of Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin in Patients with Anthracycline- and Taxane- Pretreated Metastatic Breast Cancer 
Purpose
Metastatic breast cancer patients are usually exposed to taxane and anthracycline as neoadjuvant, adjuvant and palliative chemotherapeutic agents. This study was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of the use of a gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP) combination treatment in patients with metastatic breast cancer that were pretreated with anthracycline and taxane.
Materials and Methods
We evaluated the use of a GP regimen (1,000 mg/m2 gemcitabine administered on days 1 and 8 plus 60 mg/m2 cisplatin administered on day 1 every 3 weeks) in 38 breast cancer patients who had received prior chemotherapy with anthracycline and taxane as an adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, or as a palliative therapy.
Results
The median patient age was 49 years (age range, 35~69 years). The overall response rate was 28.9% in 11 patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 14~44%). The median time to progression was 5.2 months (95% CI, 3.6~6.8 months). Median survival was 19.5 months (95% CI, 11.2~27.8 months). Major grade 3/4 hematological toxicity was due to leukopenia (36 of 157 cycles, 23.1%). Non-hematological toxicity was rarely severe; grade1/2 nausea and vomiting were observed in 37.8% of the patients. There were no treatment related deaths.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that the use of gemcitabine plus cisplatin appears to be effective and has an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with advanced breast cancer that have been pretreated with anthracycline and taxane.
doi:10.4143/crt.2008.40.3.101
PMCID: PMC2697461  PMID: 19688114
Breast neoplasms; Anthracycline; Taxane; Gemcitabine; Cisplatin
10.  Gemcitabine versus Gemcitabine Combined with Cisplatin Treatment Locally Advanced or Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis 
Purpose
Gemcitabine is the most active agent to treat unresectable pancreatic cancer. The superiority of combining other drugs with cisplatin is still controversial; therefore, we performed a retrospective analysis of gemcitabine versus gemcitabine combined with cisplatin to determine the treatment outcomes for patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer.
Materials and Methods
From 2001 to 2007, we enrolled 60 patients who were treated with gemcitabine or gemcitabine combined with cisplatin for locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Gemcitabine 1, 000 mg/m2 (G) was administrated at day 1 and day 8 every 3 weeks. Cisplatin 60 mg/m2 was added at day 1 every 3 weeks to the gemcitabine schedule (GP).
Results
Number of G: GP was 34: 26, locally advanced to metastatic ratio was 35% to 65% in group G and 46% to 54% in group GP. Median follow up duration was 29 months. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was 4 (range: 2~11) for the G group, and 4 (range: 1~11) for the GP group. The response rate of the G and GP groups was 17% and 11%, respectively. The progression free survival (PFS) was 4.5 months and 2.8 months, respectively, for the G and GP groups. The overall survival (OS) was 10.7 and 8.7 months respectively, for the G and GP groups, but there is no statistically significant difference of the PFS (p=0.2396) and OS (p=0.4643) between the 2 groups. The hematological toxicity profile was similar (the grade III neutropenia and thrombocytopenia was 4.4% and 3.1%, respectively, in G group, and 7.5% and 2.8%, respectively, in the GP group). But non-hematological toxicities such as skin rash, abnormal liver function and nausea/vomiting were observed in 3 patients of the GP group. On the prognostic factor analysis, no factors predicted a longer PFS and OS for both the G and GP groups.
Conclusions
Gemcitabine single treatment might be more tolerable and it had the same efficacy compared to cisplatin combination treatment in this retrospective study.
doi:10.4143/crt.2008.40.1.22
PMCID: PMC2699081  PMID: 19688061
Gemcitabine; Cisplatin; Pancreatic neoplasm
11.  Unusual Presentation of Large B Cell Lymphoma- Bone and Stomach- Treated with Autologous Transplantation 
Extranodal presentation of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBL) is frequently observed in the gastrointestinal tract, CNS, bone, testes and liver. However, the simultaneous detection of multiple extranodal involvement at presentation is quite an uncommon occurrence. In this study, we report on a patient with an uncommon presentation of DLBL, and he had symptoms of left knee joint pain and hematemesis, characterized by bone and stomach involvement. Computed tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scanning revealed a rapid, extensive spread to the bones and soft tissues. Subsequent histopathological examination verified the bony and gastric CD20-positive DLBL localization. We diagnosed this case as DLBL of stage IV with an international prognostic index of 3, and classified him into the high intermediate risk group. This patient was treated via chemotherapy with an R-CHOP regimen. After achieving a partial response, the patient received autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. The patient attained partial remission, as shown on the FDG-PET scan, and he displayed improvement of his left femur pain.
doi:10.4143/crt.2007.39.4.181
PMCID: PMC2739372  PMID: 19746186
Extranodal; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Stomach; Bone
12.  Extraskeletal Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma of the Heart Responded to Systemic Chemotherapy: A Case Report 
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare cartilaginous ne - oplasm of an extraskeletal origin, and this predominately occurs in the head and neck, and also in the lower extremities. Fewer than twenty cases of cardiac mesenchymal chondrosarcoma have so far been reported on. For the most part, the results of treatment for patients with this condition have been dismal. In this study, we describe a case of cardiac mesenchymal chondrosarcoma that responded to chemotherapy following surgical biopsy. A 46-year-old man was referred for evaluation of his pleural effusions in both lungs. Chest computed tomography revealed an ovoid-shaped mass in the posterior wall of the patient's left atrium. The echocardiogram revealed a large ovoid-shaped immobile mass (11×6 cm2) in the pericardiac space, which was attached to the posterior wall of the left atrium. Emergency pericardiostomy with closure thoracostomy was performed. Seven days later, a thoracotomy was performed for reduction and diagnosis of the cardiac mass. The pathological diagnosis was extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the heart.. Postoperative chemotherapy was performed for the huge remaining mass with a combined regimen of etoposide, ifosfamide and cisplatin. After 6 cycles, the patient showed a partial response without symptoms. Although cardiac mesenchymal chondrosarcoma has been reported to be chemotherapy-resistant with a short survival duration, chemotherapy may prove to be an effective treatment modality.
doi:10.4143/crt.2007.39.3.131
PMCID: PMC2739328  PMID: 19746223
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma; Extraskeletal; Heart
13.  A Phase II Study of Paclitaxel and Cisplatin as Salvage Therapy for Patients with Advanced or Metastatic Gastric Cancer 
Purpose
To evaluate the therapeutic activity and safety of paclitaxel and cisplatin combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced or metastatic gastric cancers that are unresponsive to primary chemotherapy.
Materials and Methods
Advanced or metastatic gastric cancer patients unresponsive to first line chemotherapy were entered into this trial. The treatment regimen consisted of paclitaxel, 175 mg/m2 by 3-hour infusion on day 1, and cisplatin, 60 mg/m2 by 1 hour infusion on day 1, with the treatment repeated every 3 weeks.
Results
37 patients were entered in this study, with 32 fully evaluable for response. 4 (13%), 13 (40%) and 15 (47%) patients achieved a partial response, stable disease and progressed, respectively. The median time to progression was 4.0 months (95% CI: 2.0~6.0 months), and the median overall survival was 12.6 months (95% CI: 5.5~19.7 months), with a 1-year survival rate of 54%. Of a total of 135 cycles of chemotherapy, grades 3 and 4 hematological toxicities were neutropenia (14%) and anemia (3%). Grade ≥2 neuropathy was observed in 6 patients (17%).
Conclusion
The combination of paclitaxel and cisplatin is an effective and tolerable salvage treatment modality for advanced gastric cancer.
doi:10.4143/crt.2007.39.1.6
PMCID: PMC2739361  PMID: 19746233
Paclitaxel; Cisplatin; Salvage; Advanced gastric cancer
14.  A Case of Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma with Multiple Metastasis to the Soft Tissue, Skeletal Muscle, Lung and Breast 
Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is composed of well-differentiated smooth muscle cells and dense connective tissue. BML affects middle-aged women who have had previous hysterectomies due to a histologically benign-appearing uterine leiomyoma. We report here on a case of BML from the uterine leiomyoma in a 39-year-old woman that involved the soft tissues, skeletal muscles, lungs and breasts. She underwent a hysterectomy for the uterine leiomyoma, double oophorectomy for hormonal ablation and lung wedge resection to confirm the diagnosis. The microscopic findings of the breast and lung tumor were similar to those of the benign uterine leiomyoma. Therefore, we consider that these lesions were breast and pulmonary metastases of the uterine leiomyoma. We report here on a rare case of benign metastasizing uterine leiomyoma that involved the soft tissue, skeletal muscles, lungs and breasts, and we include a review of the relevant literature.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2006.21.3.199
PMCID: PMC3890726  PMID: 17017672
Benign metastasizing leiomyoma; Uterine leiomyoma
15.  Unoxidized Graphene/Alumina Nanocomposite: Fracture- and Wear-Resistance Effects of Graphene on Alumina Matrix 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:5176.
It is of critical importance to improve toughness, strength, and wear-resistance together for the development of advanced structural materials. Herein, we report on the synthesis of unoxidized graphene/alumina composite materials having enhanced toughness, strength, and wear-resistance by a low-cost and environmentally benign pressure-less-sintering process. The wear resistance of the composites was increased by one order of magnitude even under high normal load condition (25 N) as a result of a tribological effect of graphene along with enhanced fracture toughness (KIC) and flexural strength (σf) of the composites by ~75% (5.60 MPa·m1/2) and ~25% (430 MPa), respectively, compared with those of pure Al2O3. Furthermore, we found that only a small fraction of ultra-thin graphene (0.25–0.5 vol%, platelet thickness of 2–5 nm) was enough to reinforce the composite. In contrast to unoxidized graphene, graphene oxide (G-O) and reduced graphene oxide (rG-O) showed little or less enhancement of fracture toughness due to the degraded mechanical strength of rG-O and the structural defects of the G-O composites.
doi:10.1038/srep05176
PMCID: PMC4046129  PMID: 24898792
16.  Pilot study of postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation for advanced gastric cancer: Adjuvant 5-FU/cisplatin and chemoradiation with capecitabine 
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of postoperative chemoradiation using FP chemotherapy and oral capecitabine during radiation for advanced gastric cancer following curative resection.
METHODS: Thirty-one patients who had underwent a potentially curative resection for Stage III and IV (M0) gastric cancer were enrolled. Therapy consists of one cycle of FP (continuous infusion of 5-FU 1000 mg/m2 on d 1 to 5 and cisplatin 60 mg/m2 on d 1) followed by 4500 cGy (180 cGy/d) with capecitabine (1650 mg/m2 daily throughout radiotherapy). Four wk after completion of the radiotherapy, patients received three additional cycles of FP every three wk. The median follow-up duration was 22.2 mo.
RESULTS: The 3-year disease free and overall survival in this study were 82.7% and 83.4%, respectively. Four patients (12.9%) showed relapse during follow-up. Eight patients did not complete all planned adjuvant therapy. Grade 3/4 toxicities included neutropenia in 50.2%, anemia in 12.9%, thrombocytopenia in 3.2% and nausea/vomiting in 3.2%. Neither grade 3/4 hand foot syndrome nor treatment related febrile neutropenia or death were observed.
CONCLUSION: These preliminary results suggest that this postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation regimen of FP before and after capecitabine and concurrent radiotherapy appears well tolerated and offers a comparable toxicity profile to the chemoradiation regimen utilized in INT-0116. This treatment modality allowed successful loco-regional control rate and 3-year overall survival.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i4.603
PMCID: PMC4066094  PMID: 16489675
Gastric cancer; Postoperative; Adjuvant chemotherapy; Chemoradiation
17.  Oxaliplatin with Biweekly Low Dose Leucovorin and Bolus and Continuous Infusion of 5-fluorouracil (Modified FOLFOX 4) as a Salvage Therapy for Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer 
Purpose
To determine the activity and the toxicity associated with a low dose regimen of leucovorin (LV) plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combined with oxaliplatin every two weeks (modified FOLFOX 4) as a salvage therapy for advanced gastric cancer patients.
Materials and Methods
Between December 2003 and December 2004, 33 patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were treated with oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 as a 2-hour infusion on the first day plus LV 20 mg/m2 over 10 minutes. Subsequently, the patients were given a 5-FU bolus 400 mg/m2 followed by a 22-hour continuous infusion of 600 mg/m2 on days 1~2. The treatment was repeated at 2 week intervals.
Results
The median age of the patients was 50 years (range: 31~74), 82% (27/33) had the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 and 1. Of the 30 patients who could be evaluated for their tumor response, 8 achieved a partial response, with an overall response rate of 26.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 20.5~32.7%). Fifteen patients (50%) showed stable disease and 7 patients (23.3%) progressed during the course of treatment. The median time from the start of chemotherapy to progression was 3.5 months (95% CI: 2.6~4.4 months) and the median overall survival time was 7.9 months (95% CI: 5.9~9.9 months). The major grade 3/4 hematological toxicity encountered included neutropenia (45.4%) and thrombocytopenia (3.0%). Neutropenic fever occurred during only 2 of the 178 cycles. The most common non-hematological toxicity encountered was grade 1/2 nausea/vomiting, which occurred in 18.2% of patients, diarrhea in 12.1% and neuropathy in 15.2%. There were no treatment related deaths.
Conclusion
The modified FOLFOX 4 regimen appears to be a safe and effective salvage therapy for advanced gastric cancer patients.
doi:10.4143/crt.2005.37.5.279
PMCID: PMC2785924  PMID: 19956527
Stomach neoplasms; Salvage chemotherapy; Oxaliplatin; 5-fluorouracil
18.  Prognostic Factors of Response to Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Patients with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(3):417-420.
Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has become the treatment of choice for patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) who do not respond to medical treatment. The aim of this study was to identify factors predictive of outcome after LS for ITP. From May 1997 to December 2002, we performed 30 LS on patients with ITP. A positive response was defined as a postoperative platelet count greater than 50,000/µL and no requirement for maintenance therapy. Chi-square testing was performed to determine the predictive effects of the following variables: age, sex, preoperative response to steroids or immunoglobulin, duration of disease, antiplatelet antibody, platelet associated antibody, and antinuclear antibody. LS was successfully performed in all patients. For a mean follow-up interval of 24.3 months, response to LS was 73.3%. Splenectomy for steroid nonresponders resulted in an inferior complete response rate (10 of 18, 55.6%) as compared with those that experienced relapse after steroid treatment (11 of 12, 91.7%) (p=0.042). The other significant predictor of outcome by univariate analysis was the time between diagnosis and surgery (p=0.049). The other variables showed no significant correlation with successful splenectomy. We conclude that LS can be performed safely with a satisfactory remission rate in patients with ITP who do not respond to medical treatment, and that the factors most frequently associated with surgical success are a response to steroid and disease duration.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.3.417
PMCID: PMC2782196  PMID: 15953862
Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic; Laparoscopy; Splenectomy
19.  Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in a Patient with Primary Ovarian Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2004;19(2):294-296.
The primary ovarian lymphoma is a rare disease with poor prognosis. The incidence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is estimated at 3%. However, a substantial portion of the previously reported cases of ovarian lymphoma actually represented ovarian involvement by more diffuse lymphomatous process. If stringent criteria are used for case selection, true primary ovarian lymphoma usually carries a favorable prognosis. We present a primary malignant lymphoma of ovary accompanied by autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a 29-yr-old patient. After ablative surgery, the hemoglobin level and the reticulocyte count were normalized. One year following surgery and chemotherapy, the patient is alive and disease free.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2004.19.2.294
PMCID: PMC2822315  PMID: 15082907
Ovarian Neoplasms; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; Hemolytic Anemia, Autoimmune
20.  Oxaliplatin with Biweekly, Low Dose Leucovorin and Bolus and Continuous Infusion 5-fluorouracil (Modified FOLFOX 4) as First-line Therapy for Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer 
Purpose
To determine the activity and toxicities of low dose leucovorin (LV) plus fluorouracil (5-FU) regimen, combined with oxaliplatin every two weeks (modified FOLFOX 4), as a first-line therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Materials and Methods
Between March 2001 and August 2003, fifty-five patients were enrolled in this study. Patients were treated with oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 as a 2-hour infusion at days 1 plus LV 20 mg/m2 over 10 minutes, followed by 5-FU bolusa 400 mg/m2 bolus and 22 hour continuous infusion of 600 mg/m2 5-FU at day 1~2. This treatment was repeated in 2 week intervals.
Results
The objective response rate was 40% on an intent-to-treatment analysis. Three patients (6%) demonstrated a complete response and nineteen patients (38%) showeda partial response. Sixteen patients (32%) showed a stable disease and eleven patients (22%) progressed during the course of the treatment. The median time to progression and overall survival time wereas 6.6 months (95% CI: 4.98~8.02 months) and the median overall survival time was 17.0 months (95% CI: 9.15~24.85 months) from the start of the chemotherapy, respectively. A total of 275 cycles were analyzed for toxicity. Major hematologic toxicities included grade 1~2 anemia (23.5%), neutropenia (25.3%) and thrombocytopenia (10.6%). There were only 2 cycles of neutropenic fever. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were grade 1~2 nausea/vomiting (10.9%), diarrhea (9.1%) and grade 1 neuropathy (18.0%). There was no treatment related death.
Conclusion
The modified folfox 4 regimen is safe and effective regimen as a first-line therapy in advanced colorectal cancer patients.
doi:10.4143/crt.2004.36.2.115
PMCID: PMC2855099  PMID: 20396550
Colorectal neoplasm; Chemotherapy; Oxaliplatin; 5-FU; Leucovorin
21.  A 21-day Schedule of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Administration in the Treatment of Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: a Phase II Study 
Purpose
To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of gemcitabine and cisplatin combination chemotherapy, we conducted a phase II study of this regimen in patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).
Materials and Methods
From June 2001 to August 2003, 36 chemotherapy-naive patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC were enrolled. The median age was 59 years (range, 42 to 75 years), and performance status was 0 or 1. Eleven patients had stage IIIB disease, and 25 patients had stage IV disease. 1,000 mg/m2 of gemcitabine was administered on day 1 & 8, and 60 mg/m2 of cisplatin was administered on day 1. Each cycle was repeated every 21 days.
Results
Everyone subject who participated were assessable. A total of 160 cycles of chemotherapy were delivered, and the median number of chemotherapy courses was 3.5 (range, 2 to 9). Two patients (5.6%) achieved a complete response, and 14 patients (38.9%) achieved a partial response. The overall response rate was 44.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.5 to 56.5%). The median follow-up duration was 9.3 months. The median time to disease progression was 8.6 months (95% CI 7.4 to 9.9 months), and median survival time was 12.2 months (95% CI, 10.5 to 12.9 months). Grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 9 patients (25.0%), neutropenic fever occurred in 3 patients (8.3%), and grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 7 patients (19.5%). Mild forms of non-hematologic toxicities, such as nausea, vomiting or skin reactions, were observed.
Conclusion
The combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin in a 21-day schedule is an effective regimen for patients with NSCLC in its advanced stages.
doi:10.4143/crt.2004.36.1.62
PMCID: PMC2855110  PMID: 20396567
Non-small cell lung carcinoma; Gemcitabine; Cisplatin
22.  A mild decrease of renal function is related to increased hemoglobin level during 5-year follow-up period 
Background/Aims
We analyzed chronological changes in hemoglobin according to renal function changes over a 5-year follow-up period.
Methods
We enrolled 5,266 adults with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at an initial examination at a routine health check-up; a follow-up examination was conducted 5 years later. We categorized the subjects according to GFR ratio (groups 1, 2, and 3, defined as GFRratio ≥ 1.00, 0.75 to 0.99, and < 0.75, respectively).
Results
The mean hemoglobin level in subjects with a GFR of 60 to 74 was higher than in those with a GFR of 75 to 89 or ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the initial examination (all p < 0.001). Among females and males, the frequencies of increased hemoglobin were 46.8% and 40.6% in the GFRratio group 1, 52.4% and 46.1% in group 2, and 59.6% and 52.5% in group 3 over the 5-year period, respectively (all p < 0.001). With multiple logistic regression, group 3 showed 1.594-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.127 to 2.225) and 1.353-fold (95% CI, 1.000 to 1.830) higher likelihoods of increased hemoglobin over the 5-year follow-up period in females and males, respectively. The estimated difference in hemoglobin level was highest in group 3 in both genders. These findings were more evident in subgroups without metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or GFR less than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Conclusions
Among a population with GFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, a mild decrease in GFR over a 5-year follow-up period was associated with an increase in hemoglobin levels.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2014.29.3.341
PMCID: PMC4028524  PMID: 24851069
Chronic kidney failure; Hemoglobins; Erythropoiesis
23.  RhoGDI2 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition via induction of Snail in gastric cancer cells 
Oncotarget  2014;5(6):1554-1564.
Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) expression correlates with tumor growth, metastasis, and chemoresistance in gastric cancer. Here, we show that RhoGDI2 functions in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is responsible for invasiveness during tumor progression. This tumorigenic activity is associated with repression of E-cadherin by RhoGDI2 via upregulation of Snail. Overexpression of RhoGDI2 induced phenotypic changes consistent with EMT in gastric cancer cells, including abnormal epithelial cell morphology, fibroblast-like properties, and reduced intercellular adhesion. RhoGDI2 overexpression also resulted in decreased expression of the epithelial markers E-cadherin and β-catenin and increased expression of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and fibronectin. Importantly, RhoGDI2 overexpression also stimulated the expression of Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin and inducer of EMT, but not other family members such as Slug or Twist. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Snail expression suppressed RhoGDI2-induced EMT and invasion, confirming that the effect was Snail-specific. These results indicate that RhoGDI2 plays a critical role in tumor progression in gastric cancer through induction of EMT. Targeting RhoGDI2 may thus be a useful strategy to inhibit gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
PMCID: PMC4039231  PMID: 24721928
RhoGDI2; EMT; Snail; gastric cancer; invasion
24.  AUF1 contributes to Cryptochrome1 mRNA degradation and rhythmic translation 
Nucleic Acids Research  2014;42(6):3590-3606.
In the present study, we investigated the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the mouse core clock gene cryptochrome 1 (Cry1) at the post-transcriptional level, particularly its translational regulation. Interestingly, the 3′UTR of Cry1 mRNA decreased its mRNA levels but increased protein amounts. The 3′UTR is widely known to function as a cis-acting element of mRNA degradation. The 3′UTR also provides a binding site for microRNA and mainly suppresses translation of target mRNAs. We found that AU-rich element RNA binding protein 1 (AUF1) directly binds to the Cry1 3′UTR and regulates translation of Cry1 mRNA. AUF1 interacted with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit B and also directly associated with ribosomal protein S3 or ribosomal protein S14, resulting in translation of Cry1 mRNA in a 3′UTR-dependent manner. Expression of cytoplasmic AUF1 and binding of AUF1 to the Cry1 3′UTR were parallel to the circadian CRY1 protein profile. Our results suggest that the 3′UTR of Cry1 is important for its rhythmic translation, and AUF1 bound to the 3′UTR facilitates interaction with the 5′ end of mRNA by interacting with translation initiation factors and recruiting the 40S ribosomal subunit to initiate translation of Cry1 mRNA.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1379
PMCID: PMC3973335  PMID: 24423872
25.  STAT6 Expression and IL-13 Production in Association with Goblet Cell Hyperplasia and Worm Expulsion of Gymnophalloides seoi from C57BL/6 Mice 
In intestinal helminth infections, Th2 immune respones are generally associated with mucin secretion for worm expulsion from the host intestine. In particular, IL-4 and IL-13 are the important cytokines related with intestinal mucus production via STAT6 signalling in nematode infections. However, this perspective has never been studied in Gymnophalloides seoi infection. The present study aimed to observe the STAT6 signalling and cytokine responses in C57BL/6 mice, a mouse strain resistant to infection with this trematode. The results showed that worm expulsion occurred actively during days 1-2 post-infection (PI), when goblet cells began to proliferate in the small intestine. The STAT6 gene expression in the mouse spleen became remarkable from day 2 PI. Moreover, G. seoi infection induced a significant increase of IL-13 from day 4 PI in the spleen of infected mice. Our results suggested that goblet cell hyperplasia and worm expulsion in G. seoi-infected mice should be induced by STAT6 signalling, in which IL-13 may be involved as a dominant triggering cytokine.
doi:10.3347/kjp.2013.51.5.589
PMCID: PMC3857510  PMID: 24327788
Gymnophalloides seoi; intestinal trematode; goblet cell hyperplasia; worm expulsion; IL-13; STAT6

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