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1.  The effect of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms on blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles following the supplementation of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) juice in South Korean subclinical hypertensive patients 
Glutathione S-transferase (GST) forms a multigene family of phase II detoxification enzymes which are involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. This study examines whether daily supplementation of kale juice can modulate blood pressure (BP), levels of lipid profiles, and blood glucose, and whether this modulation could be affected by the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms.
84 subclinical hypertensive patients showing systolic BP over 130 mmHg or diastolic BP over 85 mmHg received 300 ml/day of kale juice for 6 weeks, and blood samples were collected on 0-week and 6-week in order to evaluate plasma lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol) and blood glucose.
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in all patients regardless of their GSTM1 or GSTT1 polymorphisms after kale juice supplementation. Blood glucose level was decreased only in the GSTM1-present genotype, and plasma lipid profiles showed no difference in both the GSTM1-null and GSTM1-present genotypes. In the case of GSTT1, on the other hand, plasma HDL-C was increased and LDL-C was decreased only in the GSTT1-present type, while blood glucose was decreased only in the GSTT1-null genotype.
These findings suggest that the supplementation of kale juice affected blood pressure, lipid profiles, and blood glucose in subclinical hypertensive patients depending on their GST genetic polymorphisms, and the improvement of lipid profiles was mainly greater in the GSTT1-present genotype and the decrease of blood glucose was greater in the GSTM1-present or GSTT1-null genotypes.
PMCID: PMC4317480  PMID: 25671068
Brassica; GST polymorphism; hypertension; lipid profiles; blood glucose
2.  Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2014;8(2):183-191.
The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet.
Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC).
Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each.
The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables.
PMCID: PMC3988508  PMID: 24741403
Korean diet; total dietary antioxidant capacity; total phenolics intake; dietary antioxidants
3.  Effect of milk and milk products consumption on physical growth and bone mineral density in Korean adolescents 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2013;7(4):309-314.
This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among the current status of calcium intake from milk and milk products, physical growth and bone mineral density in 664 male and female middle school and high school students aged 15-17 years. In the study, the current status of calcium intake from milk and milk products was analyzed, and the height, body composition, and bone mineral density of the right heel bone (calcaneus) were measured. The daily calcium intake of milk and milk products was calculated as the 'dairy equivalent of calcium', which is the calcium content in 200 mL of white milk. The cutoffs of tertiles of the dairy equivalent of calcium were calculated and then the subjects were categorized into 3 groups according to the tertiles, Q1 group (lower intake group), Q2 group (middle intake group) and Q3 group (upper intake group). The daily calcium intake of milk and milk products in Q1, Q2 and Q3 groups was 16.2 mg, 99.7 mg, and 284.0 mg, respectively, and the ratio of milk and milk product consumption to the daily total calcium intake was 5.4%, 27.4%, and 49.7%, respectively. The ratio of total calcium intake to the daily recommended intake in study subjects was 30.5% in Q1, 42.3% in Q2, and 60.7% in Q3, with significant differences (P < 0.05). Height, body weight, BMI, and % of body fat in three tertile groups (Q1, Q2 and Q3) were not significantly different. However, the T scores for bone mineral density in female students in three tertile groups (Q1, Q2 and Q3) was significantly different (P < 0.05). The study showed that the intake of milk and milk products in adolescents, particularly in girls, can improve the bone mineral density without increasing body weight, and thus confirmed that milk intake is important in adolescence.
PMCID: PMC3746166  PMID: 23964319
Milk and Milk products; calcium; physical growth; bone mineral density; adolescents
4.  Effect of the magnetized water supplementation on blood glucose, lymphocyte DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles in STZ-induced rats 
This study investigated the effects of magnetized water supplementation on blood glucose, DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. There were three groups of 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats used in the study: control group (normal control group without diabetes); diabetes group (STZ-induced diabetes control); and magnetized water group (magnetized water supplemented after the induction of diabetes using STZ). Before initiating the study, diabetes was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose (FBS > 200 dl), and the magnetized water group received magnetized water for 8 weeks instead of general water. After 8 weeks, rats were sacrificed to measure the fasting blood glucose, insulin concentration, glycated hemoglobin level, degree of DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles. From the fourth week of magnetized water supplementation, blood glucose was decreased in the magnetized water group compared to the diabetes group, and such effect continued to the 8th week. The glycated hemoglobin content in the blood was increased in the diabetes group compared to the control group, but decreased significantly in the magnetized water group. However, decreased plasma insulin level due to induced diabetes was not increased by magnetized water supplementation. Increased blood and liver DNA damages in diabetes rats did significantly decrease after the administration of magnetized water. In addition, antioxidant enzyme activities and plasma lipid profiles were not different among the three groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of magnetized water not only decreased the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels but also reduced blood and liver DNA damages in STZ-induced diabetic rats. From the above results, it is suggested that the long-term intake of the magnetized water over 8 weeks may be beneficial in both prevention and treatment of complications in diabetic patients.
PMCID: PMC3572224  PMID: 23423956
Magnetized water; blood glucose; DNA damage; lipid profile; STZ-induced rat
5.  Production and evaluation of children's dietary life safety index data on metropolitan cities and provinces in Korea 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2012;6(6):542-550.
This pilot study was performed to produce data of the Children's Dietary Life Safety (CDLS) Index which is required by the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life and to evaluate the CDLS Index for 7 metropolitan cities and 9 provinces in Korea. To calculate the CDLS Index score, data regarding the evaluation indicators in the children's food safety domain and children's nutrition safety domain were collected from the local governments in 2009. For data regarding the indicators in the children's perception & practice domain, a survey was conducted on 2,400 5th grade children selected by stratified sampling in 16 local areas. Relative scores of indicators in each domain were calculated using the data provided by local governments and the survey, the weights are applied on relative scores, and then the CDLS Index scores of local governments were produced by adding scores of the 3 domains. The national average scores of the food safety domain, the nutrition safety domain and the perception and practice domain were 23.74 (14.67-26.50 on a 40-point scale), 16.65 (12.25-19.60 on a 40-point scale), and 14.88 (14.16-15.30 on a 20-point scale), respectively. The national average score of the CDLS Index which was produced by adding the scores of the three domains was 55.27 ranging 46.44-58.94 among local governments. The CDLS Index scores produced in this study may provide the motivation for comparing relative accomplishment and for actively achieving the goals through establishment of the target value by local governments. Also, it can be used as useful data for the establishment and improvement of children's dietary life safety policy at the national level.
PMCID: PMC3542445  PMID: 23346305
Children's dietary life safety index; special act on safety management of children's dietary life; children's food safety score; children's nutrition safety score; perception and practice score
6.  Meal skipping relates to food choice, understanding of nutrition labeling, and prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2012;6(4):328-333.
This study was performed to investigate the differences in food choice, nutrition labeling perceptions, and prevalence of obesity due to meal skipping in Korean elementary school children. A national survey was performed in 2010 to collect data on food intake frequency, understanding of nutrition labeling, and body mass index from 2,335 fifth grade students in 118 elementary schools selected from 16 metropolitan local governments by stratified cluster sampling. The data were analyzed using the SAS 9.1 and SUDAAN 10.0 packages. Students who consumed three meals for 6-7 days during the past week were classified into the regular meal eating (RM) group (n = 1,476) and those who did not were placed into the meal skipping (MS) group (n = 859). The daily intake frequency of fruits, vegetables, kimchi, and milk was significantly lower in the MS group compared to that in the RM group (P < 0.001), whereas the daily intake frequency of soft drinks and instant noodles (ramyeon) was significantly higher in the MS group than that in the RM group (P < 0.05). The MS group demonstrated a significantly lower degree of understanding with regard to nutrition labeling and high calorie foods containing low nutritional value than that in the RM group. The distribution of obesity based on the percentile criteria using the Korean growth chart was different between the MS and RM groups. The MS group (8.97%) had a higher percentage of obese subjects than that in the RM group (5.38%). In conclusion, meal skipping was related to poor food choice, low perception of nutrition labeling, and a high prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children.
PMCID: PMC3439577  PMID: 22977687
Meal skipping; children; food choice; nutrition labeling; obesity
7.  The effect of carrot juice, β-carotene supplementation on lymphocyte DNA damage, erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and plasma lipid profiles in Korean smoker 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2011;5(6):540-547.
High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been suggested to provide some protection to smokers who are exposed to an increased risk of numerous cancers and other degenerative diseases. Carrot is the most important source of dietary β-carotene. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether carrot juice supplementation to smokers can protect against lymphocyte DNA damage and to compare the effect of supplementation of capsules containing purified β-carotene or a placebo (simple lactose). The study was conducted in a randomized and placebo-controlled design. After a depletion period of 14 days, 48 smokers were supplemented with either carrot juice (n = 18), purified β-carotene (n = 16) or placebo (n = 14). Each group was supplemented for 8 weeks with approximately 20.49 mg of β-carotene/day and 1.2 mg of vitamin C/day, as carrot juice (300 ml/day) or purified β-carotene (20.49 mg of β-carotene, 1 capsule/day). Lymphocyte DNA damage was determined using the COMET assay under alkaline conditions and damage was quantified by measuring tail moment (TM), tail length (TL), and% DNA in the tail. Lymphocyte DNA damage was significantly decreased in the carrot juice group in all three measurements. The group that received purified β-carotene also showed a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage in all three measurements. However, no significant changes in DNA damage was observed for the placebo group except TM (P = 0.016). Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme was not significantly changed after supplementation. Similarly plasma lipid profiles were not different after carrot juice, β-carotene and placebo supplementation. These results suggest that while the placebo group failed to show any protective effect, carrot juice containing beta-carotene or purified β-carotene itself had great antioxidative potential in preventing damage to lymphocyte DNA in smokers.
PMCID: PMC3259297  PMID: 22259679
Carrot juice; β-carotene; supplementation; DNA damage; smokers
8.  A prospective multicentre study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of osmotic release oral system (OROS®) hydromorphone in opioid-naive cancer patients: Results of the Korean South West Oncology Group study 
Early and active management of cancer pain is important for improving patients’ satisfaction with treatment and quality of life. The efficacy and tolerability of osmotic release oral system (OROS®) hydromorphone was evaluated in opioid-naive cancer patients experiencing moderate to severe cancer pain. The authors believe the results of this study will provide meaningful information regarding the clinical benefit of OROS hydromorphone as front-line therapy in opioid-naive cancer patients.
Osmotic release oral system (OROS®) hydromorphone is a potent, long-acting opioid analgesic, effective and safe for controlling cancer pain in patients who have received other strong opioids. To date, few studies have examined the efficacy of hydromorphone for pain relief in opioid-naive cancer patients.
A prospective, open-label, multicentre trial was conducted to determine the efficacy and tolerability of OROS hydromorphone as a single and front-line opioid therapy for patients experiencing moderate to severe cancer pain.
OROS hydromorphone was administered to patients who had not previously received strong, long-acting opioids. The baseline evaluation (visit 1) was followed by two evaluations (visits 2 and 3) performed two and 14 weeks later, respectively. The starting dose of OROS hydromorphone was 4 mg/day and was increased every two days when pain control was insufficient. Immediate-release hydromorphone was the only accepted alternative strong opioid for relief of breakthrough pain. The efficacy, safety and tolerability of OROS hydromorphone, including the effects on quality of life, and patients’ and investigators’ global impressions on pain relief were evaluated. The primary end point was pain intensity difference (PID) at visit 2 relative to visit 1 (expressed as %PID).
A total of 107 patients were enrolled in the present study. An improvement in pain intensity of >50% (≥50% PID) was observed in 51.0% of the full analysis set and 58.6% of the per-protocol set. The mean pain score, measured using a numerical rating scale, was significantly reduced after two weeks of treatment, and most adverse events were manageable. Quality of life also improved, and >70% of patients and investigators were satisfied with the treatment.
OROS hydromorphone provided effective pain relief and improved quality of life in opioid-naive cancer patients. As a single and front-line treatment, OROS hydromorphone delivered rapid pain control.
PMCID: PMC4676498  PMID: 26474382
Cancer; Hydromorphone; Opioid; Pain
9.  Association Between Kimchi Intake and Asthma in Korean Adults: The Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2011) 
Journal of Medicinal Food  2014;17(1):172-178.
This study was performed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and asthma in a representative population-based sample of 19,659 men and women, aged 19–64 years, using data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007–2011. The presence of asthma was based on self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma in the Health Interview Surveys. Food intake was estimated by trained interviewers using a 24-h recall method. The prevalence of asthma in Korean adults was 2.4%. Adults with asthma consumed fewer amounts of kimchi (P=.0444) and fish (P=.0175) but had a higher cereal intake than those without asthma (P=.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for confounding factors showed a significant inverse relationship between kimchi consumption and the prevalence of asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects consuming 1 to <2 servings (40–79.9 g), 2 to <3 servings (80–119.9 g), and ≥3 servings (≥120 g), relative to those consuming <1 serving (<40 g): 0.726 (0.534–0.987), 0.506 (0.348–0.736), and 0.678 (0.502–0.916), respectively; P for trend=0.0131]. These results warrant future studies to explore the mechanisms responsible for the association between kimchi consumption and asthma.
PMCID: PMC3901325  PMID: 24456368
adults; asthma; kimchi; KNHANES
10.  Purple grape juice supplementation in smokers and antioxidant status according to different types of GST polymorphisms 
DNA damages and antioxidant status was assessed after 8 weeks of purple grape juice supplementation in male smokers depending on the glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms. Ninety-five smokers consumed 480 ml of purple grape juice for 8 weeks. The blood samples were collected before and after supplementation to measure lymphocyte DNA damages, plasma antioxidants, conjugated diene, and the erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes. The diastolic pressure, lymphocyte DNA damage, and plasma conjugated diene were significantly decreased but the plasma γ-tocopherol was increased in GSTM1-null genotype, while increased blood glutathione and decreased lymphocyte DNA damage were observed in GSTM1-present genotype. In case of GSTT1 on the other hand, the decrease in diastolic pressure and lymphocyte DNA damage was observed in both null types and present types, but the erythrocyte catalase activity was decreased in GSTT1-null type and the plasma vitamin C level was increased in GSTT1-present type, suggesting that, the antioxidant effect of grape juice was greater in GSTT1-present type compared to GSTT1-null type. The intakes of 8-week purple grape juice affected diastolic blood pressures, DNA damage reductions and antioxidant status in smokers, mainly greater in GSTM1-null type and GSTT1-present type.
PMCID: PMC4306655  PMID: 25678751
purple grape juice; antioxidant status; blood pressure; DNA damage; GST polymorphism
11.  Cyclosporine A as a Primary Treatment for Panniculitis-like T Cell Lymphoma: A Case with a Long-Term Remission 
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma (SPTL) is a distinctive cutaneous lymphoma characterized by an infiltration of subcutaneous tissue by neoplastic T cells, similar to panniculitis. It is well-established that patients who are diagnosed with SPTL usually respond poorly to chemotherapy, showing fatal outcome. As a first line treatment for SPTL, anthracycline-based chemotherapy was most frequently used. For the treatment of SPTL, the efficacy of cyclosporine A has been recently reported in relapsed SPTL after anthracycline-based chemotherapy. However, it is still not clear whether cyclosporine A can be used as a first-line treatment against SPTL. Here, we report a case of SPTL, which achieved complete remission for nine years after first-line cyclosporine A therapy. This study suggests that cyclosporine A can induce a complete long-term remission as a first-line treatment.
PMCID: PMC4132451  PMID: 25038767
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma; Cyclosporine A; Remission
12.  Effects of plant-based Korean food extracts on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in vitro 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2014;8(3):249-256.
The traditional Korean diet is plant-based and rich in antioxidants. Previous studies have investigated the potential health benefits of individual nutrients of Korean foods. However, the cumulative effects of a Korean diet on inflammation remain poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a plant-based Korean diet.
Using data from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 75 individual plant food items were selected which represent over 1% of the total diet intake of the Korean diet. These items were classified into ten different food groups, and the vegetable (Veg) and fruit (Fruit) groups were studied based on their high antioxidant capacity. For comparison, a mixture of all ten groups (Mix) was prepared. To produce a model of inflammation with which to test these Veg, Fruit, and Mix plant-based Korean food extracts (PKE), RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were found to be lower following PKE treatment. Furthermore, PKE treatment was found to suppress tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) via the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Overall, the Mix group exhibited the greatest anti-inflammatory effects compared with Veg and Fruit PKE group.
Inhibition of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators by the PKE tested was found to involve an inhibition of NF-kB activation. Moreover, PKE tested have the potential to ameliorate various inflammation-related diseases by limiting the excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators.
PMCID: PMC4058557
Plant-based Korean food extracts; Inflammation; NO; TNF-α; NF-kB
13.  Cyclosporine A treatment for relapsed subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma: a case with long-term follow-up 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(2):146-149.
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTL) is a distinctive lymphoma characterized by an infiltration of subcutaneous tissue by neoplastic cytotoxic T cells. There was no distinction between TCR alpha/beta phenotype and TCR gamma/delta phenotype, and anthracycline-based chemotherapy was usually used for both. Here, we report a patient with recurrent SPTL who achieved a second long-term complete remission by repeated cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment. From 2000 to 2001, the patient received anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy. However, the treatment did not induce long-term remission. In 2002, he received cyclosporine treatment for about 6 months. This resulted in a 5-year remission that ended in relapse in 2008. He received CsA treatment once again and attained a second long-term remission. This case suggests that re-treatment with CsA can be a good option for relapsed SPTL cases and can result in long-term remission.
PMCID: PMC3389065  PMID: 22783363
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma; Cyclosporine; Treatment outcome
14.  Folic acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity in rats treated chronically with ethanol 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2011;5(6):520-526.
Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are found in most patients with alcoholic liver disease. Oxidative stress is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to homocysteine (Hcy)-induced tissue injury. However it has not been examined whether exogenous administration of folic acid attenuates oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of folic acid supplementation on oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity induced by chronic ethanol consumption. Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into four groups and fed 0%, 12%, 36% ethanol, or 36% ethanol plus folic acid (10 mg folic acid/L) diets. After 5 weeks, chronic consumption of the 36% ethanol diet significantly increased plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) (P < 0.05) and aspartate transaminase (AST) (P < 0.05), triglycerides (TG) (P < 0.05), Hcy (P < 0.001), and low density lipoprotein conjugated dienes (CD) (P < 0.05) but decreased total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) (P < 0.001). These changes were prevented partially by folic acid supplementation. The 12% ethanol diet had no apparent effect on most parameters. Plasma Hcy concentration was well correlated with plasma ALT (r = 0.612**), AST (r = 0.652*), CD (r = 0.495*), and TRAP (r = -0.486*). The results indicate that moderately elevated Hcy is associated with increased oxidative stress and liver injury in alcohol-fed rats, and suggests that folic acid supplementation appears to attenuate hepatic toxicity induced by chronic ethanol consumption possibly by decreasing oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC3259294  PMID: 22259676
Ethanol; hepatic toxicity; folic acid supplementation; oxidative stress; homocysteine
15.  Thalidomide Induced Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Patient with Relapsed Multiple Myeloma 
A 63-year-old female diagnosed with relapsed multiple myeloma visited our hospital complaining of a persistent cough. Since July 2006, she had been taking 100 mg thalidomide daily and gradually developed shortness of breath and a persistent dry cough. A chest X-ray and computed tomography showed ground glass opacities in both lungs. An open lung biopsy of the right middle lobe under general anesthesia revealed chronic peribronchial inflammation, mild interstitial fibrosis, and intra-alveolar macrophage infiltration, with some hemosiderin features, compatible with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). After discontinuing the thalidomide, the patient's symptoms did not deteriorate, although the radiographs did not improve. The patient is alive and well with regular outpatient follow-up without progression of the NSIP.
PMCID: PMC2997975  PMID: 21179284
Lung diseases, interstitial; Thalidomide; Multiple myeloma
16.  Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors are Associated with the Use of Dietary Supplements in a Korean Population 
Journal of Epidemiology  2010;20(3):197-203.
The use of dietary supplements has been increasing rapidly in Korea over the last decade. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between the pattern of dietary supplement use and the sociodemographic/lifestyle characteristics of Korean consumers.
Participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire on their sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, perceived health status, and regular dietary supplement use.
A total of 697 men and 832 women completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 44.3% of the men and 53.2% of the women used some kind of dietary supplement regularly. Dietary supplement users were more likely to be women (P < 0.001), to be older than 50 years (P < 0.001), to have a higher household income (P = 0.003), to engage in moderate or vigorous physical activity (P < 0.032), to perceive themselves as healthy (P = 0.026), and to have received a diagnosis of a chronic disease (P < 0.001). In addition, the type of dietary supplements used varied with respect to sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Among dietary supplement users, men preferred ginseng, and older respondents were more likely to use carbohydrate supplements and less likely to use lipid supplements. Those who had a lower BMI, were ex-smokers, or were nondrinkers preferred either vitamins or minerals. Those who were highly physical active or were nondrinkers tended to prefer either vitamin/mineral complexes or carbohydrate supplements.
The use of dietary supplements was related to sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in a Korean population.
PMCID: PMC3900841  PMID: 20410671
sociodemographics; lifestyle; dietary supplements; factors
17.  Susceptibility to Oxidative Stress is Greater in Korean Patients with Coronary Artery Disease than Healthy Subjects 
There are some evidences that the increased oxidative stress and thus increased oxidizability of lipoproteins and DNA can contribute to the development of certain human diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. To confirm the association of DNA damage with cardiovascular disease, we investigated susceptibility of DNA to oxidation in lymphocytes and oxidative stress related parameters in blood of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Subjects were consisted of 42 patients (27 men, 15 women) with documented CAD and 49 apparently healthy subjects (33 men, 16 women) as controls. Cellular DNA damage induced by 100 µM H2O2 was measured using Comet assay and quantified by TL. There were no differences in age (61.4 ± 1.7 years vs 62.0 ± 2.2 years) between the two groups. All the findings were shown to be independent of either sex or smoking habit. The patients showed significantly higher TL (87.3 ± 1.6 µm) compared to the control (79.3 ± 1.7 µm, p<0.01). Plasma TRAP, vitamin C, γ-tocopherol, and α-carotene levels in patients group were lower than those of control groups, while erythrocytic catalase activity increased in patients group. In conclusion, we observed that reduced overall antioxidant status was closely connected to higher susceptibility of DNA damage in CAD patients.
PMCID: PMC2771257  PMID: 19902026
CAD; Susceptibility of DNA to damage; oxidative stress; antioxidant status

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